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Volume 6 No 03 ISSN:1800-4881 July-Sept 2013
Department of Animal Production and Health, P.O.Box 13, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. [email protected] Anti Microbial Resistance 1. Anti Microbial Resistance
1.2 Mechanism of AMR 2 Status of Livestock Diseases
Antimicrobial agents are speciﬁc drugs used to treat 2.1 Bovine Disease infections caused by bacteria in particular. It is an essential 2.1.1 Bovine Babesiosis medicine for both animal and human health. Therapeutic 2.1.2 Bovine Brucellosis use of Antibiotics in infected animals can make the 2.1.3 Black Quarter diﬀerence between cure and death. They are invaluable, but some bacteria have demonstrated full or partial resistance Foot and Mouth Disease to diﬀerent microbial agents to which it originally was sensitive. This phenomenon is called Anti Microbial 2.2 Caprine Diseases Resistance (AMR). Under such situation the standard anti 2.2.1 Contagious Pustular Dermatitis (CPD) microbial treatments become ineﬀective and infections may 2.3 Poultry Diseases persist increasing risk of spread.
The evolution of resistant strains is a natural phenomenon 2.3.2 Gumboro Disease that happens when micro-organisms are exposed to 2.3.3 Newcastle Disease antimicrobial agents, and resistant traits can be exchanged 2.3.4 Salmonellosis between certain types of bacteria. Misuse of antimicrobial medicines accelerates this natural phenomenon and poor 3. Highly Pathogenic Avian Inﬂuenza
infection control practices encourages the spread of AMR. 3.1 National HPAI Surveillance Programme Potential AMR public health risk can be associated with the 3.2 Global Distribution of Notiﬁable Avian use of Antibiotics in food producing animals. Furthermore many emerging infectious diseases are due to circulation of 3.3 Global situation of HPAI outbreaks.
novel clones of drug resistant bacteria. Human and animal share the same micro-organisms and 60% of the recently emerging diseases are of animal origin. It is a key component in concern in both animal and public health today. Appropriate use of anti microbial agents is a critical issue in animal welfare, food safety and food security policies too. Therefore it is important to control the use of Antimicrobial agents in animal population; strictly restricting the use through Veterinarians whose ethics is guarantied by a Veterinary statutory body as laid down by law. 1.2 Mechanism of AMR
Therapeutic use of antibiotics in human medicine started as far as year 1940 and the ﬁrst resistance was noted in late 1950s. Antibiotics have been reported to be used routinely in Veterinary medicine and Agriculture since 1950s. By 1960s the strains of Salmonella enterica emerged in Europe and USA, resistant to commonly used antibiotics causing clinical diseases in calves and it was considered as a public health risk. Micro-organisms are present everywhere and can adapt to survive in extreme conditions like heat, cold, radioactivity etc. In contact with antibiotics, sensitive bacteria will get destroyed and the resistant will survive and develop.
Therefore any use of antimicrobial will lead to the selection Multi-drug resistant clones of Strptococcus pnuemoniae of resistant bacteria. Bacteria have an ability to exchange in circulation around the world that cause pneumonia, genetic material and an ability to multiply. The higher the ear infection and meningitis and multi-drug resistant capacity of these characters the higher the adaptability. uropathogenic Eschrchia coli are becoming common in
The protection mechanisms have developed in bacteria human and animal health.
via genetic alterations to be able to survive to antibiotics
in the ecosystem. Genetic alterations occur either due to Problems arise with AMR
spontaneous mutation within the bacterial chromosome or
by acquisition of entire resistance genes from other sources
AMR leads to the limitation of treatment options for such as horizontal gene transfer which can occur through infections and diseases caused by resistant bacteria number of ways such as conjugation, transformation, transduction etc. Plasmids are extra chromosomal genetic -Extended period of treatment elements which carry genes that encode for antimicrobial -Usage of more than one drug to control the diseases resistance. Some carry multiple resistance genes making -Usage of second-line agents (modern and expensive it possible for a bacteria to acquire multi drug resistance, following a single gene transfer event. -Not possible to treat with available drugs Genetic alterations can result in resisting the action of t AMR which develops in zoonotic pathogen can enter antibiotics by four diﬀerent mechanisms identiﬁed; human food chain. decreased uptake of drugs, enzymatic inactivation or modiﬁcation of the drug, structural modiﬁcation of the t Most of the resistant determinants are located in target molecule and production of an alternative target.
mobile genetic elements and they may use commensal bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Enterococci as vehicles to transport in the population and transferred to pathogenic organisms. Altered target site Livestock professionals are at risk of acquiring exposure to AMR bacteria from the animals they work with. Eg : spread of Multi-Resistance Staphylococcus aureus in livestock professionals.
The most common reason for drug resistance is inappropriate use of antimicrobials. In developing countries socio-economic and behavioural factors also contribute largely where anti microbial resistance surveillance programs are in rudimentary stage or not existing. "Bypass" pathways Pharmaceutical industry is reluctant to develop new antimicrobial drugs. Their painful experience is that the Figure 01 : Four major biochemical mechanisms of costs of development are not recovered before the drugs antibiotic resistance.
are rendered ineﬃcient.
Antimicrobial resistance in animal population has been How to overcome AMR
recorded in several occasions in the past; Penicillin in 1974;
Trertacycline in 1997; Avoparacin in 1999; Bacitracin, Use of responsible and prudent use of antimicrobials in
Spiromycine, Tylosin, Viginiamycine, in 2000. Strain of human and Veterinary medicine is a critical component.
Salmonella enteric Typhimurium DT204b was found Early and exact diagnosis of infection, using appropriate
resistant to nine microbial drugs causing clinical disease, drug at the correct dosage, and knowledge on resistance
traced to pre-shredded important lettuce: 2012. Denmark
of bacteria are important concepts to be kept in mind, in surveillance study also reports that the monophasic order to prevent AMR.
Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from pigs had high resistance to Ampicillin (65%), Streptomycine (67%) and Sulphonamide (67%), Tetracycline (65%).
Vet. Epid. Bulletin SL Vol. 06 No. 03 The OIE Global Conference on "Responsible and Prudent use of antimicrobs in animals" held in 2013 concluded with following recommendations, quantities of antimicrobial agents used in food producing animals, products in interaction with competent authorities and ensure eﬃcient implementation.
t 4USFOHUIFO 7FUFSJOBSZ 4UBUVUPSZ #PEJFT DBQBDJUZ BOE BVUIPSJUZ UP JOTUJUVUF DPOUJOVJOH QSPGFTTJPOBM EFWFMPQNFOU and continuing education programs directed towards prudent use of antimicrobial agents and those that including diagnostic tests in animal health.
t 3FTFBSDI UP JNQSPWF UIF VOEFSTUBOEJOH PG UIF FċDBDZ PG DVSSFOU BOUJNJDSPCJBM BHFOUT XIJMF NJOJNJ[JOH UIF development of resistance and ﬁnd alternatives that could be used in animal production for antimicrobial agent substitutions.
combat animal diseases.
The World Animal Health Organization (OIE ) together with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nation (FAO) work closely under the "Tripartite Alliance" to address the AMR as a major critical issue inaddtion to the control of zoonosis. 1. Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistant Monitoring and Research Program (DANMAP), 2012. National Veterinary Institute, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark. 2. World Animal Health Organization (OIE ) Antimicrobial Resistant Portal( AMR) IUUQXXXPJFJOUGPSUIFNFEJBBNS 2. Status of Livestock Diseases 2.1 Bovine Diseases 2.1.1 Bovine Babesiosis A total of 800 cases of Bovine Babesiosis have been reported during the third Spatial Distribution of
quarter of 2013. The pre-immunization program continued with immunizing 1000 calves in this period. The animals were immunized against B. bovis and B. bigemina strains . Pre-immunization
No. of Animals
Vet. Epid. Bulletin SL Vol. 06 No. 03 2.1.2 Bovine Brucellosis : In the third Quarter 2013, there were 58 suspected Bovine Brucellosis cases
cases of Bovine Brucellosis; recorded at Padiyatalawa, Lankapura, Mannar, Musali, Vavuniya, Oddusuddan, Balangoda, Ambalantota, Siyambalanduwa, Mahara, Eastern Kalutara, and Marandagahamula Veterinary ranges. North Central RBPT is carried out at Veterinary Investigation Northern Center level as the screening test in suspected herds and as further conﬁrmatory testing, CFT Sabaragamuwa is carried out at Veterinary Research Institute. Southern Vacnication programme is implemented through Uva the respective Veterinary Investigation Centres at Western locations identiﬁed to be at risk.
2.1.3. Black Quarter A total of 19 Black Quarter cases were reported Black Quarter Cases
with a Case Fatality Rate at 100%. The extensive July- Sept 2013
outbreak was observed at Vavunia in which 15 cattle succumbed to death. Sporadic cases were detected in 3 separate localities at Kurunegala, Puttlam and Trincomalee. The Cattle Kurunegala population at risk were vaccinated to contain the disease, resulting in vaccination of 33,699 cattle in Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, Puttlam, Mannar, Mullaitivu, Vavuniya, Ampara, Total
Batticaloa, Trincomalee and Badulla districts. 2.1.4 Foot and Mouth Disease Bovine Brucellosis cases
Foot and Mouth Disease was not reported from any part of the country. Similarly there were no cases reported in the same period of 2012.The only outbreak during this year was detected at Uhana Veterinry range in Eastern Province during the month of June. Prophylactic vaccination program continued in the country with 12,8921 number of cattle, buﬀalo and goats being vaccinated during this period.
2.1.5 Mastitis : In the third quarter, 2013 a total of 3303 clinical Monthly distribution of cases of
cases of mastitis were reported. This is in Mastitis :July-Sept 2013
comparison to the 2935 cases reported in the same period in 2012. Locally prepared udder infusion lactating cow therapy, containing Ampicillin and Cloxacllin are issued at ﬁeld level and it contributes to reduce te cost involved in treating mastitis cases in cows.
Vet. Epid. Bulletin SL Vol. 06 No. 03 2.2 Caprine Diseases 2.2.1 Contagious Pustular Dermatitis : During the 3rd quarter of 2013, 441 cases Distribution of CPD Cases
of Contagious Pustular Dermatitis has been reported with death of 6 goats. More than 80% of the cases have been conﬁned to three provinces namely Northern, Eastern & North Central with few cases in other provinces.The same period in year 2012 reported 208 cases and 9 deaths.An auto vaccine is locally produced at District Veterinary Investigation Centre level, Total
based on the demand by relevant Veterinary Surgeon and also with the farmer cooperation.
2.3 Poultry Diseases 2.3.1 Fowl Pox : Fowl Pox is reported from all over the island with a total of 9412 cases. Ampara, Jaﬀna, Batticaloa, Colombo districts reports higher incidences. Fowl pox is a disease that can be easily prevented by vaccination. However, vaccination coverage appears to be very low and clinical cases are found very often witnessing the endemic status in the country.
Occurrence of Fowl Pox
Vet. Epid. Bulletin SL Vol. 06 No. 03 2.3.2 Gumboro Disease : Gumboro remains as the major poultry disease prevail in the country. Almost 8,000 birds succumbed to death during this three months period (July, Aug, Sept) due to this disease. In spite of large number of vaccines registered and used in the country, the disease is found in endemic status especially in poultry-belt area.
Distribution of Gumboro Cases : July-Sept 2013
2.3.3 Newcastle disease : A total of 6830 cases of NCD was reported with a 1% CFR during the period under review. Mullaitivu, Jaﬀna and Kurunegala Districts report higher incidence of the disease. NCD Vaccine is locally produced at VRI. A total of 1,817,600 vaccine doses were issued to the ﬁeld during this period. Apart from the hundred doses ampoules which are used free of charge in small scale operation, ﬁve hundred doses ampoules are also available at VRI for Rs. 100.00 to support the medium scale and large scale operation.
Occurrence of NCD : July-Sept 2013
2.3.4 Salmonellosis : A total of 9097 Salmonellsis cases Distribution of Salmonella Cases and
with a Case-Fatality Rate (CFR) at 2% Deaths : July-Sept 2013
has been reported in the third quarter 2013. This is in comparison to the 9122 cases and a same CFR in the July-Sept 2012. Preventive vaccination against Salmonellosis including Pulloram North Western disease and Fowl typhoid is carried out extensively in commercial poultry operation and also in limited number of Poultry Breeder Farms.
Vet. Epid. Bulletin SL Vol. 06 No. 03
3. 1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Inﬂuenza Surveillance Program : July-Sept 2013 Commercial Poultry Serum Pooled dropping and cloacal swabs No. tested for AIV * * Avian Inﬂuenza Virus
3.2 Global Distribution of Notiﬁable Avian Inﬂuenza: July-Sept 2013 Virus Type
Cambodia, Nepal, India 3.3 Global situation of HPAI outbreaks Resolved (domestic)
Continuing - (domestic)
No - information
Vet. Epid. Bulletin SL Vol. 06 No. 03 Gastro Intestinal micro-organisms with diﬀerent response to Antibiotics in animals and human
Dr. (Mrs.) Ranjani Hettiarachchi
Division of Animal Health, Department of Animal Production & Health. Dr. (Ms.) Bhagya Wickramasooriya Tel : 081- 2388317 Mrs. Ranjani Weerasinghe Editor:
Dr. Ranjani Hettiarachchi
Deputy Director Animal Health Department of Animal Production & Health, P.O. Box 13, Peradeniya.
E mail: [email protected] PRINTED AT KANDY OFFSET PRINTERS (PVT) LTD TEL : 081 23 89 880
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