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945gme.book

Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with
the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express
Chipset
Development Kit User's Manual

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Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Contents—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—Contents
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Contents—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—Revision History
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US About This Manual—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
About This Manual
This user's manual describes the use of the Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset. This manual has been written for OEMs, system evaluators, and embedded system developers. This document defines all jumpers, headers, LED functions, and their locations on the board, along with subsystem features and POST codes. This manual assumes basic familiarity in the fundamental concepts involved with installing and configuring hardware for a personal computer For the latest information about the Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Development Kit, For design documents related to The Intel® 945GME Express Chipset supports both Intel® CoreTM Duo processors and Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processors. For the Intel® 945GME Express Chipset with Intel® This chapter contains a description of conventions used in this manual. The last few sections explain how to obtain literature and contact customer support.
vides complete instructions on how to configure the evaluation board and processor assembly by setting jumpers, connecting peripherals, providing power, and configuring the BIOS.
— This chapter provides information on the system — This chapter provides a description of jumper settings and functions, board debug capabilities, and pinout information for connectors.
for the Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor heat sink.
The following notations may be used throughout this manual.
#
The pound symbol (#) appended to a signal name indicates that the signal is active low. (e.g., PRSNT1#) Variables
Variables are shown in italics. Variables must be replaced with correct values.
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—About This Manual
Instruction mnemonics are shown in uppercase. When you are programming, instructions are not case-sensitive. You may use either uppercase or lowercase.
Hexadecimal numbers are represented by a string of hexadecimal digits followed by the character H. A zero prefix is added to numbers that begin with A through F. (For example, FF is shown as 0FFH.) Decimal and binary numbers are represented by their customary notations. (That is, 255 is a decimal number and 1111 1111 is a binary number. In some cases, the letter B is added for clarity.) Units of Measure
The following abbreviations are used to represent units of GByte gigabytesKByte kilobytesKΩ MByte megabytesMHz megahertzms millisecondsmW milliwattsns nanosecondspF W wattsV voltsµA microamps, µF microfaradsµs microsecondsµW microwatts Signal Names
Signal names are shown in uppercase. When several signals share a common name, an individual signal is represented by the signal name followed by a number, while the group is represented by the signal name followed by a variable (n). For example, the lower chip-select signals are named CS0#, CS1#, CS2#, and so on; they are collectively called CSn#. A pound symbol (#) appended to a signal name identifies an active-low signal. Port pins are represented by the port abbreviation, a period, and the pin number (e.g., P1.0).
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US About This Manual—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
Glossary of Terms and Acronyms
This section defines conventions and terminology used throughout this document.
Aggressor
A network that transmits a coupled signal to another network.
Any plane-split, void or cutout in a VCC or GND plane.
Assisted Gunning Transceiver Logic+
The front-side bus uses a bus technology called AGTL+, or Assisted Gunning Transceiver Logic. AGTL+ buffers are open- drain, and require pull-up resistors to provide the high logic level and termination. AGTL+ output buffers differ from GTL+ buffers with the addition of an active pMOS pull-up transistor to assist the pull-up resistors during the first clock of a low-to-high voltage transition.
Asynchronous GTL+ The processor does not utilize CMOS voltage levels on any
signals that connect to the processor. As a result, legacy input signals such as A20M#, IGNNE#, INIT#, LINT0/INTR, LINT1/ NMI, PWRGOOD, SMI#, SLP#, and STPCLK# utilize GTL+ input buffers. Legacy output signals (FERR# and IERR#) and non- AGTL+ signals (THERMTRIP# and PROCHOT#) also utilize GTL+ output buffers. All of these signals follow the same DC requirements as AGTL+ signals, however the outputs are not actively driven high (during a logical 0 to 1 transition) by the processor (the major difference between GTL+ and AGTL+). These signals do not have setup or hold time specifications in relation to BCLK[1:0], and are therefore referred to as "Asynchronous GTL+ Signals". However, all of the Asynchronous GTL+ signals are required to be asserted for at least two BCLKs in order for the processor to recognize them.
Bus Agent
A component or group of components that, when combined, represent a single load on the AGTL+ bus.
The reception on a victim network of a signal imposed by aggressor network(s) through inductive and capacitive coupling between the networks.
• Backward Crosstalk - Coupling that creates a signal in a victim network that travels in the opposite direction as the aggressor's signal.
• Forward Crosstalk - Coupling that creates a signal in a victim network that travels in the same direction as the aggressor's signal.
• Even Mode Crosstalk - Coupling from a signal or multiple aggressors when all the aggressors switch in the same direction that the victim is switching.
• Odd Mode Crosstalk - Coupling from a signal or multiple aggressors when all the aggressors switch in the opposite direction that the victim is switching.
Flight Time
Flight time is a term in the timing equation that includes the signal propagation delay, any effects the system has on the TCO of the driver, plus any adjustments to the signal at the receiver Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—About This Manual
needed to ensure the setup time of the receiver. More precisely, flight time is defined as: • The time difference between a signal at the input pin of a receiving agent crossing the switching voltage (adjusted to meet the receiver manufacturer's conditions required for AC timing specifications; i.e., ringback, etc.) and the output pin of the driving agent crossing the switching voltage when the driver is driving a test load used to specify the driver's AC timings.
• Maximum and Minimum Flight Time - Flight time variations are caused by many different parameters. The more obvious causes include variation of the board dielectric constant, changes in load condition, crosstalk, power noise, variation in termination resistance, and differences in I/O buffer performance as a function of temperature, voltage, and manufacturing process. Some less obvious causes include effects of Simultaneous Switching Output (SSO) and packaging effects.
• Maximum flight time is the largest acceptable flight time a network will experience under all conditions.
• Minimum flight time is the smallest acceptable flight time a network will experience under all conditions.
Infrared Data Assoc. The Infrared Data Association (IrDA) has outlined a specification
for serial communication between two devices via a bi- directional infrared data port. The 945GME platform has such a port and it is located on the rear of the platform between the two USB connectors.
The Intel Mobile Voltage Positioning specification for the Intel® Core™ 2 Duo Processor. It is a DC-DC converter module that supplies the required voltage and current to a single processor.
Inter-symbol interference is the effect of a previous signal (or transition) on the interconnect delay. For example, when a signal is transmitted down a line and the reflections due to the transition have not completely dissipated, the following data transition launched onto the bus is affected. ISI is dependent upon frequency, time delay of the line, and the reflection coefficient at the driver and receiver. ISI may impact both timing and signal integrity.
Media Expansion CardThe Media Expansion Card (MEC) provides digital display options
through the SDVO interface. The MEC card also incorporates The network is the trace of a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) that completes an electrical connection between two or more The maximum voltage observed for a signal at the device pad, measured with respect to VCC.
The electrical contact point of a semiconductor die to the package substrate. A pad is only observable in simulations.
The contact point of a component package to the traces on a substrate, such as the motherboard. Signal quality and timings may be measured at the pin.
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US About This Manual—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
"Power-Good," "PWRGOOD," or "CPUPWRGOOD" (an active high signal) indicates that all of the system power supplies and clocks are stable. PWRGOOD should go active a predetermined time after system voltages are stable and should go inactive as soon as any of these voltages fail their specifications.
The voltage to which a signal changes after reaching its maximum absolute value. Ringback may be caused by reflections, driver oscillations, or other transmission line System Bus
The System Bus is the microprocessor bus of the processor.
Setup Window
The time between the beginning of Setup to Clock (TSU_MIN) and the arrival of a valid clock edge. This window may be different for each type of bus agent in the system. Simultaneous Switching Output
Simultaneous Switching Output (SSO) effects are differences in electrical timing parameters and degradation in signal quality caused by multiple signal outputs simultaneously switching voltage levels in the opposite direction from a single signal or in the same direction. These are called odd mode and even mode switching, respectively. This simultaneous switching of multiple outputs creates higher current swings that may cause additional propagation delay ("push-out") or a decrease in propagation delay ("pull-in"). These SSO effects may impact the setup and/ or hold times and are not always taken into account by simulations. System timing budgets should include margin for SSO effects.
The branch from the bus trunk terminating at the pad of an The main connection, excluding interconnect branches, from System Management Bus
A two-wire interface through which various system components may communicate.
The minimum voltage extending below VSS observed for a signal at the device pad.
VCC (CPU core)
VCC (CPU core) is the core power for the processor. The system bus is terminated to VCC (CPU core).
A network that receives a coupled crosstalk signal from another network is called the victim network.
yms used throughout this document.
Acronyms (Sheet 1 of 3)
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface Assisted Gunning Transceiver Logic Audio/Modem Codec.
Alert Standard Format American Megatrends Inc. (BIOS developer) Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—About This Manual
Acronyms (Sheet 2 of 3)
Advanced Technology Attachment (disk drive interface) Advance Technology Extended (motherboard form factor) Built-In Self Test Spread Spectrum Differential Clock Common Mode Choke Configuration Memory Operating System Central Processing Unit (processor) Direct Memory Interface Error Correcting Code Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory Enhanced Host Controller Interface Extended Media Access Electro Magnetic Interference Electrostatic Discharge Engineering Validation Electrical Validation Margining Card First In First Out - describes a type of buffer Full-speed. Refers to USB Graphics Memory Controller Hub High-speed. Refers to USB I/O Controller Hub Integrated Drive Electronics Intel Mobile Voltage Positioning Internet Protocol/Internet Protocol version 6 Infrared Data Association Keyboard Controller Logic Analyzer Interface Local Area Network Light Emitting Diode LAN on Motherboard Low-speed. Refers to USB Low Voltage Differential Signalling Media Expansion Card Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US About This Manual—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
Acronyms (Sheet 3 of 3)
Original Equipment Manufacturer Pulse Code Modulation Power On Self Test Platform LAN Connect Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks Super Input/Output System Management Bus Small Outline Dual In-line Memory Module Serial Presence Detect Serial Peripheral Interface Simultaneous Switching Output Total Cost of Ownership Transmission Control Protocol Time Division Multiplexed Time Domain Reflectometry Micro Ball Grid Array User Datagram Protocol Universal Host Controller Interface Universal Serial Bus Video Graphics Adapter Voltage Identification Voltage Regulator eXtended Debug Port Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—About This Manual
Electronic Support Systems
Intel's web site (vides up-to-date technical information and product support. This information is available 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, providing technical information whenever you need it.
Product documentation is provided online in a variety of web-friendly formats at: Additional Technical Support
If you require additional technical support, please contact your Intel Representative or local distributor. You can order product literature from the following Intel literature centers: Intel Literature Centers
U.S. (from overseas) Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US About This Manual—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
The table below provides a summary of publicly available documents related to this development kit. For additional documentation, please contact your Intel Mobile Intel® 945 Express Chipset Family Datasheet Intel® I/O Controller Hub 7 (ICH7) Family Datasheet Mobile Intel® 945 Express Chipset Family Specification Intel® Centrino® Duo Processor Technology Design Order Number 654938 Contact your Intel representative for access to this document.
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—Getting Started
This chapter identifies the evaluation kit's key components, features and specifications. It also details basic board setup and operation.
The evaluation board consists of a baseboard populated with the Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor and the Intel® 945GME Express Chipset, other system board components, and peripheral connectors.
The evaluation board is shipped as an open system allowing for maximum flexibility in changing hardware configuration and peripherals. Since the board is not in a protective chassis, take extra precaution when handling and operating the system.
Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Development Kit
Features of the development kit board are summarized below: • Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with 4 MByte L2 Cache on 65nm process in the 478 pin Flip Chip Pin Grid Array (Micro-FCPGA) package Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Graphics Memory Controller Hub (945GME
• 1466 pin Micro-FCBGA Package• Supports a 533/667 MHz front side bus• Supports dual-Channel DDR2 at 400/533/667 MHz• Two SODIMM slots (one per channel) support DDR2 SODIMMS (unbuffered, non- • Supports 128 MBytes to 4 GBytes using 256 Mbit, 512 Mbit, or 1 Gbit technology• x16 PCI Express* Graphics or Serial Digital Video Out (SDVO) port• 18 bpp LVDS, VGA & TV-D connector support I/O Controller Hub 7 (ICH7-M)
• 652 pin plastic BGA package• DMI (x4) interface with GMCH• Two SATA and one IDE (40 pin) Hard Drive interface• Two PCI 2.3 compliant desktop slots• 82802AC8 Firmware Hub (FWH)• 82573E Gigabit Ethernet Controller Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Getting Started—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
• Two x1 PCI Express* slots.
There are actually three x1 PCI Express* slots but slot 2 was used for validation purposes. Only slots 0 and 1 are supported.
• CK-410M and CK-SSCD• Battery-backed real time clock Connector Interface Summary
• One x16 PCI Express* Video Interface, doubles as an MEC connector to provide access to dual SDVO ports if PCI Express* is unused • Two SATA ports• One Ultra ATA (33/66/100) IDE connector supporting up to two IDE devices• Eight Universal Serial Bus (USB) 2.0 ports (Five ports provided on rear-panel, three provided via headers (J6H2, J7E2) • Two PCI 2.3 compliant 33 MHz interface connectors• PS/2-style keyboard and PS/2 mouse (6-pin mini-DIN) connectors• TV Out D-connector at back panel interface• LVDS connector on top of circuit board near GMCH (J5F1)• One VGA connector provides access to integrated graphics• One LAN connector providing 10/100/1000 Mbps connectivity from the Intel 82573E Gigabit Ethernet Controller • One 9-pin serial port connector.
• One IrDA port (U4A1)• Two PCI Express* slots (x1)• Two SODIMM connectors on rear side of circuit board • Extended Debug Port (XDP) connector• On-board Port 80h display • Configurable for ATX 1.1 Power Supply in desktop mode or AC Mobile Brick/Battery Pack for Mobile Mode • ATX Form Factor eight layer PCB• AMI* system BIOS• Two built-in fan power connectors: Chassis Fan and CPU Fan• Power/Reset buttons• CMOS clear jumper• BIOS recovery jumper• Boot Block protection jumper• Support for Serial, IrDA, serial mouse, and keyboard Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—Getting Started
Included Hardware and Documentation
The following hardware and documentation is included in the development kit: • One Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Development Kit board• One Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with 4 MB L2 Cache on 65nm process in the 478 pin Flip-Chip Pin Grid Array (Micro-FCPGA) package (Installed) • One Intel® CoreTM Duo processor with 2 MByte L2 Cache on 65 nm process in the 478 pin Flip Chip Pin Grid Array (Micro-FCPGA) package (included in kit box for evaluation– not populated on board) • One Firmware Hub (FWH) (Installed)• One GMCH (945GME) heat sink (Installed)• One Type 2032, socketed 3 V lithium coin cell battery (Installed)• One DDR2 SODIMM (200 Pin)• One CPU thermal solution and CPU back plate (included in kit box – not populated • One hard drive• One cable kit Software Key Features
The driver CD included in the kit contains all of the software drivers necessary for basic system functionality under the following operating systems: Windows* 2000/XP/XP Embedded, and Linux*.
While every care was taken to ensure the latest versions of drivers were provided on the enclosed CD at time of publication, newer revisions may be available. Updated drivers for Intel components can be fo For all third-party components, please contact the appropriate vendor for updated Software in the kit is provided free by the vendor and is only licensed for evaluation purposes. Refer to the documentation in your evaluation kit for further details on any terms and conditions that may be applicable to the granted licenses. Customers using the tools that work with Microsoft* products must license those products. Any targets created by those tools should also have appropriate licenses. Software included in the kit is subject to change.
Refer todetails on additional software from other third-party vendors.
AMI* BIOS
This development kit ships pre-installed with AMI* BIOS pre-boot firmware from AMI*. AMI* BIOS provides an industry-standard BIOS platform to run most standard operating systems, including Windows* 2000/XP/XP Embedded, Linux*, and others.
The AMI* BIOS Application Kit (available through AMI*) includes complete source code, a reference manual, and a Windows-based expert system, BIOStart*, to enable easy and rapid configuration of customized firmware for your Intel® 945GME Express Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Getting Started—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
The following features of AMI* BIOS are enabled in the Intel® 945GME Express • DDR2 SDRAM detection, configuration, and initialization• Intel® 945GME Express Chipset configuration• POST codes displayed to port 80h• PCI/PCI Express* device enumeration and configuration• Integrated video configuration and initialization• Super I/O configuration• CPU microcode update• Active Management Technology• RAID 0/1 Support Before You Begin
Additional hardware may be necessary to successfully set up and operate the evaluation board.
VGA Monitor: Any standard VGA or multi-resolution monitor may be used. The setup
instructions in this chapter assume the use of a standard VGA monitor, TV, or flat panel Keyboard: The evaluation board can support either a PS/2 or USB style keyboard.
Mouse: The evaluation board can support either a PS/2 or USB style mouse.
Hard Drives and Optical Disc Drives: Up to two SATA drives and two IDE devices
(master and slave) may be connected to the evaluation board. An optical disc drive may be used to load the OS. All these storage devices may be attached to the board Video Adapter: Integrated video is provided on the back panel of the evaluation
board. Alternately, a standard PCI Express* video adapter or an MEC video adapter may be used for additional display flexibility. Please contact the respective vendors for drivers and necessary software for adapters not provided with this development kit. Check the BIOS for the proper video settings. See more information.
The enclosed driver CD includes drivers necessary for LAN, Integrated graphics, and system INF utilities.
Network Adapter: A Gigabit network interface is provided on the evaluation board.
The network interface will not be operational until after all the necessary drivers have been installed. A standard PCI/PCI Express* adapter may be used in conjunction with, or in place of, the onboard network adapter. Please contact the respective vendors for drivers and necessary software for adapters not provided with this development kit.
You must supply appropriate network cables to utilize the LAN connector or any other installed network cards.
Power Supply: The Intel® 945GME Express Chipset has the option to be powered
from two different power sources: an ATX power supply, or ‘Mobile Brick'. The Intel® 945GME Express Chipset contains all of the voltage regulators necessary to power
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—Getting Started
There are two main supported power supply configurations, Desktop and Mobile. The Desktop solution consists of only using the ATX power supply. The Mobile solution consists of only using the AC Brick.
Desktop peripherals, including add-in cards, will not work in mobile power mode. If desktop peripherals are used, the platform must be powered using desktop power mode. The AC Brick power supply configuration does not provide the 12 V supply required by most desktop peripherals.
Select a power supply that complies with the "ATX12V" 1.1 specification. For more information, refer to .
If the power button on the ATX power supply is used to shut down the system, wait at least five seconds before turning the system on again to avoid damaging the system.
Other Devices and Adapters: The evaluation board functions much like a standard
desktop computer motherboard. Most PC-compatible peripherals can be attached and configured to work with the evaluation board.
Setting Up the Evaluation Board
Once the necessary hardware (described in has been gathered, follow the steps below to set up the Intel® 945GME Express Chipset evaluation board.
To locate items discussed in the procedure below, please refer to .
1. Create a safe work environment.
Ensure a static-free work environment before removing any components from their anti-static packaging. The evaluation board is susceptible to electrostatic discharge (ESD) damage, and such damage may cause product failure or unpredictable operation. A flame retardant work surface must also be used.
Because of this susceptibility, it is recommended that an ESD wrist strap be
used when handling the board.
2. Inspect the contents of your kit.
Check for damage that may have occurred during shipment. Contact your sales representative if any items are missing or damaged.
Since the board is not in a protective chassis, use caution when connecting
cables to this product.
Standby voltage is constantly applied to the board. Therefore, do not insert or
remove any hardware unless the system is unplugged.
The evaluation board is a standard ATX form factor. An ATX chassis may be used if a protected environment is desired. If a chassis is not used, standoffs must be used to elevate the board off the working surface to protect the memory and to protect from any accidental contact to metal objects.
3. Check the jumper default position setting. Re for jumper location. Jumper J6H1 is used to clear the CMOS memory. Make sure this jumper is set for normal operation.
4. Be sure to populate the following hardware on your evaluation board: — One Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor— One processor thermal solution— One DDR2 SODIMM (200-pin) Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Getting Started—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
Ensure that the processor has been locked into the socket by turning the socket screw fully clockwise.
For proper installation of the CPU thermal solution, please refer to 5. Connect a SATA or IDE hard disk drive.
6. Connect any additional storage devices to the evaluation board.
7. Connect the keyboard and mouse.
Connect a PS/2-style or USB mouse and keyboard (see for J1A1 (on the baseboard) is a stacked PS/2 connector. The bottom connector is for the keyboard and the top is for the mouse.
8. Connect an Ethernet cable (optional).
9. Connect the monitor through the VGA connector.
10. Connect the power supply.
Connect an appropriate power supply to the evaluation board. Make sure the power supply is not plugged into an electrical outlet (turned off). After connecting the power supply board connectors, plug the power supply cord into an electrical 11. Power up the board.
Power and Reset are implemented on the evaluation board through buttons located on SW1C1and SW1C2, respectively. S for switch locations.
Turn on the power to the monitor and evaluation board. Ensure that the fansink on the processor is operating.
Note that the power button may have to be pressed twice to turn the power on.
12. Install operating system and necessary drivers Depending on the operating system chosen, all necessary drivers for components included in this development kit can be found on the enclosed CD. Please see for information on obtaining updated drivers.
Configuring the BIOS
AMI* BIOS is pre-loaded on the evaluation board. The default BIOS settings may need to be modified to enable/disable various features of the evaluation board. The setup program can be used to modify BIOS settings and can be accessed during the Power On Self Test (POST). Setup options are configured through a menu-driven user interface. For AMI BIOS POST codes, visit: For BIOS Updates please contact your Intel Sales Representative.
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—Theory of Operation
Theory of Operation
Figure 1.
Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Development Kit Block Diagram
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo Dual Channel DDR2 PCI Express / SDVO Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Theory of Operation—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
Mechanical Form Factor
The evaluation board conforms to the ATX form factor. For extra protection in a development environment, you may want to install the evaluation board in an ATX chassis. Internal and rear panel system I/O connectors are described in An overview of connector and slot locations is prov.
The objective of thermal management is to ensure that the temperature of each component is maintained within specified functional limits. The functional temperature limit is the range within which the electrical circuits can be expected to meet their specified performance requirements. Operation outside the functional limit can degrade system performance and cause reliability problems.
The development kit is shipped with a fansink thermal solution for installation on the processor. This thermal solution has been tested in an open-air environment at room temperature and is sufficient for evaluation purposes. The designer must ensure that adequate thermal management is provided for any customer-derived designs.
System Features and Operation
The following sections provide a detailed view of system features and operation. Refer to and for the location of the major components of the platform.
The Intel® 945GME Express Chipset features the 82945GM Graphics Memory Controller Hub and the Intel® I/O Controller Hub (ICH7-M).
Intel(R) 945GME GMCH
The Intel® 945GME Express Chipset GMCH provides the processor interface optimized for Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processors, system memory interface, DMI and internal graphics. It provides flexibility and scalability in graphics and memory subsystem performance. The following list describes the reference board's implementation of the Intel® 945GME Express Chipset GMCH features.
A list of features follows: • 1466 Micro-FCBGA package• 533/667 MHz Front Side Bus• 36-bit host bus addressing• System memory controller (DDR2 implemented) — Supports Dual Channel and Single Channel operation— Two 200-pin SODIMM slots— DDR2 400/533/667 • Direct Media Interface (DMI)• Integrated graphics based on Intel's Graphics Media Accelerator 950 — Directly supports on-board VGA, S-Video and LVDS interfaces.
— Supports resolutions up to 2048 x 1536 @ 75 Hz.
• SDVO interface via PCI Express* x16 connector provides maximum display — Can drive up to two display outputs Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—Theory of Operation
The evaluation board supports DDR2 400/533/667 main memory. Two 200-pin SODIMM connectors (one per channel) on the board support unbuffered, non-ECC, single and double-sided DDR2 400/533/667 MHz SODIMMs. These SODIMMs provide the ability to use up to 1 Gbit technology for a maximum of 4 GBytes system memory.
Memory that utilizes 128 MBit technology is not supported on the Intel® 945GME Express Chipset.
The SODIMM connectors are on the back side of the board.
Standby voltage is applied to the SODIMM sockets when the system is in the S3 state. Therefore, do not insert or remove SODIMMs unless the system is unplugged.
The Intel® 945GME Express Chipset GMCH's Direct Media Interface (DMI) provides high-speed bi-directional chip-to-chip interconnect for communication with the ICH7-M.
Advanced Graphics and Display Interface
The reference board has five options for displaying video, VGA, LVDS, TVOUT, SDVO, or PCI Express* Graphics. SDVO (MEC) and PCI Express* Graphics are multiplexed on the same pins within the Intel® 945GME Express Chipset. The Intel® 945GME Express Chipset contains one SDVO/PCI Express* Graphics Slot (J6C1) for a PCI Express* compatible graphics card or an SDVO compatible graphics card, one LVDS connector (J5F1), one TVOUT connector (J2A1), and one 15-pin VGA connector (J2A2B).
The ICH7-M is a highly integrated multifunctional I/O controller hub that provides the interface to the system peripherals and integrates many of the functions needed in today's PC platforms. The following sections describe the reference board implementation of the ICH7-M features, which are listed below: • Two PCI Express* (x1) connectors• Two PCI connectors• LPC interface• System management• ACPI* 2.0 compliant• Rea l Time Clock• 652 mBGA package• Two SATA drive connectors• One IDE connector• Eight Universal Serial Bus (USB) 2.0 ports (five ports provided on rear-panel, three provided via headers (J6H2, J7E2) PCI Express* Slots
The reference board has two x1 PCI Express* slots for add-in cards. The PCI Express* interface is compliant to the PCI Express* Rev. 1.0a Specification.
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Theory of Operation—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
PCI Slots
The reference board has two PCI slots for add-in cards. The PCI bus is compliant to the PCI Rev. 2.3 Specification at 33 MHz.
On-Board LAN
The 82573E provides the LAN connectivity for this platform. It provides Gigabit ethernet as well as Intel® Active Management Technology functions. It is connected to the ICH7-M through a PCIe interface and to an RJ45 connector at J5A1A with built in magnetic decoupling. Access to this interface is provided on the rear I/O panel (See Features of the 82573E are as follows: • x1 PCIe Interface• 2 Gbps peak bandwidth per direction• Wide, pipelined internal data path architecture• 32 KB configurable Receive (Rx) and Transmit (Tx) FIFO• IEEE 802.3x compliant flow control support with software controllable pause times and threshold values • Programmable host memory Rx buffers (256 B- 16 KB)• Descriptor ring management hardware for Tx and Rx• Tx/Rx IP, TCP, and UDP checksum offloading• Tx TCP Segmentation• IPv6 offloading• Intel® Active Management Technology• Wake on LAN (WoL) support The 82573E is only powered in S3-S0 and will not support AMT or WoL support from S4 • SPI or EEPROM support• Optional on-die voltage regulator Information on Intel® Active Management Technology can be found at: AC'97 and High Definition Audio
AC'97 and Intel® High Definition Audio are not supported on the board.
ATA / Storage
The Intel® 945GME Express Chipset provides one parallel ATA IDE connector and two serial ATA connectors. The parallel ATA IDE Connector is a standard 40-pin connector at J7J1 for a desktop IDE drive. A power connector is supplied on the platform to power a parallel ATA hard disk drive at J4J2. One of the two serial ATA connectors on the Intel® 945GME Express Chipset is a direct connect connector; located at J8J2. The other serial ATA connector is broken up into two connectors. One connector is for the serial data signals, and the other is to power the serial ATA hard disk drive. These connectors are located at J7H1 and J6H3. A green LED at location CR7J1 indicates activity on the ATA Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—Theory of Operation
The Intel® 945GME Express Chipset also supports ‘ATA swap' capability for both the parallel IDE channel and the serial ATA channels. A device can be powered down by software and the port can then be disabled, allowing removal and insertion of a new device. The parallel IDE device should be powered from the power connector, J4J2, on the Intel® 945GME Express Chipset to utilize the hot swap feature. This feature requires customer-developed software support.
Desktop hard drives must be powered using the external ATX power supply, not the onboard power supply.
The Intel® 945GME Express Chipset includes Intel® Matrix Storage Technology, providing greater performance and reliability through features such as Native Command Queuing (NCQ) and RAID 0/1. For more information about Intel® Matrix Storage Technology, refer to Intel's website at: The ICH7-M provides a total of eight USB 2.0 ports. Three ports are routed to a triple- stack USB connector at J3A1. Two ports are routed to a combination RJ-45/dual USB connector at J5A1B. Three ports are routed to USB front panel headers at J6H2 and LPC Super I/O (SIO)/LPC Slot
An SMSC LPC47N207 serves as the SIO on the Intel® 945GME Express Chipset platform. Shunting the jumper at J7E3 to the 2-3 positions can disable the SIO by holding it in reset. This allows other SIO solutions to be tested in the LPC slot at J8F1. A sideband header is provided at J9G2 for this purpose. This sideband header also has signals for LPC power management. Information on this header is on sheet 35 of the Intel® 945GME Express Chipset schematics and is detailed in the "LPC Slot and Sideband Header Specific).
Serial, IrDA
The SMSC SIO incorporates a serial port, and IrDA (Infrared), as well as general purpose IOs (GPIO). The serial port connector is provided at J2A2A, and the IrDA transceiver is located at U4A1. The IrDA transceiver on Intel® 945GME Express Chipset supports both SIR (slow IR) and CIR (Consumer IR). The option to select between the two is supported through software and GPIO pin on the SIO.
BIOS Firmware Hub (FWH)
The 8 Mbit Flash device used on the Intel® 945GME Express Chipset to store system and video BIOS as well as an Intel Random Number Generator (RNG) is a socketed E82802AC8 a 32-pin PLCC package. The reference designator location of the FWH device is U8G1. The BIOS can be upgraded using an MS-DOS* based utility and is addressable on the LPC bus off of the ICH7-M.
System Management Controller (SMC)/Keyboard Controller
The Hitachi* H8S/2104V serves as both SMC and KBC for the platform. The SMC/KBC controller supports two PS/2 ports, battery monitoring and charging, EMA support, wake/runtime SCI events, and power sequencing control. The two PS/2 ports on the Intel® 945GME Express Chipset are for legacy keyboard and mouse. The keyboard plugs into the bottom jack and the mouse plugs into the top jack at J1A1. Scan matrix keyboards can be supported via an optional connector at J9E1.
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Theory of Operation—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
The Intel® 945GME Express Chipset board uses a CK-410M and CK-SSCD compatible solution. The CK-SSCD solution offers improved EMI performance by spreading the radiated clock emissions over a wider spectrum than a single frequency. This is accomplished while controlling the clock frequency deviation such that system performance is not compromised. The FSB frequency is determined from decoding the processor BSEL[2:0] pin settings.
Real Time Clock
An on-board battery at BT5H1 maintains power to the real time clock (RTC) when in a mechanical off state. A CR2032 battery is installed on the Intel® 945GME Express Chipset development kit.
The processor has a thermal diode for temperature monitoring. The SMC thermal monitoring device will throttle the processor if it becomes hot. If the temperature of the processor rises too high, the SMC will alternately blink the CAPS lock and NUM lock LEDs on the board, and the board will shut down.
System I/O and Connector Summary
The evaluation board provides extensive I/O capability in the form of internal connectors and headers as detailed by the following list. For detailed information on these connectors and headers, pl • One (x16) PCI Express* connector• Two (x1) PCI Express* connectors• Two PCI connectors• One IDE connector (supports two drives)• Two SATA connectors• Two USB ports via front panel header (J8J1)• One LVDS video connector Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—Theory of Operation
In addition to the internal I/O connections listed above, the evaluation board also contains the following I/O on the rear panel (as illustrated • Five USB ports on back panel.
• VGA connector• PS/2-style keyboard and mouse ports• LAN connector• One 9-pin serial connector• One IrDA port• One TV D-connector PCI Express* Support
The evaluation board provides access to one x16 PCI Express* connector. Any industry standard x16 PCI Express* video adapter may be used with this interface. The evaluation board also provides access to two x1 PCI Express* connectors. Any industry standard x1 PCI Express* adapter may be used with these interfaces.
SATA Support
The evaluation board provides support for up to two SATA disk drives. The SATA controllers are software compatible with IDE interfaces, while providing lower pin counts and higher performance.
These are two SATA connectors on the evaluation board. The SATA Cable connect provides both signalling and power white the SATA Direct connect only provides signals (the user typically uses an ATX power supply for the drive power). IDE Support
The evaluation board has a 40-pin connector for the ICH7-M's integrated IDE controller. This connector supports up to two Ultra ATA/100 hard drives; one master and one Desktop hard drives must be powered by an external ATX power supply.
USB Ports
The evaluation board provides five USB (2.0) ports on the rear panel and three additional ports through headers (J6H2 and J7E2).
There are four UHCI Host Controllers and an EHCI Host Controller. Each UHCI Host Controller includes a root hub with two separate USB ports each, for a total of eight legacy USB ports.
The EHCI Host Controller includes a root hub that supports up to eight USB 2.0 ports. The connection to either the UHCI or EHCI controllers is dynamic and dependant on the particular USB device. As such, all ports support High Speed, Full Speed, and Low Speed (HS/FS/LS).
A standard 15 pin D-Sub connector on the rear panel provides access to the analog output of the Intel® 945GME Express Chipset. The integrated graphics supports a maximum resolution of 2048 x 1536 @ 75Hz. This can be connected to any capable analog CRT or flat panel display with analog input.
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Theory of Operation—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
When used in conjunction with the other display options, the displays can operate in Dual Independent mode. This allows unique content to appear on each display at unique refresh rates and timings.
The keyboard and mouse connectors are PS/2 style, six-pin stacked miniature D-Sub connectors. The top connector is for the mouse and the bottom connector is for the 32 bit/33 MHz PCI Connectors
Two industry standard 32 bit/33 MHz PCI connectors are provided on the evaluation board. These slots support 5 V devices.
Ethernet Gigabit LAN Interface connector
The evaluation board provides one industry standard Gigabit RJ45 LAN Interface Connector (Integrated with the dual USB connector).
LVDS Flat Panel Display Interface
The evaluation board provides one forty-four pin LVDS video interface connector. The provided LVDS connects to most 18 bits per pixel (bpp) flat panel display assemblies. 24 bpp LVDS is not supported.
POST Code Debugger
A port 80-83 display at CR6A1, CR6A2, CR6A3, and CR6A4 show the POST codes and can be used for debug information during POST. The evaluation board uses an AMI* For AMI* BIOS POST codes, please visit: The Intel® 945GME Express Chipset board uses a CK-410M and CK-SSCD compatible solution. The FSB frequency is determined from decoding the processor BSEL[2:0] pin The clock generator provides Processor, GMCH, ICH7-M, PCI, PCI Express*, SATA, and USB reference clocks. Clocking for DDR2 is provided by the GMCH.
Primary System Clocks
Clock Name
133 MHz @ 533 FSB Speed 166 MHz @ 667 FSB Speed 100 MHz @ 400 Memory Speed 133 MHz @ 533 Memory Speed166 MHz @ 667 Memory Speed PCI Express* and DMI Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—Theory of Operation
Power Management States
The evaluation board supports the following ACPI System states: S0 (Full On), S3 (Suspend to RAM), S4 (Suspend to disk), and S5 (Soft-off), ACPI CPU states: C0 (Full On), C1 (Auto Halt), C2 (Stop Grant), C3 (Deep Sleep), and C4 (Deeper Sleep), and ACPI Global Power States: G0 (Working), G1 (Sleeping), G2 (Soft Off), and G3 (Mechanical Off). Transition requirements are detailed below.
lists the power management states that have been identified for the Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Platform.
Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Development Kit Power Management States
STPCLK# signal active Deep Sleep: DPSLP# signal active Deeper Sleep: DPRSLP# signal active Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Theory of Operation—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
Transition to S3
If enabled, the transition to S3 from the full-on state can be accomplished in the • The OS performs the transition through software.
• Press the front panel power button for less than four seconds (assuming the OS power management support has been enabled).
The power button is accessed by adding a switch to the pins 5 and 6 on the front panel header J8J1.
Transition to S4
"Wake on S4" (Suspend to disk) is controlled by the operating system.
Transition to S5
The transition to S5 is accomplished by the following means: • Press the front panel power button for less than four seconds (if enabled through • Press the front panel power button for more than four seconds to activate power button override.
Transition to Full-On
The transition to the Full-On state can be from S3 or S5. The transition from S3 is a low latency transition that is triggered by one of the following wake events: • Power management timer expiration• Real Time Clock (RTC) triggered alarm• Power button activation• USB device interrupt• ICH7M pin PME# assertion• AC power loss For AC power loss, the system operation is defined by register settings in the Intel ICH7-M. Upon the return of power, a BIOS option, set prior to the power loss, allows the system to either go immediately to the S5 state, or reboot to the Full-On state, no matter what the state was before the power loss. External logic for this functionality is not necessary. If the BIOS remains in the S5 state after AC power loss, only the power button or the RTC alarm can bring the system out of the S5 state. The status of enabled wake events will be lost.
Power Measurement Support
Power measurement resistors are provided on the platform to measure the power of most subsystems. All power measurement resistors have a tolerance of 1%. The value of these power measurement resistors are 2 mΩ by default. Power on a particular subsystem is calculated using the following formula: P = R Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—Theory of Operation
R is the value of the sense resistor (typically 0.002 Ω) V is the voltage measured across the sense resistor.
It is recommended that the user use an oscilloscope or high precision digital multi- meter tool such as the Agilent* 34401A digital multi-meter. Such a meter has 6½ digits of accuracy and can provide a much greater accuracy in power measurement than a common 3½ digit multimeter.
summarizes the voltage rails and power measurement sense resistors located on the Intel® 945GME Express Chipset platform. All sense resistors are 0.002 Ω unless otherwise noted. Please note that many voltage rails do not have sense resistors.
Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Development Kit Voltage Rails (Sheet 1 of 3)
Voltage Rail
Powered during
+V1.5S_QTVDAC and Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Theory of Operation—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Development Kit Voltage Rails (Sheet 2 of 3)
Voltage Rail
Powered during
Battery Voltage Always Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—Theory of Operation
Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Development Kit Voltage Rails (Sheet 3 of 3)
Voltage Rail
Powered during
Battery Voltage Switched Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Hardware Reference—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
This section provides reference information on the hardware, including locations of evaluation board components, connector pinout information and jumper settings. erview of basic board layout.
the Intel® 945GME Express Chipset board and es a brief description of each component.
Figure 2.
Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Component Locations
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—Hardware Reference
Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Component Location Legend (Sheet 1 of 2)
PCI Express* Slot 0 PCI Express* Slot 1 DB800 Clock Buffer Port 80 Controller Keyboard Scan Matrix LPC Sideband Header Intel® ICH7-M Digital Home Firmware Hub (FWH) Virtual Battery Switch SATA Direct Connect Front Panel Header SATA Cable Connect IDE (Parallel ATA) SATA Power Connector Parallel ATA Power 4-in-1 VREG Controller Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Hardware Reference—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Component Location Legend (Sheet 2 of 2)
AC Brick Power Connector System Power State LEDs Port 82-83 Display PCI Express* Graphics Slot Port 80-81 Display Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—Hardware Reference
Back Panel Connectors
This section describes the Intel® 945GME Express Chipset panel connectors on the Intel® 945GME Express Chipset platform.
Many of the connectors provide operating voltage (for example, +5 V DC and +12 V DC) to devices inside the computer chassis, such as fans and internal peripherals. Most of these connectors are not over-current protected. Do not use these connectors for powering devices external to the computer chassis. A fault in the load presented by the external devices could cause damage to the computer, the interconnecting cable, and the external devices themselves.
shows the back panel connectors to the Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Figure 3.
Back Panel Connector Locations
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US


Hardware Reference—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
Do not move jumpers with the power on. Always turn off the power and unplug the power cord from the computer before changing jumper settings. Failure to do so may cause damage to the board.
of the configuration jumpers and switches.
and gives their default and optional The unsupported jumpers must remain in their default position or the operation of the platform is unpredictable. The Intel® 945GME Express Chipset board is shipped with the jumpers and switches shunted in the default locations.
Figure 4.
Configuration Jumper and Switch Locations
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—Hardware Reference
Supported Configuration Jumper/Switch Settings (Sheet 1 of 2)
Enginnering Validation Out - Normal Operation 1-2 CPU Driven FSB Frequency 2-3 Force FSB Frequency - See schematic for valid 1-2 CPU Driven FSB Frequency 2-3 Force FSB Frequency - See schematic for valid 1-2 CPU Driven FSB Frequency 2-3 Force FSB Frequency - See schematic for valid Out - Normal Operation Out - Normal Operation Out - Normal Operation CRB/System Validation 2-3 - Normal Operation Out - Normal Operation Out - Normal Operation Out - Normal Operation Out - Normal Operation Out - Normal Operation Out - Normal Operation Out - Normal Operation Out - Normal Operation Out - Normal Operation Out - Normal Operation 1-2 Connect CPU THERMDA to Out - Disconnect CPU from Thermal Sensor 3-4 Connect CPU THERMDC to Out - Disconnect CPU from Thermal Sensor Out - Normal Operation In - Force the board to shut down Out - Normal Operation Out - Normal Operation In - Normal Operation Out - Disable SATA Hotswap EVMC Schmoo Header Out - Normal Operation EVMC Schmoo Header Out - Normal Operation LVDS Panel Power Jumper 2-3 and 5-6 - Normal Operation EVMC Schmoo Header Out - Normal Operation Out - Normal Operation In - Clear the CMOS Out - Normal Operation 1-2 Normal Operation 2-3 Connect RxD to KBC for programming 1-2 Normal Operation 2-3 Connect TxD to KBC for programming 82573E Clock View Out - Normal Operation Out - Normal Operation Enable SPI Boot BIOS Out - Normal Operation 1-2 Normal Operation 2-3 to hold the SIO in reset Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Hardware Reference—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
Supported Configuration Jumper/Switch Settings (Sheet 2 of 2)
In - Normal Operation Out - Disable PATA Hotswap LAN Non-volatile Out - Normal Operation 1-2 Normal Operation 2-3 to hold the KBC in reset Out - Normal Operation Out - Normal Operation In - Recover the BIOS Boot Block Program In - Normal Operation Non-Maskable Interrupt Jumper (1 Hz Clock) Out - Normal Operation In - Enable KBC programming Out - Normal Operation In - KBC Disabled In - Normal Operation SATA Device Status In - Normal Operation Out - Normal Operation Out - Normal Operation In - LID Jumper closed In - Normal Operation Virtual Battery Jumper Out - Normal Operation Virtual Battery Switch 1-2 Normal Operation 1-2 Normal Operation 2-3 LID Switch closed Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US


Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—Hardware Reference
Power On and Reset Buttons
The Intel® 945GME Express Chipset board has two push buttons, POWER and RESET. The POWER button releases power to the entire board, causing the board to boot. The RESET button will force all systems to warm reset. The two buttons are located near the CPU close to the edge of the board. The POWER button is located at SW1C2 and the RESET button is located at SW1C1.
If the board is powered from an external ATX power supply (not a power brick), the Power button must be pressed twice to turn on the system.
Figure 5.
Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Development Kit Power On and Reset Buttons
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Hardware Reference—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
The following LEDs provide status for various functions on the Intel® 945GME Express Chipset board.
Intel® 945GME Express Chipset LED Function Legend
Keyboard Number Lock Keyboard Scroll Lock Keyboard Caps Lock Other Headers, Slots, and Sockets
H8 Programming Headers
The microcontroller for system management/keyboard/mouse control can be upgraded in two ways. The user can either use a special MS-DOS* utility or use an external computer connected to the system via the serial port on the board. Make sure the motherboard is not powered on and the power supply is disconnected before moving any of the jumpers.
To program the microcontroller via the utility, the user must ensure that jumper J9H1 is populated. Once the programming is complete, jumper J9H1 should be unpopulated.
If the user chooses to use an external computer connected to the system via the serial port, there are five jumpers that have to be set correctly first. Please refer to for a summary of these jumpers and sethe location of each jumper. Here is the sequence of events necessary to program the H8.
1. With the board powered off, move the five jumpers listee programming stuffing option.
2. Power the S5 voltage rails by attaching an AC brick or an ATX power supply to the Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—Hardware Reference
3. Program the H8 via the serial port.
4. Disconnect the power supply from the system.
5. With the board powered off, move the five jumpers listed into the default stuffing option.
Table 10.
H8 Programming Jumpers
Default Stuffing Option
Programming Stuffing
Out - normal operation - IN - clock disabled - enable H8 IN - normal operation and enable external H8 Leave in for programming 1-2 Normal Operation 2-3 connect TxD to H8 for 1-2 normal operation (SIO) 2-3 connect RxD to H8 for Expansion Slots and Sockets
Following is a list of the slots and sockets available for attaching additional devices. Refer to Figure 2 for locations.
Table 11.
Expansion Slots and Sockets
Reference
478 Pin Grid Array (Micro-FCPGA) Processor Socket DDR2 - Channel A - SODIMM slot DDR2 - Channel B - SODIMM slot LVDS Graphics Interface PCI Express* (x16) Media Expansion Card Slot PCI Express* (x1) Slot 1 PCI Express* (x1) Slot 0 IDE Interface Connector Mobile SATA Hard Drive Interface Connector Desk Top SATA Hard Drive Interface Connector SATA Desk Top Power Connector Intel Firmware Hub Socket 478 Pin Grid Array (Micro-FCPGA) Socket
The pin locking mechanism on the CPU socket is released by rotating the screw on the socket 180 degrees counter-clockwise. CPU pins are keyed so as to only allow insertion in one orientation. DO NOT FORCE CPU into socket. Once the CPU is properly seated Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Hardware Reference—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
into the socket, turn the screw 180 degrees clock-wise to secure the CPU in the socket. Note that the slot on the screw aligns with the lock and unlock legend on the case of the CPU socket.
Please refer to the CPU installation instruction in Appendix A prior to inserting the CPU as the CPU and socket can be easily damaged.
PCI Express* (x16)
The platform has one x16 lane PCI Express* Graphics slot and supports either x1 or x16 modes. The slot is wired "lane reversed" which connects the Intel® 945GME Express Chipset lanes 0 through 15 to lanes 15 through 0 on the slot. The Intel® 945GME Express Chipset will internally un-reverse this wiring since its CFG9 power-on strap is tied low.
Table 12.
PCI Express* (x16) Pinout (J6C1) (Sheet 1 of 3)
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—Hardware Reference
Table 12.
PCI Express* (x16) Pinout (J6C1) (Sheet 2 of 3)
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Hardware Reference—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
Table 12.
PCI Express* (x16) Pinout (J6C1) (Sheet 3 of 3)
Media Expansion Card (MEC) Slot
When not being used for PCI Express*, the x16 slots can be used for Serial Digital Video Out (SDVO). SDVO cards provide for a third party vendor secondary graphics add-on such as a digital panel interface. The SDVO interface will also support a Media Expansion Card (MEC), which provide TV Capture over the PCI Express* x1 port in addition to the standard SDVO card video out Table 13.
MEC Slot (J6C1) (Sheet 1 of 3)
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—Hardware Reference
Table 13.
MEC Slot (J6C1) (Sheet 2 of 3)
End of x1 Connector End of x4 Connector End of x8 Connector Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Hardware Reference—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
Table 13.
MEC Slot (J6C1) (Sheet 3 of 3)
PCI Express* (x1)
The two PCI Express* x1 connectors allow the use of any industry standard PCI Express* device. The pin configuration of the connectors is given below.
Table 14.
PCI Express* (x1) Pinout (J7C1, J8C1) (Sheet 1 of 2)
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—Hardware Reference
Table 14.
PCI Express* (x1) Pinout (J7C1, J8C1) (Sheet 2 of 2)
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Hardware Reference—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
The IDE interface can support up to two devices, a master and a slave. Ensure that the jumpers on the drives are properly selected for the given configuration. Mobile drives with an IDE interface will require an adapter to connect to this port. This adapter is included in the Development Kit.
Table 15.
IDE Connector (J7J1)
SATA Pinout
Table 16.
SATA Port 0 Data Connector Pinout (J7H1)
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—Hardware Reference
Table 17.
SATA Port 0 Power Connector Pinout (J6H3)
Table 18.
SATA Port 2 Mobile Drive Connector Pinout (J8J2)
Table 19.
Fan Connectors (J3F1 and J3C1)
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US


Heat Sink Installation Instructions—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
Appendix A Heat Sink Installation Instructions
It is necessary for the Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor to have a thermal solution attached to it in order to keep it within its operating temperature.
A heat sink is included in the kit. To install the heat sink: 1. Remove the heatsink from its package and separate the fan heatsink portion from the heatsink backplate.
Figure 6.
Heatsink and Backplate
2. Examine the base of the heatsink, where contact with the processor die is made. This surface should be clean of all materials and greases. Wipe the bottom surface clean with isopropyl alcohol.
3. Place the backplate on the underside of the board so that the pins protrude through the holes in the system board around the processor.
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US


Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—Heat Sink Installation Instructions
Figure 7.
4. Clean the die of the processor with isopropyl alcohol before the heatsink is attached to the processor. This ensures that the surface of the die is clean.
5. Remove the tube of thermal grease from the package and use it to coat the bottom of the heatsink thermal plate with the thermal grease.
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US



Heat Sink Installation Instructions—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
Figure 8.
Applying the Thermal Grease
6. Pick up the heatsink and squeeze the activation arm until it comes in contact with the base plate that is attached to the heatsink base. This will cause the springs on the heatsink attachment mechanism to compress. Figure 9.
Squeezing Activation Arm
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US


Intel® 945GME Express Chipset—Heat Sink Installation Instructions
7. While keeping the activation arm compressed, place the heatsink over the pins of the heatsink backplate. Lower the heatsink until the lugs have inserted into the base of the heatsink. Slide the heatsink over the lugs on the backplate pins so that the base is directly over the processor die and the pins on the backplate have traveled the entire length of the channel in the heatsink base. Slowly let go of the activation arm until the base of the heatsink makes contact with the processor die. The heatsink base should be flat on top of the processor die. Figure 10.
Installing the Heatsink
8. Plug the fan connector for the heatsink onto the CPU fan header (J3C1) on the Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US


Heat Sink Installation Instructions—Intel® 945GME Express Chipset
Figure 11.
Plugging in the Fan
Figure 12.
Intel® CoreTM 2 Duo processor with the Mobile Intel® 945GME Express Chipset Order Number: 317443-001US

Source: http://www.intel.cc/design/intarch/manuals/317443.pdf

Arxiv:astro-ph/0303428v1 18 mar 2003

Measuring cosmology with Supernovae Saul Perlmutter1 and Brian P. Schmidt2 Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian NationalUniversity, via Cotter Rd, Weston Creek, ACT 2611, Australia Abstract. Over the past decade, supernovae have emerged as some of the most power-ful tools for measuring extragalactic distances. A well developed physical understandingof type II supernovae allow them to be used to measure distances independent of theextragalactic distance scale. Type Ia supernovae are empirical tools whose precision andintrinsic brightness make them sensitive probes of the cosmological expansion. Bothtypes of supernovae are consistent with a Hubble Constant within ∼10% of H0 = 70

Ppm_nov02_27-35_woessner.qxd

A Conceptual A Conceptual Model of Pain: Part three of this series discusses the choice of treatment approaches depending on the diagnosed source(s) of pain. by James Woessner, MD, PhD In part one of this series,1the author de- becomes active (i.e. nociceptive pain may involvement from a herniated disc or scribed a conceptual model of pain based