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Mosquito managementPhillip A. Glogoza, Extension EntomologistDean K. McBride, Professor EmeritusAlbin W. Anderson, Professor Emeritus North Dakota State UniversityFargo, North Dakota 58105 At least 43 species of mosquitoes are known to
occur in North Dakota. Fortunately, only a few
species cause annoyance. Nevertheless, their presence affects people engaged in outdoor activities during the warm months of the year.
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Mosquitoes also annoy livestock and cause Life Cycle and Breeding Habits . . . . . 3
weight loss, reduce milk production, and hinder Mosquito Management . . . . . . . . 4
Besides the nuisance biting activities of Mosquito Repellent Guidelines . . . . 5 various mosquito species, there are several Area-Wide Management . . . . . . . 6 species in the genera Culex and Aedes that can Health Education . . . . . . . . . . . 6
transmit diseases such as St. Louis and Western Survey for Breeding Places . . . . . . . 6
Source Reduction and Habitat Alteration . 6
equine encephalitis to humans and horses, and heartworm to dogs. While Western equine en- Chemical Management Techniques . . . . 7
cephalitis does occur occasionally in North Pesticide Safety Measures . . . . . . . 8
Larval Control . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Dakota the disease is not common in the state.
Adult Control . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
However, during the1941 outbreak when en- cephalitis reached an all time high in the United Mist and Residual Sprays . . . . . . . 10 States and Canada, 1,101 people and 2,552 horses contracted the disease in North Dakota with a Aerial Spraying for Mosquitoes Over mortality rate of 13 percent (139 deaths) in humans and 21 percent (549 deaths) in horses.
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Practically all cases were the Western type en- The danger of outbreaks of diseases such as The information given in this publication is supplied with encephalitis (sleeping sickness) in people and the understanding that no discrimination is intended andno endorsement by the NDSU Extension Service is implied. horses is always possible. Fortunately, the North The authors have assembled the most reliable information Dakota State Health Department maintains an available to them at time of publication. However, due toconstantly changing pesticide laws and the fact that we encephalitis surveillance program in the state have no control over insecticide use and the manner or during high risk periods of the summer season.
conditions under which they are used, we assume no Their program includes surveillance efforts to responsibility for personal injury, property damage, orother type of loss resulting from the handling or use of the determine the presence or absence of the West insecticides listed herein. Nile virus in North Dakota.
The pesticide user is always responsible for the effects of Individual homeowners can do much to residue as well as for problems that could arise from off-target movement of the pesticides being applied. Always reduce mosquitoes in their yard areas. Such read and follow carefully the instructions given on the efforts should be supplemented by an area-wide pesticide label. community mosquito management program conducted by trained personnel.
Life Cycle and Breeding Habits
The most abundant mosquitoes in North Dakota Anopheles) lay their eggs on the water surface.
are the Aedes (Figure 1) temporary pool water breed- Several generations are produced each summer. The ers. They lay their eggs singly on damp soil near adults overwinter in protected areas.
water. Like all mosquitoes they pass through four life The adults emerge from the pupal cases, the stages; egg, larva (four stages or instars), pupa and wings expand and after a few hours the exoskeleton adult. In North Dakota they overwinter in the egg becomes hardened enough for flight. The female then stage. All mosquitoes live in water continuously from seeks a blood meal from man or animal; the blood the time the eggs hatch through the larval (wiggler) aids in egg development. Adults often rest in weeds, and pupal stages until the adults emerge. Multiple tall grass or other vegetation but never reproduce generations are possible. They are found in shallow there. After a few days the females return to their water with abundant vegetation above and/or on the preferred pools to deposit eggs and the cycle begins water surface, where there is a fluctuating water level, and they are protected from wave action. Roadside Depending on the amount of light and tempera- ditches are common breeding sites. They do not live ture, the cycle from egg to adult may take one to four in running water or deep, open waters of lakes and Adult mosquitoes are strong fliers. They can Mosquito eggs, if not flooded one season, can move long distances away from their breeding sites, survive for several years until they are flooded.
although they usually go only far enough to find a The other types of mosquito occurring in North blood meal. Mosquito movement is aided by winds Dakota are permanent water breeders (Figure 2).
and is a common method of wide area dispersal from These permanent water types (Culex, Culiseta and rural to urban areas.
(adults survive an eggs in damp soil
average of 30 days) subject to periodic flooding
(overwinter as eggs) larvae or wigglers
pupae or tumblers
Figure 1. Life cycle of temporary water breeders (Aedes). Adult, egg, larva and pupa.
Mosquitoes found inside the house can be killed Mosquitoes are attracted by perspiration, with any good household spray labeled for control of warmth, body odor, carbon dioxide, and incandescent flying insects indoors. Space sprays or aerosols light. Repellents can protect humans from mosquito containing synergized pyrethrins or synthetic pyre- bites for one to five hours, depending on the type throids are effective.
used, amount of perspiration and rubbing of the skin, An aerosol bomb containing pyrethrum is easy and abundance of mosquitoes. Cover the area of skin to use. Best results are obtained if doors and windows to be protected evenly, because mosquitoes will find are kept closed during and for five to 10 minutes after and bite untreated spots. Spray on the outer clothing spraying. Only products labeled for flying insect and on exposed parts of the body. Keep repellents control should be used. Residual spray products away from the eyes, nostrils and lips. Repellents may labeled for control of crawling insects are also often damage plastics, synthetic fabrics, nail polish and packaged in aerosol bombs; these products are certain painted or varnished surfaces. Repellents used hazardous if sprayed into the air, even if the windows in commercial products include DEET (N, N-Diethyl- and doors are open. Avoid spray on food, dishes and Metatoluamide), permethrin, citronella, eucalyptus, other eating utensils.
and other "natural" ingredients.
Be sure to keep windows, doors and porches DEET is the most common and effective repel- tightly screened to exclude as many mosquitoes as lent. Products are available in varying concentrations, ranging from 7.5 to 95 percent DEET. Both can bedetermined easily because the active ingredients and (eggs laid on water surface) (survive for 50+ days) larvae or wigglers
pupae or tumblers
Figure 2. Life cycle of permanent water type breeders.
percent concentration are on the product label. Lowerconcentration products are generally adequate formost outdoor activities. DEET should not be used Mosquito Repellent Guidelines
indiscriminately as severe allergies can develop. It is
recommended that only products containing lower
■ Use just enough repellent to cover concentrations of DEET (less than 15%) should be
exposed skin and clothing. Do not use used for children.
repellents under your clothing. Do not
Permethrin is a repellent that is applied to outer
apply permethrin-based products to
clothing only and is not applied to skin.
Repellents that contain citronella, eucalyptus, ■ Frequent re-application and saturation and other "natural" ingredients provide only moderate is unnecessary for effectiveness.
protection against mosquito bites. Their benefits are Prolonged use should be avoided.
weak and short-lived, lasting as little as 10 to 20minutes. All of these products are less effective than ■ Always keep repellents out of the reach of children. Children should not be Potential Adverse Reaction to Repellents: allowed to use repellents without adult Repellents may be absorbed through the skin and in supervision. Repellents should not
rare instances cause illness. Some individuals may be used on infants.
experience skin irritation or allergic reactions after ■ Never use repellents on cuts, wounds, exposure to any of the repellent products. There have abrasions, or on sunburnt or irritated been a small number of reports of adverse reactions following repeated topical applications of products ■ Do not apply repellents to eyes and containing DEET. Symptoms reported in cases mouth. Do not spray directly over the involving small children were headache, crying, face. Avoid application near food. Do
irritability, confusion, mood changes, and nausea.
not apply to the hands of young
Ingestion of DEET has resulted in symptoms such as children; they are more prone to
low blood pressure, seizures, and unconsciousness.
putting their fingers in their mouths.
These cases were the result of deliberate ingestion of ■ Avoid breathing spray mist or vapors in the product or accidental ingestion by children.
enclosed areas such as cars, tents, Other Methods for Repelling or Trapping Mosquitoes: Several area repellents are currentlyavailable and may be used to discourage activity by ■ After returning indoors, wash treated mosquitoes around patios or yards. The active ingre- skin with soap and water or bathe. this dients in these products are most often citronella.
is more important when repellents While these products should not be used indoors, their have been used repeatedly on a given greatest benefit may be when used in screened-in day or on consecutive days.
porches or other areas where air movement is limited.
■ Do not reuse empty containers. Do not Controlled research studies conducted in an open area incinerate aerosol cans.
found that they were ineffective at reducing the bitingpressure of mosquitoes (Lindsay et al. 1996).
Evaluations of electronic and ultrasonic repeller devices have indicated there is no significant effect on octenol, and other chemicals to attract mosquitoes mosquito behavior that results in reduction or elimi- more effectively. The scented geranium plant, nation of biting activity. Traps which use ultraviolet Pellargonium spp., more commonly known as the light as an attractant ("black light bug zappers") are Citrosa "Mosquito Fighter" plant, has not proven to not effective in reducing the biting mosquito popula- be effective at repelling mosquitoes from an area.
tion. However, there are modifications of this trappingconcept currently being marketed that use CO , Mosquito management on an area-wide basis is a complex problem which should be directed byprofessionals with support from the private sector.
Source Reduction and
The administration of community programs must beflexible. This flexibility should, however, be based on established principles of good mosquito management.
Many mosquito problems can be permanently A number of techniques are available, depending on reduced by either eliminating breeding places or the target species involved and the priorities which altering the habitat to reduce the potential numbers of have been established. For example, the control of larvae which could survive. This might mean clearing species involved as disease vectors can be quite a a shoreline of vegetation which could provide a different problem from that of species which are natural harbor for larvae. Eliminating a source of strictly nuisance biters.
organic pollution will alter a breeding place to notonly deprive larvae of nutrients but also to provide anenvironment favorable for mosquito. Under no circumstances should a body of water be drained oran area filled until permission has been obtained All good public health programs must include from the local drainage board and until the area has education of the public for understanding and support.
definitely been established as a breeding site for This is especially important for mosquito control problem species.
programs, because homeowners can help greatly by The following practices may be used to reduce eliminating breeding sources of mosquitoes on their mosquito breeding sites: own property. In areas where extensive breeding 1. Ditch and clean stagnant streams to ensure a occurs in containers on private property, the effective- continuous flow of water to eliminate border ness of any community-wide effort directed at public vegetation which produces habitat for mosquito property alone will be reduced or destroyed without homeowner participation. It is, therefore, of utmost 2. Drain or fill back-water pools and swamps importance to inform citizens of ways to help.
where stagnant water accumulates. Sanitary Survey for Breeding Places
landfills which can often be used in suchlocations will eliminate mosquito breeding sites An effective community-wide mosquito man- and improve the value of the land. Check with agement program cannot be planned or implemented the North Dakota State Health Department until a survey is made to locate the major breeding before establishing such landfills.
places of problem mosquitoes. Mosquito surveys takea great deal of time and work but are well worth the 3. Since all mosquitoes breed in shallow quiet effort. Though mosquitoes usually require standing water, remove vegetation and debris from along water for breeding, it is not true that mosquitoes will the shores of the lakes and ponds to discourage be produced in every body of standing water. A mosquito breeding. Such bodies of water should survey will identify those breeding sites which must have a steep clean shoreline with as little be eliminated or treated. This will avoid unnecessary vegetation as possible. Weed killers may be used intrusion upon areas which need not be treated, in some cases to eliminate or prevent emergent thereby preserving the environment and saving the plant growth.
taxpayers' money. Since the most efficient manage-
ment programs concentrate on control of mosquito
larvae rather than adult mosquitoes, the survey is an
■ Remove water holding containers such as old tires, tin cans, buckets, drums, and bottles.
■ Cover trash containers to exclude rain Chemical control is, at best, a temporary expedi- ■ Clean clogged roof gutters and drain ent which should be limited to situations which offer no other alternatives. In general, chemical control canbe divided into two major operations. The first, ■ Empty wading pools at least once a larviciding, is the most efficient and effective and week and store indoors when not in should be the backbone of any good chemical pro- gram. The second, adulticiding, is less efficient and ■ Properly care for backyard pools; should be used strictly for supplemental or emergency schedule proper maintenance while on purposes. Detection of active transmission of a mosquito-borne disease is an example of such an ■ Change the water in bird baths and emergency. The North Dakota State Health Depart- fountains at least once a week.
ment routinely monitors levels of arbovirus transmis-sion throughout the state and may be contacted for ■ Consider stocking ornamental pools information on the status of disease transmission.
A number of insecticides have been registered ■ Fill in or drain low areas in yards to for use in mosquito control. The relative value of discourage puddles.
chemical control varies with the mosquito species and ■ Keep drains, ditches, and culverts environmental conditions at the location where clean of weeds and trash to allow control is to be applied. Because each situation proper drainage.
differs, care must be taken to select the proper insecti- ■ Repair leaky outdoor faucets and cide for a particular situation. Some factors to be considered include: effectiveness against target ■ Trim shrubs and trees to discourage species (resistance problems); relative toxicity to man mosquitoes from resting on foliage.
and domestic animals (impact on non-target organ-isms); contamination of garden or fruit; cost; avail-ability in quantities needed; need for residual actionin some situations; chemical stability; flammability;ease of preparation; corrosiveness; and offensiveodor, staining etc.
Resistance can be a problem in mosquito control, especially when using some of the organo-phosphate compounds. However, before assuming thatresistance is the cause of poor control, it must beestablished that poor control is not caused by otherfactors such as improper identification of mosquitoes,spray techniques, lack of knowledge about insecthabits, or faulty source reduction procedures. Anydecrease in susceptibility should be substantiated incarefully controlled tests before changing either thetoxicant or the application procedure.
Mosquito breeding sites that are undesirable or Pesticide Safety Measures
impossible to alter or eliminate may be treated withan appropriate larvicide. Table 2 lists the mosquito The key to the safety of humans and other larvicides recommended for use in North Dakota.
nontarget organisms is knowledge of the hazards Larvicides should be applied only at sites where involved in handling and applying pesticides. The mosquito larvae of the proper target life stage are relative toxicity of pesticides is often measured using present. In addition, the degree of control obtained acute oral LD values. These values represent the with larvicide applications often depends on the lethal oral dose of pesticide required to kill 50 percent amount of pollution and the type and amount of of a test animal population (usually laboratory rats).
vegetative cover present. Where cover is heavy, They are given in milligram of toxicant per kilogram granular formulations frequently provide better of body weight of the test animal. Table 1 lists the control than emulsions or oil sprays. Repeated acute oral LD values for the insecticides registered treatments with some of these insecticides may be for mosquito control in North Dakota.
needed, especially after heavy rainfall. Generally, All pesticides must be handled in such a way three or four treatments each season will be needed.
that any possibility of harm to nontarget organisms For proper mixing instructions, application rates, and (including man), either through contamination of food precautions, all label directions should be read and and water or by contact, is kept to a minimum. Always followed carefully. Application rates may vary de- read the label before using any pesticide. Follow all
directions carefully when you prepare and apply the
Table 1. Toxicity and hazard of selected
■ Wear protective clothing to avoid prolonged or dangerous exposure to pesticides.
■ Take care to avoid contamination of foods or drinking water of man and animals.
■ Keep application equipment clean and in good tralomethrin* (Saga) deltamethrin* (Suspend) ■ Store pesticides only in their original contain- (Mosquitomist, Dursban, Empire) ers with the proper label and out of reach of fenthion* (Baytex) children and animals.
■ Dispose of empty containers properly and know the emergency measures for treating accidental poisoning and cleaning up of spills cyfluthrin* (Tempo) or other pesticide contamination.
malathion (Fyfanon*) Many chemical insecticides registered for use in resmethrin* (Scourge, Oblique) mosquito control are toxic to birds, fish, and other temephos* (Abate) wildlife, so appropriate precautions must be taken. In permethrin (Biomist*, Permanone) addition, most of these insecticides are toxic to bees sumithrin* (Anvil) exposed to direct treatment or to residues on crops.
methroprene (Altosid) In making applications, exercise care to avoid getting Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis any of these insecticides on food or feed crop areas.
(Bactimos, Teknar, Vectobac, Instructions on the label will give precautions or restrictions while using insecticides for mosquito Bacillus sphaericus (VectoLex) * to be applied by licensed, certified pesticide applicators1 George W. Ware. 1994. The Pesticide Book, 4th edition. ThomsonPublications; Fresno, CA.
Table 2. Larvicides for use on mosquito breeding waters.
A bacterial larvacide that is non-toxic and will not harm non- target, beneficial organisms. Higher rates are recommended in water with high organic content (e.g., sewage disposal systems, waste lagoons). Pretreatment is recommended when 0.2% CG, 0.2% G, 12% AS larval populations are high, aquatic vegetation is dense, orthe water is highly polluted with organic material.
A bacterial larvacide that is effective against Culexmosquitoes and others. It is non-toxic and will not harmnon-target, beneficial organisms. It has proven effective inwastewater, stormwater, drainage, marsh, and pond habitats.
SR 5 and SR 20 (liquid Methoprene is an insect growth regulator (IGR). It is active concentrates); XR (2%), against 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instar larvae. It has no effect when XRG (1.5%), and briquets applied to pupal or adult mosquitoes. The effect on larval (8.6%); pellets (4.25%) mosquitoes is developmental. Treated larvae continue todevelop normally to the pupal stage, at which time they die,preventing them from emerging as adult mosquitoes.
aliphatic petroleum distillate**
Specially refined oil for use as a mosquito larvicide. Thisproduct is applied around borders of aquatic areas and inshallow water. Do not apply to fish hatcheries. Petroleum oilsmay produce an unsightly appearance and should not be usedwhen this condition is objectionable.
BG (1%, 2%, and 5%), An organophosphate insecticide that can be used in conjuction with other larvacide programs. Application ratesvary with water's organic content. When applied at label ratesthere is no effect on non-target organisms.
100% MonoMolecular Film AGNIQUE® MMF uses a non-toxic, physical action tocontrol both disease-carrying and nuisance mosquitoes. It hasthe ability to spread quickly and completely across thewater's surface. This film reduces the surface tension of thewater and makes it difficult for the larvae and pupae toattach. The film also blocks their breathing tubes causing thelarvae and pupae to drown. Resting males and egg-layingfemales that come in contact with the film will also drown.
When the correct amount has been applied, there will be nobreaks or gaps in the film from which mosquitoes canemerge.
* G = granular; WDC = water dispersible concentrate; CG = celatom granular; AS = aqueous suspension; WDG = water dispersable granule; XR = extended release; XRG = extended residual granule; BG = Biodac (recycled paper) granule.
** to be applied by licensed, certified pesticide applicators pending on the extent of vegetative cover and/or insecticides recommended for use as thermal fogs.
degree of pollution of the water to be treated.
With the increased use of ultra-low volume (ULV) Granular larvicides can be applied from the air cold aerosol application techniques, thermal fogs have over unpopulated areas. Granules can also be applied become less desirable for reasons stated in the ULV by crank-operated spreaders similar to those used for spreading seeds and fertilizers. Knapsack or otherhand sprayers which can be carried by field workers Mist and Residual Sprays
may be used for liquid formulations. Power sprayers Mist and residual sprays are applied in water or may be satisfactory if advantage is taken of the wind oil with mist blowers, pump sprayers, power back- so that the larvicide drifts into desired water areas.
packs, or hand sprayers. Mist blowers are power Avoid larvicide treatment of fish-bearing waters.
sprayers that produce an air mass across liquid spraydroplets, breaking them up and blowing them into thetreatment area. In addition to the kill of active adultmosquitoes, small amounts of material are deposited on vegetation, providing some residual control. Table Thermal Fogs
4 lists the insecticides recommended for use as mistand residual sprays. For proper mixing instructions, Fogging provides a rapid, temporary control for application rates, and precautions, all label directions adult mosquitoes but has little residual effect. Ther- should be read and followed carefully.
mal fog generators break up the insecticide by means Residues from spray deposits remain active for of hot gases or superheated steam to produce a fog or several days to several weeks. The duration of activity smoke. They are effective only when there is little or is affected by environmental factors such as rain, high no wind in the evening or night. Table 3 lists the Table 3. Insecticides for use as thermal fogs for adult mosquito control.
Apply a 300 foot swath with a vehicle speed of 5 mph. Productis applied in No. 2 fuel oil, diesel, or kerosene-type fuel.
Deliver 40 gallons per hour at a vehicle speed of 5 mph to treata swath width of 300 to 400 feet. Variation in fuel oils necessi-tates testing oil solubility and sludge to prevent clogging valvesof the thermal fog machine. Large droplets or undilutedFyfanon ULV will permanently damage automobile finishes byleaving spots.
Deliver 40 gallons per hour at a vehicle speed of 5 mph to treata swath of 300 to 400 feet. Faster speeds with greater deliveryrates are labeled. Apply in No. 2 fuel oil or diesel oil. If appliedincorrectly, naled concentrate will spot certain automobilefinishes.
sumithrin + piperonyl butoxide**
2+2 ULV, 10+10 ULV Apply product diluted in diesel fuel using vehicle mounted,thermal ULV equipment. Rate of application and appropriatedilution will vary with formulation selected.
* ULV = ultra low volume; C = Concentrate** to be applied by licensed, certified pesticide applicators temperatures or exposure to strong sunlight, which parks, playgrounds, residences, or even subdivisions may reduce their longevity. Residual sprays can be to help reduce adult mosquito populations. For best applied as barrier treatments to tall grasses, weeds, results, treat areas just before the period of maximum shrubs, fences, and other harborages surrounding Table 4. Mist sprays with some residual action for adult mosquito control.
4 L, 4 F, XLR, 50 WP, Treat when adult mosquitoes are active in the early morning or at dusk. Do not allow public use of treated areas duringapplication or until sprays have dried.
50W**, Pro**, and Homeowner formulations will no longer be available after Dec., various homeowner 2001. The residual spray solution is applied to outside building surfaces and vegetation listed on labels.
Spray solution is applied to damp areas beneath shubs, in areasof tall grass or weeds, and on other surfaces where mosquitoesrest outdoors. Do not apply to food crops or fish inhabitingwaters.
Spray solution is applied to surfaces where adult mosquitoesrest. It may be used on walls in areas such as carports, garages,storage sheds unoccupied horse stables and pet kennels. Lawnand ornamental application is permitted; do not apply thisproduct to edible crops.
Application is made to surfaces where mosquitoes rest duringthe day. Car finishes may be damaged; wash exposed finishesimmediately.
Treatments may be made as mist or surface applications. Misttreatments may be applied in structures and livestock facilities.
For indoor treatments, vacate treated areas after application and ventilate prior to re-entering. Outdoor surface treatments shouldbe applied to areas where mosquitoes rest. Spray surfaces to thepoint of run-off. Treat no more than once every two weeks.
many formulations Diluted Sprays amd RTU formulations may be used indoors to treat walls, ceilings and other areas where mosquitoes may rest.
Outdoors, direct sprays into tall grass, shrubbery and aroundlawns where mosquitoes hover or rest. Apply while the air is still and avoid wetting foliage. Applications should be made prior touse of the treated area.
* WP= wettable powder; EC = emulsifiable concentrate; LC = liquid concentrate; SC = suspended concentrate; S = sprayable; RTU = ready to use; F = flowable; L = liquid, XLR=extra long residual, ULV =ultra low volume.
** to be applied by licensed, certified pesticide applicators Aerial Spraying for Mosquitoes
Ground equipment capable of producing ULV Over Populated Areas
cold aerosols is available. These machines produce a Approval of two separate governmental units in very tiny droplet of high concentrate insecticide North Dakota is required by law prior to aerial which results in a greater area coverage with less spraying of pesticides over any incorporated city.
dosage. This type of application is designed to kill These agencies are the FAA Flight Standards District active adult mosquitoes and provides little or no Office in Fargo and the North Dakota State Depart- residual control. Like the thermal fog generator, the ment of Health in Bismarck.
cold aerosol machine should be used during the time For FAA approval, the pilot who will be doing the adult mosquito is most active. This means from the spraying must complete an application that twilight until about midnight, when atmospheric describes the aircraft, the pilot's experience, the area conditions are usually best (lack of wind).
to be sprayed and potential flight hazards. Pilot A ULV application is generally the preferred requests for application information and forms should space treatment for adult mosquito control. The cold aerosol method has certain advantages over thermal FAA Flight Standards District Office
fog generators. Less insecticide is applied, resulting in 1801 23rd Av. N
fewer pollution problems. Smaller holding tanks and Fargo, ND 58502
consequently smaller vehicles are needed since Phone: (701) 235-5191
smaller quantities of insecticide are used. Thereis a reduced traffic hazard when compared to the Officials of the municipality to be sprayed must near-zero visibility created by fog applications.
obtain approval from the North Dakota State Depart- ULV ground applications, however, are somewhat ment of Health. Information required for approval of less effective than thermal fogs in heavy vegetation, spraying includes the following: because the larger ULV droplets tend to be filtered 1. Target pest to be controlled.
out more rapidly. Table 5 lists the insecticidesrecommended for use as ULV cold aerosols. For 2. Aerial applicator name, pilot's name, address proper mixing instructions, application rates, and and phone number.
precautions, all label directions should be read and 3. Name of pesticide, concentration to be used, rate followed carefully.
and method of application.
4. Proposed date of treatment.
5. Date and method of public notice.
Application of adulticides by fixed-wing aircraft or helicopter is also common and is useful under 6. Signature(s) of public official(s) accepting emergency conditions or if treatment areas are too responsibility for the spraying.
large or are inaccessible for economical treatment Municipality requests for application information and with ground power equipment. Best results are forms should be made to: obtained in areas without dense tree cover so thatspray particles can penetrate the low shrub zone where the greatest mosquito activity occurs. To obtain North Dakota State Department of Health
uniform coverage of an area, carefully preplanned Division of Air Quality
flight patterns, altitudes, and air speeds are essential.
Applications should not be made over a food or feed Bismarck, North Dakota 58506-5520
crop area or populated areas unless the insecticide is labeled for that use. Label directions regardingapplication over fish-bearing waters should befollowed. Table 6 lists the insecticides recommendedfor aerial application. For proper mixing instructions,application rates, and precautions, all label directionsshould be read and followed carefully.
Table 5. Cold aerosols for use in ULV ground equipment for adult mosquito control.
One ULV, 1.5 ULV, Applications to residential, recreational, and non-cropland sites are made during the cool hours of the night or early morningwhile mosquitoes are active. Application rate will depend onformulation selected.
Deliver 1 to 4 gallons per hour at a vehicle speeds ranging from5 to 20 mph to treat a swath width of 300 feet. At 5 mph, theflow rate of Fyfanon is 1 to 2 fluid ounces per minute. Refer tothe label for additional rates and ground speed. Large dropletsor undiluted Fyfanon ULV will permanently damage automobilefinishes by leaving spots.
Product is for mosquito control in residential areas, municipali-ties, tidal marshes, woodlands, agricultural areas, livestockpastures, feed lots, and pastures including dairy cattle. It is notnecessary to avoid farm buildings, dairy barns, feed or forage areas. Treat shrubbery and vegetation where mosquitoes mayrest. Apply using vehicle mounted, non-thermal ULV equip-ment. Rate of application will vary with formulation selected.
If applied incorrectly, naled concentrate will spot certainautomobile finishes.
permethrin + piperonyl butoxide**
Apply using vehicle mounted, non-thermal ULV equipment.
Apply when there is a light breeze (<10 mph). Apply early 1.5% S,4% S, 3% S, morning and evening. This product is not to be used within 100 feet of lakes and streams. Do not apply directly to water orwetlands (swamps, bogs, marshes, and potholes). Allow 24 10% EC, 31-66 EC, RTU hours before retreating. Rate of application will vary withformulation selected.
Apply the undiluted product using vehicle mounted, non-thermal ULV equipment. Apply when there is a light breeze(5 to 10 mph). Apply early morning and evening. Application ofthis undiluted product to any body of water is prohibited.
resmethrin + piperonyl butoxide **
Spray parks, campsites, woodlands, athletic fields, golf courses,residential areas, and municipalities. For use with non-thermaltruck or backpack equipment designed to deliver fog particles.
Do not spray cropland or feed, avoid application over lakes,ponds, and streams. The 18% + 54% formulation may be mixedwith refined soybean oil, light mineral oil, or other suitablesolvent or diluent.
sumithrin + piperonyl butoxide**
2+2 ULV, 10+10 ULV Apply product using vehicle mounted, non-thermal ULVequipment. Rate of application will vary with formulationselected.
* EC = emulsifiable concentrate; S = sprayable; RTU = ready to use; ULV = ultra low volume; C = Concentrate.
** to be applied by licensed, certified pesticide applicators Table 6. Adult mosquito control using aerial equipment.
One ULV, 1.5 ULV, Aerial applications are made at an altitude of 300 feet. Rates per acre will depend on formulation selected. Applications toresidential, recreational, and non-cropland sites are made duringthe cool hours of the night or early morning while mosquitoesare active.
Apply at a rate of 2.6 to 3.0 fluid ounces per acre over cities,towns, and other areas where automobiles, trailers, trucks, andpleasure boats are present. Large droplets or undiluted FyfanonULV will permanently damage automobile finishes by leavingspots.
Aerial application must be made with closed cockpit aircraft.
Air speed should be in excess of 100 mph. Rate of applicationwill vary with formulation selected. Product is for use inmosquito control in residential areas, municipalities, tidalmarshes, woodlands, agricultural areas, livestock pastures, feed lots, and pastures including dairy cattle. It is not necessaryto avoid farm buildings, dairy barns, feed or forage areas. Treatshrubbery and vegetation where mosquitoes may rest. If appliedincorrectly, naled concentrate will spot certain automobilefinishes.
permethrin + piperonyl butoxide**
Apply at an altitude of 165 feet when there is a light breeze(<10 mph). Apply early morning and evening. This product is not to be used within 100 feet of lakes and streams. Do notapply directly to water or wetlands (swamps, bogs, marshes, and 1.5% S,4% S, 3% S, potholes). Allow 24 hours before retreating. Rate of application will vary with formulation selected.
resmethrin + piperonyl butoxide **
This product is used in specially designed aircraft capable ofapplying ULV spray formulations. Spray parks, campsites,woodlands, athletic fields, golf courses, residential areas, andmunicipalities. Do not spray cropland or feed, avoid applicationover lakes, ponds, and streams. The 18% + 54% formulationmay be mixed with refined soybean oil, light mineral oil, orother suitable solvent or diluent.
sumithrin + piperonyl butoxide**
2+2 ULV, 10+10 ULV For use in residential and recreational areas around inlets,creeks, swamps and marshes. Rate of application will vary withformulation selected.
* EC = emulsifiable concentrate; S = sprayable; RTU = ready to use; ULV = ultra low volume; C = Concentrate.
** to be applied by licensed, certified pesticide applicators Darsie, R.F. and A.W. Anderson. 1985. A Revised List of the Mosquitoes of North Dakota,Including New Additions to the Fauna. J. Am. Mosq.
Control Assoc. 1:76-79.
Landis, J. N., and L. G. Olsen. 1989. Mosquito control: a manual for commercial pesticide applica-tors. Michigan State University Extension Bulletin E-2180.
Lindsay, L. R., G. A. Surgeoner, J. D. Heal, and G. J. Gallivan. 1996. Evaluation of the efficacy of 3%citronella candles and 5% citronella incense forprotection agains field populations of Aedes mosqui-toes. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 12: 293-294.
Lyon, William F., et. al. 1996. Mosquito Pest Management. Ohio State University ExtensionBulletin No. 641.
Post, Richard L. and J.A. Munro. 1949. Mosqui- toes of North Dakota, N.D. Agricultural ExperimentStation Bimonthly Bulletin. Vol. XI, No. 5 Spackman, Everett W. 1985. Mosquito Control.
University of Wyoming Ag. Extension Bulletin B-847.
Ware, George W. 1994. The Pesticide Book, 4th edition. Thomson Publications; Fresno, CA.
Emergency Telephone Numbers
Poison Control Centers
North Dakota Poison Hotline Minnesota Poison Hotline In Case of a Pesticide Spill Call: 1-800-472-2121
■ Location of incident.
■ Identity of material involved.
■ Time incident occurred.
■ Source of spill.
■ Volume of material and duration.
■ Movement of material — present and anticipated.
■ Nearby surface water wells.
NDSU Extension Service, North Dakota State University of Agriculture and Applied Science, and U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating.
Sharon D. Anderson, Director, Fargo, North Dakota. Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. We offerour programs and facilities to all persons regardless of race, color, national origin, religion, sex, disability, age, Vietnam era veterans status, orsexual orientation; and are an equal opportunity employer. This publication will be made available in alternative format upon request to people with disabilities (701) 231-7881.
J Mol ModelDOI 10.1007/s00894-010-0698-4 Investigating reaction pathways in rare events simulationsof antibiotics diffusion through protein channels Eric Hajjar & Amit Kumar & Paolo Ruggerone &Matteo Ceccarelli Received: 1 December 2009 / Accepted: 27 February 2010 # Springer-Verlag 2010 Abstract In Gram-negative bacteria, outer-membrane pro- further simulations. This will benefit the screening and design