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Microsoft word - m.sc. pharmaceutical chemistry.docM.Sc. Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Pharmaceutical Engineering –I 3(3-0-0)
General Pharmacology 3(3-0-0)
Organic Chemistry 3(3-0-0)
Physical chemistry 3(3-0-0)
Biophysical chemistry 3(3-0-0)
Organic chemistry Practical 2(0-0-4)
Physical chemistry Practical 2(0-0-4)
Pharmaceutical Engineering-II 3(3-0-0)
Organic Synthesis 3(3-0-0)
Inorganic Chemistry 3(3-0-0)
Pharmaceutical Engineering Practical 2(0-0-4)
Inorganic chemistry Practical 2(0-0-4)
Biochemistry Practical 2(0-0-4)
Medicinal chemistry-I 3(3-0-0)
Medicinal chemistry-II 3(3-0-0)
Physical Pharmacy 3(3-0-0)
Pharmaceutical Analysis 3(3-0-0)
Pollution control and waste treatment 3(3-0-0)
Pharmaceutical Analysis Practical 2(0-0-4)
Drug Synthesis and Natural Product extraction Practical 2(0-0-4)
Summer Placement report *No Grading Marked as Satisfactory/ Sot Satisfactory Semester IV
Pharmaceutical Technology 3(3-0-0)
Medicinal Chemistry-III 3(3-0-0)
Drug design and Drug Development 3(3-0-0)
Pharmaceutical Technology Practical 2(0-0-4)
* No- Grading; marked as Satisfactory/ Not-Satisfactory SEMESTER-I
Pharmaceutical Engineering-I PHA-711
1. Flow of Fluids : Types of flow, Reynolds Number, Velocity distribution in pipes.
Viscosity and its units. Bernoullis equation, concept of friction, friction factor, friction loss due to sudden enlargement and sudden contraction. 2. Transportation of Fluids : Different types of pumps; Positive Displacement Pumps,
Reciprocating pump, Rotary Pumps, Centrifugal Pumps, Suction Head and Net Positive Suction Head, blowers and valves. Flow meters; orificemeter venturimeter, piotot tube, Rotameter. 3. Heat Transfer : Modes of Heat Transfer, Conduction, Convection & Radiation, Heat
Transfer by Conduction, Thermal Resistance in series under steady state conditions,
Conduction through thick walled tube. Conduction through a sphere. Heat Transfer by
convection. Natural Convection, Forced Convection, Heat Transfer Equipment, Heat
Exchanger shell and Tube Heat Exchanger, Plate Type Heat Exchanger
4. Mass Transfer : Introduction, Fick's Law, mass transfer in binary mixtures through a
stationary gas, diffusion in liquids, mass transfer across a phase boundary, two film theory. 5. Measuring Instruments
(a) Temperature Measurements : Solid rod thermometer, Bimetallic thermometer,
Electric resistance thermometer, thermo electric sensors (Thermo couple).
(b) Viscosity Measurement : Capillary tube viscometer, Efflux type viscometer,
rotating concentric cylinder viscometer, variable area viscometer. (c) Specific gravity & Density measurement: Bubbler system, hydrometer method,
total immersed float method, Nuclear absorption method, Fixed volume method. (d) Liquid Level Measurement: Dip stick method, Sight glass method, Hook Gauge,
(e) Pressure Measurements: Liquid column manometers, Elastic element pressure
measurement devices, Pressure transducers. 6. Crystallization : Growth and Properties of Crystals, Saturation, Nucleation,
Crystallization rate, Fractional Crystallization, types of cyrstallizers. 7. Mixing and Homogenisation : Fluid mixing mechanisms and equipment, their
classification and feasibility of selection based upon Reynolds, Froude and power numbers; Equipment for solid mixing. Study of following mixers; planetary mixer, agitator, triple roller mill, propellor mixer, Pharmaceutical applications of Mixing. Books Recommended :
1. McCabe W.L., Smith J.C., Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, Fifth Edition, McGraw Hill International Edition New York. 2. Coulson J.M., Richardson J.F., Chemical Engineering, Volume 1 & 4, Fifth edition, Pergamon Press, New York. 3. Peter Max, Elementary Chemical Engineering, Second Edition. 4. Nakra B.C. and Chaudhry K.K., Instrumentation Measurement and Analysis, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi. General Pharmacology PHA-712
Credits : 3
1. Introduction of Human Physiology in relation to drug action, Sources and nature of drugs, routes of administration, factors influencing doses and drug actions. 2. Pharmacokinetics : Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs.
3. Pharmacodynamics : Mechanism of drug action and sites of drug action including
membrane and receptor concepts.
4. Classification of drugs acting on following systems and the pharmacology of prototype drugs with respect to pathophysiology of concerned system. i. Central nervous system : General anaesthetics, methods of giving anaesthesia,
stages of anaesthesia, narcotic analgesics, sedatives & hypnotics, barbiturate poisoning and treatment. ii. Autonomic Nervous System : Cholinergic drugs, adrenergic drugs, Drugs used
in myasthenia gravis. iii. Gastrointestinal Tract : Antacids, laxatives and antidiarroeals.
iv. Cardiovascular : Anti-anginals and antihypertensive drugs.
v. Respiratory system : Anti-asthmatic agents, expectorants and antitussive agents.
vi. Kidneys : Diuretics and antidiuretics.
vii. Blood : Haematinics, coagulants and anti-coagulants
viii.Chemotherapy : Sulphonamides (General Pharmacology, mechanism of action)
and penicillins, B-lactam antibiotics. BOOKS RECOMMENDED :
1. Pharmacology by P.C. Dandya and S.K. Kulkarni, Vallabh Prakashan, New Delhi.edition 2001. 2. Textbook of Pharmacology by K.D. Tripathi.edition 2002. 3. Experimental Pharmacology by S.K. Kulkarni, Vallabh Prakashan, New Delhi edition SUGGESTED READINGS
1. The Pharmacological basis of therapeutics by Gillman and Goodman, 8th Ed. 2. B.G. Katzung Basic Clinical Pharmacology Lange Medical Publication, 1995. Organic Chemistry PHA-713 Credits
1. Conformation and Reactivity : Conformation of acyclic molecules. Conformations of
cyclic molecules. Stereocontrol in acyclic system, Stereocontrol in cyclic systems.
Neighbouring group and chelation effects. Acyclic stereocontrol via cyclic precursors,
Ring forming reactions and stereochemical influences.
2. Selective Organic Name Reactions :
Aldol, Perkin, Stobbe, Dieckmann condensations; Hoffmann, Schmidt, Lossen, Curtius,, Reimer-Tiemann, Reformatsky and Grignard reactions. Friedel-Crafts reactions ; Hydroboration, Oppenauer oxidation, Clemmensen, Wolff-Kishner, Meerwein-Pondorf-Verley and Brich reductions. Stork enamine reactions. Michael addition, Mannich reaction Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation. Ene reaction, Barton reaction, Hofmann-Loffler-Freytag reaction, Shapiro reaction, Chichibabin reaction, Beckmann and Fries rearrangements, Claisen rearrangement, Favorski rearrangement, benzilic acid rearrangement, Baeyer- Villiger reaction, Pinnacol reaarngement, dienone-phenol rearrangement. 3. Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds: Nomenclature of heterocyclic compounds.
Heterocyclic ring system with one heteroatom: structure, synthesis and reactions of
aziridine, azirines, oxiranes, thiranes, pyrrole, furan, thiophene, β-lactam and pyridine.
Heterocyclic ring system with two heteroatom: structure, synthesis and reactions of imidazole, oxazole,thiazole, pyrazole, pyrmidine and pyrazine. Heterocyclic ring system with three heteroatom: structure, synthesis and reactions of triazole, triazines. Fused Heterocyclic systems up to two heteroatom: chemistry and reactions of quinolines, isoquinolines, quinazoline, cinnoline, quinoxaline. Organic chemistry Practicals PHA-716
1. Synthesis of Simple Organic Compounds in one examples of : Acetylation reaction, Nucleophilic substitution reaction, Esterification reaction, Oxidation reaction, Grignard reaction, Borohydride reduction, Friedel-crafts acylation reaction, Diazotization reaction, Benzxoin condensation and Chromatographic separation of an isomeric mixtures. 2. Separation of a simple mixture of organic compounds and identification of their Books Recommended :
1. Jerry-March,Advanced Organic Chemistry,IV th edition,1992,Willey Eastern limited. 2. Reactive Intermediates by C.W. Rees. 3. Organic Chemistry by Clayden,Greeves,Warren and Wothers.,Oxford Press Edt 2001. 4. Reaction Mechanism in Organic Chemistry by S.M. Mukherji & S.P. Singh, New Age International, edition 2001. 5. Organic Synthesis by Michael B. Smith, McGraw-Hill International Editions,1994. 6. Organic Chemistry by Solomon, 7th Ed. Wiley Student Edition, 2002. 7. Modern Synthetic Reactions by Herbert O.House, W.A. Benjamin Inc., Second 8. Aspects of Organic Photochemistry by William Horsepool. 9. Organic Chemistry, Vol. 1, Vol. 2, I.I. Finar 6th edition ELBS Longman Publication, Physical Chemistry PHA-714 Credits
A. Chemical and Statistical Thermodynamics : Brief review of laws of
thermodynamics, Concepts of free energy, entropy, fugacity and activity. Partial molar
properties and their determination. Thermodynamics of ideal and non ideal mixtures,
dilute solutions, excess functions. Activity coefficients of electrolytes, mean ionic
activity coefficient, Debye Huckle treatment of dilute
electrolyte solutions.Probability, ensembles, distribution law, Partition functions: translational, rotational, vibrational and electronic partition functions, Maxwell-Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Fermi Dirac Statistics, calculation of thermodynamic functions and equilibrium constants from partition functions, theories of specific heat for solids, Numerical Problems. B. Phase Rule : Recapitulation of thermodynamic derivation of Phase rule, Two
component systems, determination of solid liquid equilibria, Classification of two
component systems with one example each. Three Component systems, method of
graphical representation. Partially miscible, three-liquid systems with examples. (i) One
Partially miscible pair, (ii) Two Partially miscible pairs (iii) Three
partially miscible pairs. Effect of temperature. Rochelle's salt (explanation). Systems composed of two salts and water and their application in crystallization of pure components. C. Chemical Kinetics : Recapitulation of first, second and third order rate laws opposing
reactions, parallel reactions, consecutive reactions. Photochemical reactions, quauntum
yield, transfer of excitation energy, actinometry, chain reactions, and oscillator reactions.
Theories of reaction rates : Molecular collision theory, Unimolecular Theory, Transition
state Theory, Comparison of
results with Eyring and Arrhenius equations. Reactions in solutions: Kinetics in solution, salt effects, influence of the solvent. Fast reactions - Rate constants of fast reactions. Relaxation methods, temperature-jump method. Stopped-flow technique, flash photolysis and magnetic reasonance method. (Numerical Problems). D. Surface Chemistry and Catalysis : Pressure difference across a curved phase
boundary. Enhanced vapour pressure of small droplets (Kelvin Equation). Gibbs
adsorption equation. Homogenous catalysis, Acid-base catalysis as well as general acid-
base catalysis, Surface catalysis, Salient features of Langmuir, Freundlich, Slygin-
Frumkin (Temkin). B.E.T. (its derivation), Harkins-Jura equations of sorption.
Mechanism of surface reactions.
Physical Chemistry Practical PHA-717
1. Determination of total hardness, total alkalinity and chloride content of water. 2. Distribution of solute between two immiscible solvents. 3. Kinetics of hydrolysis of an ester and comparison of relative strength of two acids. 4. To determine the rate constant of a reaction between ethyle acetate and caustic soda solution at two different temperatures and energy of activation. 5. Study the effect of catalyst on the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. 6. Study the phase diagram of Naphthalene and Benzoic acid. 7. Determination of consolute points (Upper or Lower or both). 8. Construct a phase diagram of 3-component system. 9. Heat of solution by solubility method. 10. Determination of CMC of a surface active agent. 11. Estimation of glucose and Ascorbic acid. 12. Study of adsorption of organic compounds on charcoal. Note : Any other experiment(s) may be included in support of the theoretical
aspects of the course.
Biophysical Chemistry PHA-715
1. Water: Structure and Interactions, Water as a solvent, proton mobility.
2. Biophysical Interactions: Intermolecular interactions effecting conformation of
biomolecules; non-covalent interactions e.g., ionic bonds, dipole-dipole interactions, hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonds, dispersion forces etc. 3. Bioenergetics: Standard free energy change in biochemical reactions, exergonic,
endergonic. Hydrolysis of ATP, synthesis of ATP from ADP. 4. Statistical Mechanics in Biopolymers: Chain configuration of macromolecules,
statistical distribution end to end dimensions, calculation of average dimensions for various chain structures. Polypeptides and proteins structures, Introduction to protein folding problem. 5. Thermodynamics of Biopolymer Solutions: Thermodynamics of biopolymer
solutions, osmotic pressure, membrane equilibrium, muscular contraction and energy generation in mechanochemical system. 6. Cell Membrane and Transport of Ions: Structure and functions of cell
membrane, ion transport through cell membrane, inversible thermodynamic treatment of membrane transport. Nerve conduction. 7. Experimental Techniques for the Determination of Size, Shape and
Molecular Mass of Biopolymers:
i). Viscosity: Measurement, relation to geometry and correlation with hydrodynamic
ii). Diffusion: Fick's law of diffusion, diffusion coefficient and its interpretation,
frictional coefficient. iii). Ultra centrifugation: Svedberg equation, sedmentation equilibrium, density
gradient sedimentation. iv). Electrophoresis: General Principles, Double layer Techniques Moving Boundary
Electrophoresis, Zonal Electrophoresis, Isoelectric Focusing. v). Osmotic Pressure: Second virial coefficient, molecular mass and geometry from
O.P. data, Donnan membrane effect, Drug absorption. vi). Optical Properties of Biomacromolecules: Light scattering, Fundamental
concepts, Rayleigh scattering, Scattering by larger particles. vii). Solubility of Biomolecules: As solutions of polyelectrolytes, Debye-Huckle
theory, Applications to proteins purification. viii). Stability of Biomolecules in Solutions: Denaturation, Method of Stabilization.
ix). Micells, Reverse micelles and liquid membranes-conformation and bioprocess Books Recommended:
1. Physical Chemistry and its Biological Applications by W.S. Brey , Academic Press (1978). 2. Physical Biochemistry by K.E. Van Holde. 3. Physical Chemistry: Principles and Applications in Biological Sciences. By Tinoco I., Jr., Saver, K. and Wang, J.C., Prentice-Hall. 3. Biochemistry by L. Stryer, GBS Publishers and Distributors, Second Edition, 1972. Chapters: 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8,11, 12, 13, 24, 25, 26, 27, 33 and 36. 4. Biochemistry by D. Voet and J.G. Voet, John Wiley & Sons, Ist Edition 1995. Chapter: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 27, 28, 29, 30 and 34. 5. Immobilized Enzymes : An introduction and application in Biotechnology by Michael D. Trevan and John Wiley. Pharmaceutical Engineering-II PHA-721
Credits : 3
1. Evaporation : Selection of Equipment; Types of Evaporators, Heat Transfer
Coefficient, Boiling Point rise due to material in Solutions, Duhring's rule, Boiling Point Rise due to Hydrostatic head, Single and Multiple effect evaporators, Calculations, Important factors in Operation of Evaporators. 2. Filtration : Introduction, Classification of Filters, Sand Filters, Filter presses,
Chamber presses, Plate-and Frame presses, Washing presses, Leaf filters, Rotary continuous filters, Filter aids, Filter auxiliaries, Comparison of filter types, Filtration theory, Laminar flow through beds of granular particles, Limitations of the Kozeny equation, constant-pressure filtration, constant pressure filtration-correction for filter cloth resistance, Constant-rate filtration, Rotary-drum filters, Washing of filter cakes, 3. Centrifugation : Principles of Centrifugation, Advantages, Disadvantages, and
use of Perforated Basket centrifuge (centrifugal filter), sedimentation type centrifuges (centrifugal sedimenters) and continuous centrifuges. Batch top-driven centrifuges, Batch underdriven centrifuges, Continuous centrifuges, Disc type centrifuges. 4. Leaching and Extraction : Factors influencing the rate of Extraction,
Equipments, Number of Stages for Counter-Current washing, Graphical Methods, Mixing of Liquid Systems, Calculation of the number of theoretical stages in extraction operation (Co-current contact with Partially Miscible Solvent Co-current Contact with Immiscible Solvents, Counter current contact with Partially Miscible Solvents) Extraction Equipments. 5. Distillation : Vapour Liquid Equilibrium, Partial Vaporisation and Partial
Condensation, Partial Pressures, Dalton's Raoult's and Henry's Laws, relative, Volatility. The methods of Distillation, Two-component mixture, The Fractionating Column, Calculation of number of Plates using the Lewis-Sorrel Method, Calculation of Number of Plates using the McCabe-Thiele method, Theq-line concept, Efficiency of Distillation, overall Plate Efficiency, Feed Plate Efficiency, Azeotropic Distillation, Extractive Distillation, Steam Distillation, Packed Columns; General description, Types of Packings. 6. Milling : Objectives of comminution factors affecting size reduction,
processes of milling, theory of milling and energy requirements, milling rate and types of milling machines, size distribution, determination of size, microscopy, sieving and sedimentation of particles. Pharmaceutical applications of milling. 7.Compression and Consolidation of Pharmaceutical Powers : Definition,
angles of repose, Flow rate through tubes and hoppers, mass - volume - force relationship, Granulation properties and strength of granules, compression and consolidation under high loads including study of compaction profiles. 8. Materials of Pharmaceutical Plant Construction : Physical and Chemical
factors to be considered, various metals and non-metals that can be used for construction their advantages and disadvantages. Books Recommended :
1. A. Martin, Physical Pharmacy, B. I. Waverly Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi (1994). 2. L. Lachman, H.A. Liebermin and J. L. Kaing, Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy, III Eds. Varghese Publishing House, Bombay (1977). Suggested Readings :
1. A. Osol, Ramington's Pharmaceutical Science, XVIII Edition, Mack Publishing Company, Pennsylvania, USA. 2. J. W. Copper and G. Gunn, Tutorial Pharmacy, Kothari Book Depot, Bombay. 3. Badger et. al. , Introduction to Chemical Engineering, McGraw Hill Co. International Student's edition. 4. Davis et. al. Bentley's Text book of Pharmaceutics, Billiere, Tindarr and Co., Pharmaceutical Engineering Practical :PHA-726 Credits : 2
List of Experiments
1. Verification of Bernaullis theorm. 2.Determination of coefficient of discharge by V-Notch. 3. Determination of coefficient of discharge by orifice meter. 4. To determine the friction factor for given pipe 5. Study of turbulent flow through pipes. 6. Study of Laminar flow. 7. Determination of flow rate using pipot tube. 8. Study of friction-losses in pipe lines, joints and bends. 9. To determine coefficient of contraction (CC), coefficient of velocity (CV) and coefficient of discharge (Cd) for circular / rectangular orifices. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection. 10. To plot log Re vs. Porosity for a fluidized bed. 11. Study of pressure drop through a packed bed. 12. Determination of absolute humidity, relative humidity, dew point, saturated volume and humid heat using psychometric char. 13. To compare efficiencies of simple and differential manometers. 16. To study the effect of viscosity on rate of sedimentation. 17. To study the effect of viscosity on rate of filtration. 18. To verify Darcy's law. Note : Any other experiment(s) may be included in support of the theoretical
aspects of the course.
Organic Synthesis PHA-722
1. Design of Synthesis : Annelation reaction. Functional group interconversions. Donor
acceptor disconnection in the carbon-carbon single bond formation. Retero-analysis. Transforms and retrons, selecting transform. Strategies for reterosynthetic analysis. 2. Reagents in Organic Synthesis : Use of following reagents in Organic Synthesis and
functional group transformations: Complex metal hydrides, Gilman's reagent, Lithium diisopropyl-amide (LDA), dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, Umpoloung of reactivity (dipole inversions), trimethylsilyl iodide, tri-n-butyltin hydride, Woodward and Prevost hydroxylation, Osmium tetraoxide, selenium dioxide, phase transfer catalysis, Crown ethers, Merifield resin, Peterson's synthesis Wilkinson's catalyst; Bakers Yeast. 3. Oxidation and Reduction in Organic Synthesis : Oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl.
Phenols to quinones, conversion of alkene to epoxides and diols, Oxidative bond
cleavages, Oxidation of sulfur, selenium & nitrogen. Reduction with metal hydrides,
Alkoxyaluminates, alkoxy – and alkyl-Borohydrides, Stereoselectivity in hydride
reduction. Catalytic hydrogenation and dissolving metal reductions.
4. Formation of carbon-carbon single bonds : Ketone enolates, O Vs C alkylation,
Enamine and related reactions, Thio and seleno carbanions, Aldol condensation, Allylic
alkylations of alkenes. Coupling reactions of Organo copper, Organopalladium and
Organonickel complexes, Synthetic applications of carbenes and canbenoids.
5. Application of cycloadditions in organic synthesis : Selection rules for
cycloaddition [(2+2), (3+2), (4+2), (6+4)]. The Dienes, Heterdienes, Dienophiles and 1,3-Dipoles. Lewis Acid Catlysis, Modern methods to affect cycloadditions (use of high pressure, aqueous medium, ultrasound etc.). 6. Asymmetric synthesis: Cram's rule and its variations, Chiral auxillaries,
Chiral Lewis acid catalysis. Asymmetric Reductions. Chiral reagents (Grignards reagent, Organocuprates, organo irons). 7. Some Classics in Organic Synthesis : Corey's synthesis ot prostglandsis (PGF2
and PGE2 ). Woodwards Synthesis of Strychnine, synthesis of Progesterone by W.S. Johnson, Synthesis of Reserpine by Woodward, Synthesis of Biotin by Hoffman-LaRoch, Synthesis of Hirustene and 9 (12)-Capnellene by D.P. Curran. Synthesis of Indolizomycin by Danishefsky. Synthesis of Taxol by K.C. Nicolau, Synthesis of Cholesterol by Woodward. Books Recommended :
1. Some Modern methods of Organic Synthesis, IIIrd edition, by W. Carruthers, 1993, 2. Organic Synthesis by M.B. Smith, McGraw International edition, 1994. 3. The Logic of Organic Synthesis by E.J. Corey and X.M. Cheng, John Wiley and Sons, 4. Modern Synthetic Reactions by Herbert O.House, W.A. Benjamin Inc., Second Suggested Readings :
1. Classics in Total synthesis, by K.C. Nicolau and E.J. Sovensen, VCH, 1996. 2. Cycloadditions in Organic Synthesis, W. Carruthers, Pergamon Press, 1990. Inorganic Chemistry PHA-723 Credits
1. Symmetry: Molecular symmetry, Representation of
symmetry operations as matrices, set of symmetry operations of molecules satisfying the conditions of point groups, multiplication tables. 2. Theory of Chemical Bonding :
a) Valence Bond Theory : Concepts of VB theory. Hybridization (sp, sp2,
dsp2, sp3, sp3d, dsp3, sp3d2, d2sp3). Application of V.B theory to simple inorganic molecules and transition metal complexes. Inner and outer orbital complexes. b) Molecular Orbital Theory : A brief introduction to ICAD method.
Resonance integral, energy level diagrams for O2, F2, CO, CO2, PH3, BF3, NO, NO2, NO3 and H2O, Molecular orbital description of tetrahedral and octahedral complexes of transition metals. c) Crystal Field Theory : Splitting of energies of orbitals under
octahedral, tetrahedral and square planar environment, magnetic properties of complexes in terms of CFT. Crystal field stabilization energy and heats of ligation, Lattice energy, Terms and Symbols, Selection rules, Hole formulation, electronic spectra of co-ordination complexes. (Orgel diagrams of d1-d9 tetrahedral and Octahedral complexes. Limitation of CFT. Stability of co-ordination complexes and factors effecting the stability.nephelauxetic effect, ligand field theory. Calculation of B and 10Dq from spectral data. d) Inorganic rings, chains and cages :
i. Chains: catenation, heterocatenation, isopolyanions and
heteropolyanions. ii. Rings: Borazines,phosphazenes, other heterocyclic inorganic ring
systems, homocyclic inorganic systems. iii. Cages: cae compounds having phosphorus, oxygen, nitrogen and
sulphur: boron cage compounds,Boranes, carboranes and metallocene 3. Transition metal chemistry : Magnetic moments, Magnetic properties of
transition metal complexes. Interior magnetic coupling. Spin State crossovers. Comparison of first transition series with 2nd and 3rd transition 4. Industrial Applications of Organometallics : General considerations,
homogenous catalysis by organometallics (Alkene Hydrogenation, Hydroformylation, pi-acid metal complexes, activation of small molecuels by coordination. 5. Introduction to Ligands, Complexes and their Reactivity:
Thermodynamics stability in aqueous medium, General classification of ligands, Ligand substitution or exchange reaction to 4-coordinate square planner complexes and 6-coordinate octahedral complexes. Redox or electron transfer reactions. Outer and inner sphere mechanisms for multielectron redox reaction and ligand field considerations. Photochemical reaction of chromium and ruthenium complexes. Fluoxional molecules iso- and heteropolyacids, metal clusters. Spin crossover in coordination compounds. 5 6. Bioinorganic Chemistry : Metal ions in Biology, Molecular mechanism of ion
transport across membranes; ionophores. Photosynthesis, PSL, PSH; nitrogen fixation, oxygen uptake proteins, cytochromes and ferrodoxins. Iron-sulphur Books Recommended :
1 R.S. Drago, Physical Methods in inorganic Chemistry, Affiliated East-West Press 2. H.B. Gray, Electrons and Chemical Bonding. (Section 2). 3. F.A. Cotton and G.W. Wilkinsonn, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry. John Wiley and 4. J.E. Huheay, Inorganic Chemistry, Principles of Structure and Reactivity, harper International, SI edition. 5. G. Wilkinson (ed.) Comprehensive coordination chemistry vol. 3 chapter 23, 6. N.N. Greenwood and A.Earnshaw Chemistry of elements,Pergamon Press(Section 7). 7. Christopher master, Homogenous Transition metal catalysis (Section 8). 8. A.B.P. Lever : Inorganic Electronic Spectroscopy. 9. B.N. Figgis : Introduction to Ligand Fields. Inorganic Chemistry Practical PHA-727
1. Analysis of two cation system using complexations. 2. Colorimetric estimation of cations/anions. 3. Ion exchange: Separation of inorganic cations/anions (2 or 3 components). 4. Chromatographic Separation. 5. Preparation their purification, elemental analysis. M.W. determination and elucidation of the structures by available physical method(s). i. Preparation of [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2, [Co(NH3)5NO2]Cl2; [Co(NH3)5ONO]Cl2 ii. Preparation of trans[(Co(en)2Cl2]Cl. iii. Preparation of dichlorobis(ethylendiamine)Co(III) chloride. iv. Na2[Fe(CN)5NH3]H2O v. Na2[Fe(CN)5H2O] vi. K2[Co(CN)5H2O] vii. Cu2(CH3COO)4(H2O)2 or Zn4O(ac)2 viii. Preparation of chloropentaaminecobalt (III) chloride and its conversion into nitro and nitrito isomers. ix. Preparation of mercury tetraisothiocyanatocobaltate (II) HgCo(NCS)4. x. Preparation and resolution of tris(ethylenediamine) cobalt(III) ion. Measurement of optical rotation of these resolved complexes. Note : Any other experiment (s) may be included in support of the theoretical
aspects of the course.
1. Bimolecules : Broad classification and role of bimolecules. 2
2. Amino Acids and Proteins : Structural and functional classification of
proteins. Structure, Physicochemical properties, configuration and optional properties of amino acids. Colour reactions of Proteins and Amino acids, Purification of proteins and Amino acid sequence determination, Peptide bond. Ramachandran Plot. Primary, Secondary Teritiary and quaternary structure of Proteins. Three dimensional structure of proteins, Structure and functioning of 3. Enzymes : Classification, Mechanism of enzymatic reactions, kinetics of
enzymatic reactions, Michaelis Menton model, Measurement of significance of Km and Vmax perfect enzymes. Inhibition of enzymetic reactions. Kinetics of competitive and non-competitive Inhibition. Allosteric enzymes Mechanism of enzymatic catalysis by Lysozyme and carboxypeptidasc. Zymogens. 4. Coenzymes : Classification, Structure and Function of Nicotinamide adenine
dinucleotides (NAD and NADP), Riboflavin Nuleotides (FMN and FAD), Lipoic acid, Cytocromes, Pyridoxal phosphate, Nucleoside diphosphates. Tetrahydrofolic acid conjugates, Biotinyl conenzyme. Conenzyme - A, and Thiamine pyrophosphate. 5. Biotechnological Application of Enzymes : Large scale production and
purification of enzymes, techniques and method of immobilization of enzymes, effect of immobilization on enzyme activity, Application of immobilized enzymes, use of enzymes as targets for drug design. Clinical uses of enzymes, enzyme therapy, enzymes and recombinant DNA technology. 9 6. Carbohydrates and Metabolism : Configuration and chemical Transformations
of Carbohydrates. Absolute configuration of carbohydrates. General concepts, energetics and control on metabolic pathways. Glycolysis and Citric acid cycle. 7 7. Genetic Code, nucleic acids as carrier of genetic information. Structure of DNA, Replication of DNA. Protein biosynthesis. 7 8. Membranes and Membrane Transport : Membrane structure, phospho and
glycolipids, membrane proteins, Sodium potassium pump, Calcium and Sugar transport, Inophorous antibiotics. 7 Books Recommended :
1. Biochemistry by L. Stryer, GBS Publishers and Distributors, Second Edition, 1972. Chapters: 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8,11, 12, 13, 24, 25, 26, 27, 33 and 36. 2. Biochemistry by D. Voet and J.G. Voet, John Wiley & Sons, Ist Edition 1995. Chapter: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 27, 28, 29, 30 and 34. Biochemistry Practical PHA-728
1. Estimation of glucose in blood. 2. Estimation of liver glycogen. 3. Estimation of proteins in serum. 4. Determination of creatinine and creatin in blood and urine. 5. Estimation of chloride in serum & urine. 6. Estimation of free fatty acids in serum. 7. Estimation of uric acid in serum & urine. 8. Determination of acid & alkaline phosphatase. 9. Determination of SGOT and SGPT in serum. 10. Determination of blood cholesterol. 11. Electropheretic separation of serum proteins. 12. Fat determination in milk. Biostatistics PHA-728 credits-3
Significant digits bend rounding of numbers, data collection, random and non-random sampling methods, sample size, data organization, diagrammatic representation of data , bar ,pie, 2-D and 3-D diagrams, measures of central tendency, measures of dispersion, Standard Deviation and standard error of means, coefficient of variation, confidence (fiducial) limits, probability and events, Bayes' theorem, probability theorems, probability distribution, elements of binomial and Poisson distribution, normal distribution curve and properties, kurtosis and skewness, correlation and regression analysis, method of least squares, statistical inference, Student's and paired t-test, F-test and elements of ANOVA, applications of statistical concepts in Pharmaceutical Sciences. Medicinal Chemistry-I PHA831
1. Introduction to Pharmaceuticals, Historical Development, Classification of Drugs, Nomenclature of Pharmaceuticals, Drug metabolism reactions. 2. Structure, stereochemistry, nomenclature, mode of action, specific clinical applications and structure activity relationships of following classes of drugs and synthesis / commercial routes to specified drugs. i) Vitamin and Hormones : Hormones : Sex hormones and related compounds.
(Estrogens, Androgens, Progestational agents, Anabolic steroids, Contraceptives),
Adrenal cortex hormones, Thyroid
hormones and antithyroid drugs, Pancreatic hormones, Hypothalamus hormones.
Vitamins: Fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K), water soluble vitamins (Folic acid, B12
and C). Commercial routes to : Testosterone, cortisone, Progesterone, Vit. A, D, E, K
Folic acid and Vit. C. 12
Cardiovascular drugs: Vasodilators, Antihypertensive agents,
Antihypercholesterolemic drugs, Antiarrhythmic, drugs, Sclerosing agents, Coagulants and anticoagulants, Cardiotonic compounds, Synthetic hypoglycemic agents. Commercial Synthetic route to : Papverine, oxprenolol, atenolol,
propranolol, practolol, Nafidipine, Quinidine, Clofibrate, captopril, Diltiazem,
Verapamil, clonidine, prazosine, Dipyridiamole, Pentoxyflylline Procainamide, Enalarpil,
iii) General and Local Anesthetics: Theories of General Anesthetics, Electronacrosis,
Ethers, Halogenerated hydrocarbons, Cyclopropane, Nitrous oxide, Barbiturates,
Adjuncts to general anesthetics,
metabolism of volatile anesthetics. Local anesthetics: Cocoa alkaloids- Cocaine and
Synthetic compounds, Esters, Amides, Miscellaneous anesthetics. Synthesis of
Phenobarbital, Allobarbital, Pentobarbital. Theopental sodium, Midazolam.
iv) Analgesics and Antitussives: Morphine and related opioids, Narcotic antagonists,
Synthetic analgesics-Antitussives: Opium alkaloid, Morphine analogs, Synthetic non-
narcotic antitussives, mucolytic
agents. Commerical routes to : Meperidine, Methadone dextro-Propoxyphene,
Buprinorophine, Pentanorphine, Pentazocine, dextromrthorphane, Bromohexine,
Papaverine, Levopropoxyphene, cyclazocine.
v) Antipyetics and Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory agents:
Salicyclic acid derivatives. Indolyl and Arylacetic acid derivatives. Pyrazole derivatives.
Aminophenol derivatives, Arylpropionic acid derivatives, Salol Principle, Anti-Gout
Drugs. Commercial Synthetic route to: Ibuprofrn, Naproxen, Fenoprofen, Piroxicam,
Indomethacin, Sulindac, Diclofenac, Ibufenac, Ketoprofen, Oxyphenbutazone,
vi) Diuretics: Osmotic agents, Acidfying salts.Mercurials, Purines and related
heterocycles, Sulfonamides, Benzothiadiazene and related compounds, Chlorothiazides
and analogs, Sulfamoylebenzoic acid and
analogs, Endocrine antagonists, miscellaneous diuretics. Commercial Synthetic routes
to : Furosemide, Methalthiazide methylchlothlazide: Chlorothiazide, Triameterene,
Hydrochlothiazide, Ameloride, Chlorthalidone.
1. Wilson and Gisvolds Textbook of Organic Medicinal and Pharmaceuticals Chemsitry, 8th edition, edited by R.F. Doerge, J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1982. 2. Pharmaceutical Chemicals in Perspective, B.G. Reuben and H.A. Wittcoff, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1989. 3. W.C. Foye, Principles of Medicinal Chemistry, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, Suggested Reading:
Strategies for Organic Drug Synthesis and Design, D. Lendnicer, John Wiley and Son, Medicinal Chemistry-II PHA-832
Structure, stereochemistry, Mode of action, Structure activity relationships, specific clinical applications of following classes of pharmaceuticals with synthetic/commercial route to the indicated examples. 1. Antibacterials: Penicillines, Cephalosporins, Tetracyclines, Aminoglycosides,
Chloramphenicol, Macrolides, Lincomycins, Polypeptides antibiotics, Polyene
antibiotics. Sulfonamides and Sulfones fluoroquinolines, Trimethoprim and other
unclassified antibiotics. Antimycobacterials: Sulfanilamides, p-Aminosalicyclic acid
derivatives, Thioamides, Thiourea, derivatives, Thiosemicarbonazones,
Isoniazid, Kanamycin sulfate, Capreomycin, Rifaampin, Pyrazinamide, Anthionamide,
Clofazimine, Cyclosporin, Dapsone, Sulfazem. Commercial synthetic/semi-synthetic
routes to : 6-amino penicillanic acid, ampicillin, amoxycillin, production of penicillin, 7-
amino cephalsporanic acid, cephalexin, ceftizoxime, cefaclor, cephslothin, Tetracyclins:
doxycycline, nalidixic acid, sulfadiazine, Norflaxacin, Ciproflexacin, O-flaxacin,
Amiflaxacin, Difloxacin, Chloramphenicol, Nitroflurantion, Sulfamethyoxazole, Acetysulfoxiazole, Trimethoprim. 2. Antimalarials: Cinchona alkaloids, 4-Aminoquinolines, 8-Aminoquinolines, 9-
Aminoacridines, Biguanides, Pyramidines and Sulfones, Mefloquine, Sulfonamides.
Commercial synthetic routes to : Chloroquine, pamaquine, primaquine, proguanil,
Amodiaquine, Mefloquine, Pyremethamine, Sontoquine.
2. Antiamoebic and antiprotozoal drugs: Emetine hydrochloride, 8- Hydroxyquinoline,
Iodochlorohydroxyquinol, Metronidazole, Diloxanide furoate, Bilamical hydrochloride,
Hydroxystilbamidine isothinate, Pentamidine isothionate, Nifurtimox, Suramin sodium,
Carbarsone, Glycobiarsol, Melarsoprol, Sodium stibogluconate, Dimercaprool,
Diethylcabamazine citrate, Centarsone,
Acetarsone, Antimony potassium tartarate, Bismuth sodium thioglycollate,
Sulphonamide, Stibiophen. Bismuth sodium thioglycollamate, Furazolidone.
Commercial synthetic routes to : Metronidozole, Ronidazole, Flunidazole, Iodoquinol,
Nifurfimax, Benzindazole, Tryparsamide.
3. Anthelmintics: Introduction, Tetrachloroethylene, Piperazines, Gentian violet,
Pyrvinium pamoate, Thiabendazole, Mabendazole, baphenium hydroxynaphthoate,
Dichlophene, Niclosamide, Levamisole hydrochloride, Tetramisole, Niridazole,
Biothional, Antimonypotassium tartarate, Stibiophen, Sodium Stibiocaptate.
4. Antifungal drugs: Fatty acids and their derivatives (Propionic acid, zinc propionate,
sodium caprylate, zinc caprylate, undecylenic acid, Zinc undecylenate, Triacetin),
Salicylanilids, Salicyclic acid, Tolnaftate, pchloromethoxylenol, Acrisocrin, Fluconazole,
Itraconazole, Haloprogin, Clotrimazole, Econazole, Miconazole, Ketoconazole,
Flucytosine, Griseofulvin, Polyene antibiotics (Nystatin, Amphoetericin-B),
Chlorophenesin, Dithranol. Commercial synthetic routes to: Miconazole, Clotrimazole,
Fluconazole, Griseofulvin, Ketoconazole, Nafttidine, Tolnaftate, Flucytosin. Books Recommended:
1. Wilson and Gisvolds Textbook of Organic Medicinal and Pharmaceuticals Chemistry, 8th edition, edited by R.F. Deorge, J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1982. 2. Pharmaceutical Chemicals in Perspective. B.G. Reuben and H.A. Wittcoff, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1989. 3. W.C. Foye, Principles of Medicinal Chemistry, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, U.S.A. Suggested Readings
1. Strategies of Organic Drug Synthesis and Design, D. Lendnicer, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1998. Physical Pharmacy PHA-833 Credits: 3
1. Surface activity and interfacial phenomenon : Surface tension and interfacial
tension, surface active agents and their chemical classification, hydrophilic - Lipophilic
balance, critical micelle concentration, solubilization, emulsification, wetting detergency
etc. Interfacial films, Unimolecular film formation, diffused double layer and zeta
potential, thickness of double layer, state of aggregation and crystal growth.
Pharmaceutical applications of surface phenomenon. 2. Colloids and Macromolecular System : Dispersed systems method of preparation of
colloidal dispersions, size and shape of colloidal particles. Pharmaceutical applications.
Types of colloidal systems. Optical kinetics and electrical properties. Stability of
colloidal systems. Sensitization of protective
colloidal action 3. Monophasic liquid dosage forms : Types, advantages and disadvantages,Techniques
of increasing solubilityof drugs, other problems involved in preparation and stability of
i) Suspensions : Preparation and evaluation of suspensions, stability testing. Problems in suspension formulation, flocculated and non-floccuated suspensions. ii) Emulsions : Advantages of emulsion dosage form, types, identification, selection of emulsifying agents, Preparation, Calculation of HLB value and stability studies. 5. Rheology : Shear rate-shear stress relationship and its measurement, pseudoplastic,
thixotropic and dilatant types of flow, viscoelastic properties, Couette viscometer, Cup
and bob viscometer, Red wood viscometer, Brookfield viscometer, Cone and Plate
viscometer and Penetrometer,
Applications of Rheology in Pharmaceuticals, Solving of numerical problems related to rheology. 6. Chemical, Kinetics and drug stability : General consideration and concepts, complex
reactions, influence of temperature, light, heat, oxygen, solvent, catalytic species and
other factors in stability of drugs, Prediction of stability of common pharmaceutical
substances. Thermodynamic considerations and
mechanisms in general. 7. Complexation : Metal complexes, organic molecular complexes, inclusion/occlusion
compounds and analysis.
8. Micromeretic and Powder Rheology : Particle size and distribution. Average
particle size, number and weight distribution, particle number, methods for determining
particle volume , optical microscopy, sieving, sedimentation, measurement, particle shape, specific surface, methods for determining surface area, permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement, densities, bulkiness and flow properties. Books Recommended :
3. A. Martin, Physical Pharmacy, B. I. Waverly Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi (1994). 2. L. Lachman, H.A. Liebermin and J. L. Kaing, Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy, III Eds. Varghese Publishing House, Bombay (1977). Suggested Readings :
3. A. Osol, Ramington's Pharmaceutical Science, XVIII Edition, Mack Publishing Company, Pennsylvania, USA. 4. J. W. Copper and G. Gunn, Tutorial Pharmacy, Kothari Book Depot, Bombay. 5. Badger et. al., Introduction to Chemical Engineering, McGraw Hill Co. International Student's edition. 6. Davis et. al. Bentley's Text book of Pharmaceutics, Billiere, Tindarr and Co., Pollution Control & Waste Treatment PHA-835 Credits: 3
1. Atmosphere, Different zones, Chemical composition, Role of different constituents :
Physical characteristics. Solar spectrum, Albodo, Thermal radiations. Temperature
variation, Atmospheric Pressure & Density, Gravity, Winds, Water and the evolution of
2. Air Pollution, Definition : Ambient air quality and standards, Types of Air Pollution,
Smog, Haze, Emission Atmospheric Transport & Dispersion Means, Receptors and
Criteria study. Pollutants and kinds of pollution, Concentration representation of Gaseous
Pollutants (CO, CO2, NOx, SOx, HC, etc.) Particulates (SiO2, Iron oxides, Asbestos, Hg,
Be, Pb, Odours.)
A) Atmospheric Effects : Visibilty, Turbidity, Thermal air Pollution, Acidic deposition,
Effects of Ozone layer on earth, Effects on Climate.
B) Health Effects : Exposure, Impact of Pollutants on Human Body, Effects of Criteria
Pollutants (CO, CO2, SOx, NOx, Particulates, HC, O3).
C) Welfare Effects : Vegetation, Domesticated Animals and Materials.
D) Atmospheric Air Pollution Control Methods : Measurement of Air Pollution,
Ambient Air quality and Source Emissions, monitoring, Methods of Analysis (Dispersive
IR, Gas Chromatography, Electro chemistry, Photometery) Sampling Techniques &
Standards. Selection of Control of Gaseous Emission (Absorption, Adsorption,
Condensation, Chemical Reaction and Incineration) Control of Particulate Emission
(Concept, Gravity settling Centrifugal and Cyclonic collection, Electrostatic
Precipitation, Collection efficiency), Filtration Techniques, Wet Scrubbing Techniques.
3. (i) Water Pollution : Concept, water quality Parameters, Color Taste & Odour,
Temperature, Turbidity Conductivity Dissolved Solids, suspended solids, Redox,
Potential, Alkalinity, Acidity, Dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD, Sulphates, Phosphates,
Chlorides, Silica, Hardness, Iron, Heavy Metals.
(ii) Sampling : Sites, procedures, preservation and Handling of samples.
(iii) Physico - chemical analysis of water (Alkality, Acidity, DO, BOD, COD, Hardness, Chloride, residual Chlorine). Water Pollution Indices, General concept, Nygard's and Polymer's Algel Pollution Indices. iv) Waste Water Treatment Plants : Biological Waste Treatment, Primary Clarification,
Activated Sludge Process, Anaerobic Lagoons, Aerobic & Facultative lagoons.
Electrostatic Treatment of Water.
(v) Waste Water Reuse or Recycling Techniques : Objectives & Techniques (Brief
4. Waste Minimization Technology :
a). Relationships of waste minimization technology to integrated hazardous waste management. b). Hazardous control, Disaster planning ‘onsite and offsite. Books Recommended :
1. Air Quality by Thad Godish. 2. Chemical and Biological Methods for Water Pollution Studies by R.K. Trivedy and P.K. Goel (1986). 3. Waste Water Engineering by Matcalf and Eddy, (1993). 4. Hazardous Waste Minimization by Harry Freeman (1990). 5. Pollution Control in Process industries by S. P. Mahajan, (1994). Pharmaceutical Analysis (Spectroscopic and Instrumental
Credits : 4
1. Electrochemical methods
a. Conductometric method : Introduction, theory ostwald's dilution,
measurements of conductance conductivity cells, and applications. b. Potentiometric measurements : Calomel electrode, Normal hydrogen
electrode silver-silver chloride electrode, Quinhydrone electrode, general c. pH Measurements: Glass electrode, combination glass electrode and
d. Polarography & Amperometry: Calculation of half wave potential,
polarograph and amperometric titrations. 2. Ultraviolet & Visible absorption Spectroscopy : Introduction, Fundamental laws
of photometry (Lambert Beer's Law); Radiation Sources (Hydrogen/Deutrium lamp, tungsten filament lam, Xenon lamp); Monochromator, Prisons (Cornu, littrow), resolution of prisms, Detectors (Photovoltaic cell, Phototubes Photomultiplier tubes, silicon photodiodies) Filters (glass & absorption) single & double beam spectrophotometer, Sample handling; Presentation of spectral, data, Quantitative methods, Simultaneous determination, Derivative Spectrscopy & its applications. 3. Infrared Spectroscopy : Introduction, Requirements of molecule to absorb in IR:
calculations of Fundamental frequency; Moelcular Virbations Radiation Sources, (Incandescent wire source, Nernst glower, Globar, Merucry are and carbon dioxide laser); Detectors (Thermal/thermocouples, Bolometer, pyroelectric, golay pneumatic & photon detector); Dispersive and nondispersive spectrophotometers (schemetic optics of double beam spectrophotometer); Fourier transform infrared spectrometer; Sample handling techniques (gases liquid & solid samples); correlation of infrared spectra with molecular structure; Quantitative measurements. 4. Mass Spectroscopy: Introduction, Components of Mass spectrometer, Dempster's
mass spectrometer, Ionization sources-Electron impact ionization; field ionization, chemical ionization, Fast atom bombardment, Mass analyzer, Resolution of mass spectrometer, single focusing analyzer system, Double focusing analyzers, Quadrupole analyzer, Time of flight analyzer, spark source spectrometry, Ion collecting systems, correlation of mass spectra with molecular structure. 5. NMR Spectroscopy: Introduction, Basic principle, Quantum description classical
description, Relaxation processes, Chemical shift, spin splitting, instrumentation. Continuous wave NMR spectrometer, Applications of NMR spectroscopy, 6. Molecular Fluorescence & Phosphorescence : Theory, (single-triplet
states, deactivation process) Quantum yield, Effect of concentration on fluorescence (derivation), Fundamentals of Instrumentation for fluorescence & phosphorescence, Applications. 7. Flame Emission and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: Introduction,
Atomization, Continuous Atomizers, Discrete atomizers; Flames, Nebulizer- Burner system (concentric, cross flow, laminar flow); Non-flame techniques (Electrothermal analyzers cold vapour technique); Radiation sources (hollow cathode lamp and electrodeless discharge lamp monochromator, Detectors, Interference (spectral, chemical, ionization, matrix effect, molecular absorption); Background Effects; Background correction Methods (Deutrium Arc, Zeeman Effect and Smith-Hieftje System); Schematic diagram of Flame photometer and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. 8. Refractometry & Polarimetry : Principle, Instrumentation & Applications
of refractrometry. Polarimetry: Theory, fundamentals of instrumentation. Optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), Circular Dichroism (CD), ORD/CD curves, instrumentation, applications. 9. Processes involving Chemical Composition Analyzer :
Chromatographic analysis (GC, HPLC). Books Recommended :
4. H.H. Willard, D.D. Meritt, J.A. Dean and W.A. Settle, ‘Instrumental Methods of Analysis', 6th Edition (for 1 & 3). (1986); 7th Edition (1988). 5. D.A. Skoof, "Principles of Instrumental Analysis", 3rd Edition. (1984), 4th Edition 6. R.L. Pecsok, "Modern Method of Chemical Analysis" (for 7 only). (1976). Pharmaceutical Analysis Practical
1. Determine the concentration of Na+, K+ and Ca2+ present in tap water using flame 2. Standardization of an acid with a standard solution of base using pH-meter. 3. Determine the pk values of an amino acid by pH metry. 4. Titration of a strong acid vs strong base, weak acid vs strong base and weak acid vs weak base by conductometry. 5. Titration of mixture of strong and weak acids with a strong base by conductivity. 6. Determination of dissociation constant of acetic acid by conductometry. 7. Verify Lambert-Beer Law and determine the molar extinction co-efficient : copper sulphate pentahydrate / or potassium dichromate. 8. The determination of aspirin and Caffein in a proprietary Analgesic by spectrophotometry. 9. Measurement of optical rotation and study of muta rotation in glucose. 10. Titration of HCL with NaCH using potentiometer. 11. Determination of composition of unknown sample by Refractometry. Molar refraction is an additive property. 12. Determination of water content by moisture balance and by Karl Fischer method. 13. Measurement of Specific Optical Rotation of ibuprofen and determination of unknown concentration. 14. Volumetric analysis of ibuprofrn in tablets. 15. Analysis of ascorbic acid in given tablets. 16. Spectrophotometric determination of Paracetamol in tablets. 17. Analysis of Ampicillin trihydrate. 18. Analysis of citric acid. 19. Determination of Vitamin B1 in given tablets. 20. Determination of Vitamin B2 in given tablets. 21. Determination of ephedrine hydrochloride in given syrup. 22. Determination of tetracycline in given capsules. 23. Determination of phenobarbitone in given cough syrup. 24. Determination of chloremphenicol in given capsules. 25. To perform I.P. monograph of tablets. 26. To perform I.P. monograph of hard gelatin capsules. Note : Any other experiment (s) may be included in support of the theoretical
aspects of the course.
Drug Synthesis and Natural product extraction Practicals PHA-837
3. Preparation / multistep synthesis, purification and spectroscopic characterization of organic Pharmaceuticals and intermediate given below. Acetanilide, Aspirin, Barbituric acid, Hippuric acid, 3.4 - dihydro-3-(p-methylphenyl)- I-(2H)-Benzoxazine, Diketopiperazine, Paracetamol, Thenacetin, Antipyrene 2-amino-5 bromopyridine, Nitrazepam, Azo sulfomarides, sulfarilamide, Sulfathiazole, Diphenylhydantoin, Phenylbutazone, Nifedipine, Alclofenac, Baclofen, Brimindiene, Tolmetin, Procarbazine, Ketoprofen, I-phenyl-3-alkylthioureas, Sodium-7-iodo-8-quinoline-1, 5-sulfonate, NDichloroacetyl- N-methyl-p-hydroxy aniline, Amphetamine, Aminopyrine, Oxolamine, hydralazine, tetrahydroiso-quinolines. Oxazolidine-I, 4-dione. 4. Extraction and analysis of the following natural products. a). Eugenol from cinnanan leaf oil or cloves. b). Piperine from black pepper. c). Cucumarin from turmeric. d). Pectins from organe peels. e). Carotene from carrots. f). Oleo-resin from ginger. g). Alkaloid from cinchona bark. h). Trimyristin and tetraclecanoic acid from nutmeg. Note: Any other experiment(s) may be included in support of the theoretical
aspects of the course.
Summer placement PHA-838
Satisfactory/ Not Satisfactory
1. Introduction to different Pharmaceutical dosage forms.
2. Preformulation considerations : Analytical methods for Characterization of
drugs, determination of PKa value, pH solubility profile and effect of temperature, stability, calculation of shelf life. 3. i) Processing of tablets : Advantages and disadvantages of tablets, types of
tablets. Granulation – manufacture of granules, their basic characteristics and properties with reference to different types of substances. Various additives included in tablet formulations. Compression of tablets - compressing machines and their tooling, processing problems and their remedy. Evaluation of tablets as per official standards. ii) Tablet coating : Coating principles and equipment. Coating processes -
sugar coating, Film coating and enteric coating. Materials used in coating. Thensile strength of film. Evaluation of coated tablets, defects of 4. Processing of Capsules : Hard gelatin capsules - Materials and production.
Filling equipment, hand filling, semiautomatic and automatic filling. Operations, formulation. Finishing and evaluation. Soft gelatin capsules - manufacture process, nature of capsule shell and contents. Evaluation, physical stability and packing. 5. Microencapsulation : Importance and applications of microencapsulation in
Pharmacy. Various techniques and equipment employed for microencapsulation. 6. Semi – solid dosage forms : A brief review of the preparation of ointments,
creams and suppositories. 7. Pharmaceutical aerosols : Advantages of aerosol dosage form. Formulation
of aerosol products and their standardization. Books Recommended :
1. C. W. Copper and G. Gunn, Dispensing Pharmacy, CBS Publishers & Distributors, Delhi – 110032 2. L. Lachman et. al., Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy, Varghese Publishing House, Dadar, Bombay – 400014, 1987. Suggested Readings :
1. A. Osol Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, XVIII edition, Mack Publishing co., Pennsylvania, USA, 1990. 2. The Pharmacopoeia of India, IIIrd Edition, Vol. I and Vol. II, 1996, Govt. of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Delhi. 3. British Pharmacopoedia, International Edition, 1993. 4. The United States Pharmacopoeia, XXII & NF XVII and addenda, 1995. 5. The Pharmaceutical Codex, 12th Edition, The Pharmaceutical Press, London, 1994. 6. Patrick B. Deasy, Microencapsulation and related drug processes, Dekker series Vol. 7. F.J. R. Nixon, Microencapsulation., Dekker series Vol 3. 8. Joseph R. Robinson, Sustained and Controlled Drug Delivery Systems, Dekker Medicinal Chemistry-III PHA-842 Credits:
Structure, stereochemistry, nomenclature, mode of action, specific clinical applications and structure activity relationships of following classes of drugs and synthesis/commercial routes to specified drugs. 1. CNS Active Drugs: CNS Depressants : Hypnotics and sedatives: Barbiturates,
Non-barbiturates, Amides and Imides, Glutethimide, Bezodiazepines, Aldehydes and derivatives, Methaqualone and other miscellaneous agents. Anticonvulsants:
Barbiturates, Hydanatoins, Oxazolidinediones. Succinimides, Bezodiazepines, Thenacemide, Glutethimide. CNS-stimulants & Psychoactive drugs:
Analeptics, Purines, Psychomotor stimulants, Sympathomimetics, Monamine oxidase inhibitors, Tricyclic antidepressants, Miscellaneous psychomotor stimulants. Hallucinogens (Psychodelics, Psychomimetics): Indolethylamines, β-
phenylethylamines, Butyrophenones and other miscellaneous drugs. Commercial Synthetic routes to : Thioridazine, Haloperidol, Chloropromazine,
Phyenytoin, Phenobarital, Carbamazipine valproic acid, Methaquolane, Nitrazepam, Oxazepam, Diazepam, Cholridazepoxide, Lorazepam, Flurazepam, Triazolam, Alprazolam, Amitriptyline, Imipramine, Amphetamine, Protriptyline, Chloripramine, Iproniazide, tranylcypromine, Doxepin, phenteramine, caffeine 12 2. Adrenergic and cholinergic drugs: Sympathomimetics, Catecholamines,
Phenylethamolamines, Phenylethylamines, Non-catecholamines, Imidazoline derivatives, Adrenergic blocking agents. Cholinergic agents: Autonomic
blocking and related drugs. Antispasmodic and antiulcer drugs. Antiparkinsonism Commercial Synthetic route to : Tiquinamide, Elantine, Phentolamine,
Tolazoline, Salbutamol, Terbutaline, Dicyclomine, Clidinium bromide, Ranitidine, cimetidine, Chlorpheniramine, Hydroxyzine, Terfenadine, Isoproteronol, Albuterol, Tolimidine. 5 4. Antiviral agents: Introduction, Screening metholdology, Admantane derivatives
(Amantadine, Rimantadine), Idoxuridine, Trifluridine, Vidarabine, Ribavarain, Acycloguanosine, Inospiplex,Methisazone, Zidovudine, Acyclovir, Ganciclovir, Foscarnet, Human Interferon. Commercial synthetic routes to : Acyclovir, Ganciclovir, Zidovudine,
Enviroxime, Lamivudine, Idoxuridine, Disoxaril. 8 4. Antineoplastic agents: Alkylating agents (Nitrogen mustards, Aziridines, Sulfonic
acid Esters, Epoxides, Nitrosoureas, Triazenes, Phosphamides, Mitomycin, Comparative activity of alkalyting agents). Antimetaboilities: Antifolates
(Methotrexate), Mercaptopurine, Thioguanine, Flourouracil, Floxuridine, Cytarabine, Azathioprine, Antitumor, antibiotics, Dactinomycin, Daunorubricin, Aclacinomycin, Mithramycin, Bleomycin, Miscellaneous compounds: Cisplatin,
Taxol, Gunazole, Pipobromin. Antitumor alkaloids: Vincristine, Vinblastine.
Hormones agonist and antiagonists: Steroids, Tamoxifen, Mitotane,
Dromastanolone propionate, Testalactone, Megestrol acetate Immunotherapy. Commercial synthetic routes to : Methtrexate, Trimetrexate, Adatrexate,
Mercaptopurine, Dromostanolone, Cytarabine, Fludarabine, Thioguanine, Dezaguanine, Bisanterene, Acivicin, Piroxanthrone. 10 5. Antiallergenics: Serotonin, Bradykinin, Antihistamines (ethylenediamine derivatives
of aminoalkyl ethers, derivatives of cyclic basic chains, Monoaminopropyl derivataives, derivatives of tricyclic compounds). Commercial Synthetic routes to : Chlorpheniramine, hydroxyazine,
diphenylhydroxamine, acrivastine, Meclizine, Altaersin. 5 6. Diagnostic Agents and Organic Pharmaceutical Aids : Diagnostic agent:
Introduction, Radiapaques for Alimentary tract, (urography, angiography and cholecystography), liverfunction dyes. Organic Pharmaceuticals Aids:
Preservatives and antioxidants. Colouring, Flavouring and Sweetening agents, Emulsifying agents, Stabilising and suspending agents, Ointment bases, Books Recommended:
1. Wilson and Gisvolds Textbook of Organic Medicinal and Pharmaceuticals Chemsitry, 8th edition, edited by R.F. Doerge, J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1982. 2. Pharmaceutical Chemicals in Perspective, B.G. Reuben and H.A. Wittcoff, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1989. 3. W.C. Foye, Principles of Medicinal Chemistry, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, USA. Suggested Reading:
1. Strategies for Organic Drug Synthesis and Design, D. Lendnicer, John Wiley and Son, New York, 1998. Drug Design and Drug Development PHA-843
1. Introduction History and Objective of drug designing : Economic aspects of
drug designing. Procedures followed in drug designing. Lead based methods. Approaches to lead discovery. Drug discovery without a lead-de Novo drug 2. Structure Activity Relationships : Quantitative analysis of structure activity
relationships. Hansch Paradigm for pharmaceuticals - Apparent lack of structure-activity relationships. Apparent structure activity relationships, True structure activity relationships. Extra-thermodynamic parameters:
Electronic, Steric and Hydrophobic substituents constant. Structural and theoretical parameters. Bioisostreism. Hansch analysis, Free and Wilson method Physicochemical parameters, Craig Plot, Toplis operational scheme. Cluster analysis. Pattern recognition. Partition coefficient and its significance. 3. Drug Designing and molecular orbital method : Molecular orbital
calculations and chemical reactivity. Perturbation theories of drug action. Pullman's dipositive bond theory. Role of charge transfer processes in drug action. Conformational aspects and molecular orbital calculations. Molecular orbital approach to drug design with specific example of thiadiazine antihypertensives. 4. Drug Receptor - Interaction : Historical, Receptor theories and forces
involved in drug receptor interaction. Stereochemical and conformational aspects of drug receptor interaction. Agonists and Antagonists. Designing or receptor antagonists. Receptor binding as a tool in designing biologically active steroids. Peptidomimetics : Peptidomimetics research, Rational design
of Peptidomimetics, nonpeptide, ligands for peptide receptors, Applications of oligonucleotides in antiviral and antitumoral chemotherapy. Antisense nucleotides designing. 5 Prodrug Approach : Basic concept, Common promoities. Reversal of
prodrugs - chemical and enzymatic. Application of prodrug approach to alter taste and odour, reduction of pain at injection site, reduction of gastrointestinal irritability. Alteration of drug solubility, increasing chemical stability. Prevention of presystematic metabolism. Prolongation of drug action, site specific drug delivery. Reduction in drug toxicity. Alteration of drug metabolism. 6. Computer Aided Drug Designing : Computer requirement hardware,
software, Data base and information retrieval techniques. Graphical description of chemical structure. Molecular interactions and interactive graphics. Modelling in medicinal chemistry-uses and limitations. Logico structural approaches. Activity feature selection within a group of compounds, Activity profile selection. Topological and topographical Books Recommended :
The Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Drug Action, by R. B. Silverman, Academic Press, 1992. Drug Designs - A series of monographs in medicinal chemistry edited by A. J. Ariens. Ist edition, Vol. I, II, V, VIII & IX (only relevant chapters). Comprehensive medicinal chemistry. Peragmon Press. 1990, Vol. 4. Modern Drug Research , Paths to Better and Safer Drugs, Medicinal research series, volume 12, edited by Yvonne Connolly Martin Eberhard Kutter Vokhard Austel Suggested Readings :
1. Medicinal Chemistry for 21st century edited by C. G. Wermuth, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1997. Pharmaceutical Technology Practical PHA-844 Credits: 3
1. Preparation of tablets by dry / wet granulation method and their evaluation. 2. Coating of granules and tablets and their evaluation. 3. Microencapsulation and evaluation in microcapsules. 5. Filling sealing and evaluation of hard galatin capsules. 6. Preparation of emulsion and evaluation. 7. Preparation of simple syrup and evaluation. 8. (i) Preparation of iodine solution and evaluation. (ii) Preparation of strong iodine solution and evaluation. 9. Preparation of magnesiumuhydroxide mixture and evaluation. 10. Preparation of Calamine lotion. 11. Preparation of Boric acid glycerin/tannic acid glycerin/phenol glycerin. 12. Preparation of cough mixture. 13. Preparation of peppermint water / rose water. 14. Preparation of cresol with soap solution. 15. Preparation of non-staining iodine ointment cum methyl salicylate. 16. Formulation of suppositories. 17. Formulation of ointment(s). 18. Preparation of cold cream, vanishing cream and after-shave lotion. 19. To carry out accelerated stability studies of tablets / capsules / syrups. 20. To find out base adsorption for a given drug. 21. Evaluation of packing materials (strip packs & Blisher Packs) i) Thickness of Aluminium foil and lamination. ii) Water permeability and quality of printing. 22. Evaluation of injections (ampoules 2 ml. and 5 ml.). 23. In-vitro comparative study of the release and penetration of drugs from topical
24. To perform quality control tests on surgical gauge Bandage cotton. Note : Any other experiment (s) may be included in support of the theoretical
aspects of the course.
Project Report PHA-845
Reflected as Non- grade- (Satisfactory/Not-satisfactory) in mark sheet
BACHELOR OF PHARMACY
(I Year) Semester I
Pharmaceutical Analysis-1 3(3-0-0)
Pharmaceutical Analysis-1 Practical 2(0-0-4)
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-I (Inorganic Pharm. Chemistry) 3(3-0-0)
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-I (Inorganic Pharm. Chemistry) Practical 2(0-0-4)
Pharmaceutics –I (General Pharmacy) 3(3-0-0)
Pharmaceutics –I (General Pharmacy) Practical 2(0-0-2)
Basic Electronics & Computer Applications 3(3-0-0)
Basic Electronics & Computer Applications Practical 2(0-0-4)
Remedial Mathematics 4(4-0-0)
Remedial Biology 5(3-0-4)
English for Professionals -I 2(2-0-0)
(I Year) Semester II
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-II (Physical Chemistry) 3(3-0-0)
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-II Practical (Physical Chemistry) 2(0-0-4)
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-III (Organic Chemistry –I) 3(3-0-0)
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-III Practical (Organic Chemistry –I) 2(0-0-4)
Pharmaceutics-II (Unit Operation – I ) 3(3-0-0)
Human Anatomy, Physiology & Health Education –I 3(3-0-0)
Human Anatomy, Physiology & Health Education – I Practical 2(0-0-4)
Advanced Mathematics 4(4-0-0)
BACHELOR OF PHARMACY
(II Year) Semester III
Pharmaceutical Analysis-II 3(3-0-0)
Pharmaceutical Analysis-II Practical 2(0-0-4)
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-IV (Organic Chemistry - II) 3(3-0-0)
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-IV Practical (Organic Chemistry – II) 2 (0-0-4)
Pharmaceutics-III (Unit Operation – II) 3(3-0-0)
Pharmaceutics-III (Unit Operation – II) Practical 2(0-0-4)
Pharmacognosy-I Practical 2(0-0-4)
Human Anatomy, Physiology & Pathophysiology of Common Diseases-II 4(4-0-0)
Environmental Sciences -I 2(2-0-0)
(II Year) Semester IV
Pharmaceutics-IV (Physical Pharmacy) Pharmaceutics-IV Practical (Physical Pharmacy) Pharmaceutical Microbiology 4(4-0-0)
Pharmaceutical Microbiology Practical 2(0-0-4)
Pharmacognosy-II Practical 2(0-0-4)
Human Anatomy, Physiology & Pathophysiology of Common Diseases-III 4(4-0-0)
Environmental Sciences-II 2(2-0-0)
BACHELOR OF PHARMACY
(III Year) Semester V
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-V (Biochemistry) 3(3-0-0)
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-V (Biochemistry) Practical 2(0-0-4)
Pharmaceutics-V (Pharmaceutical Technology – I) 3(3-0-0)
Pharmaceutics-V Practical (Pharmaceutical Technology – I) 2(0-0-4)
Pharmaceutics-VI (Hospital Pharmacy) 3(3-0-0)
Pharmacognosy-III Practical 2(0-0-4)
Pharmacology-I Practical 2(0-0-4)
(III Year) Semester VI
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-VI (Medicinal Chemistry –I) 3(3-0-0)
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-VI Practical (Medicinal Chemistry–I) 2(0-0-4)
Pharmaceutics-VII (Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics) 3(3-0-0)
Pharmaceutics-VII Practical (Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics) 2(0-0-4)
Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence & Ethics. 4(4-0-0)
Pharmacognosy-IV Practical 2(0-0-4)
Pharmacology-II Practical 2(0-0-4)
BACHELOR OF PHARMACY
(IV Year) Semester VII
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-VII (Medicinal Chemistry II) 3(3-0-0)
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-VII Practical (Medicinal Chemistry II) 2(0-0-4)
Pharmaceutics-VIII (Pharmaceutical Technology –II) 3(3-0-0)
Pharmaceutics-VIII Practical (Pharmaceutical Technology–II) 2(0-0-4)
Pharmaceutical Bio-Technology 4(4-0-0)
Pharmaceutical Industrial Management 3(3-0-0)
Pharmacognosy-V (Chemistry of Natural Products) 3(3-0-0)
Pharmacognosy-V Practical (Chemistry of Natural Products) 2(0-0-4)
Pharmacology-III Practical 2(0-0-4)
(IV Year) Semester VIII
Pharmaceutical Analysis-III 3(3-0-0)
Pharmaceutical Analysis-III Practical 3(0-0-6)
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-VIII (Medicinal Chemistry III) 3(3-0-0)
Pharmaceutical Chemistry-VIII Practical (Medicinal Chemistry III) 2(0-0-4)
Pharmaceutics-IX (Dosage Form Design) 4(4-0-0)
Pharmacology IV (Clinical Pharmacy & Drug Interactions) 4(4-0-0)
Project Related to Elective TOPICS 2(0-0-4)
PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS – I
1. Significance of quantitative analysis in quality control, different techniques of analysis, preliminaries and definitions, significant figures, rules for retaining significant digits, types of errors, mean deviation, standard deviation, statistical treatment of small data sets, selection of sample, precision and accuracy, fundamentals of volumetric analysis, methods of expressing concentration, primary and secondary standards.
2. Acid Base Titrations : Acid base concepts, Role of solvent, Relative strengths of
acids and bases, Ionization, Law of mass action, Common ion effect, Ionic product of water, pH, Hydrolysis of salts, Henderson- Hesselbach equation, Buffer solutions, Neutralization curves, Acid- base indicators, Theory of indicators, Choice of indicators, mixed indicators, Polyprotic system, Polyamine and amino acid systems, Amino acid titration, applications in assay H3PO4, NaOH, CaCO3 etc. 3. Oxidation Reduction Titrations : Concepts of oxidation and reduction, Redox
reactions, strengths and equivalent weights of oxidizing and reducing agents, Theory of redox titrations, Redox indicators, Cell representations, Measurement of electrode potential, Oxidation –reduction curves, Iodimetry and Iodometry, Titrations involving ceric sulphate, potassium iodate, potassium bromate, potassium permanganate, titanous chloride and Sodium 2, 6-dichlorophenol indophenol. 4. Precipitation Titrations : Precipitation reactions, Solubility products, Effect of
acids, temperature and solvent upon the solubility of a precipitate.Argentometric titrations and titrations involving ammonium or potassium thiocyanate, mercuric nitrate and barium sulphate, Indicators, Gay-lussac method; Mohrs method, Volhard's method and Fajan's method. 5. Gravimetric Analysis : Precipitation techniques, Solubility products; The
colloidal state, Supersaturation co-precipitration, Post- precipitation, Digestional washing of the precipitate, Filtration, Filter papers and crucibles, Ignition, Thermogravimetric curves, specific examples like barium sulphate, aluminium as aluminium oxide, calcium as calcium oxalate and magnesium as magnesium pyrophosphate, Organic precipitants. PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS – I
Course Code: PHA 311
The students should be introduced to the main analytical tools through demonstrations. They should have a clear understanding of a typical analytical balance, the requirements of a good balance, weights, care and use of balance, methods of weighing and errors in weighing. The students should also be acquainted with the general apparatus required in various analytical procedures. 1. Standardization of analytical weights and calibration of volumetric apparatus. 2. Acid Base Titrations : Preparation and standardization of acids and bases;
some exercises related with determination acids and bases separately or in mixture form, some official assay procedures e.g. boric acid should also be covered. 3. Oxidation Reduction Titrations : Precipitation and standardization of some
redox titrants e.g. potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, iodine, sodium thiosulphate, etc. Some exercises related to determination of oxidizing and reducing agents in the sample should be covered. Exercises involving potassium iodate, potassium bromate, iodine solution, titanous chloride, sodium 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol and ceric ammonium sulphate. 4. Precipitation titrations : Preparation and standardization of titrants like
silver nitrate and ammonium thiocyanate, Titrations according to Mohr's, Volhard's and Fajan's methods. 5. Gravimetric Analysis: Preparation of gooch crucible for filtration and use of
sintered glass crucible; Determination of water of hydration, Some exercises related to gravimetric analysis should be covered. PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY – I
(INORGANIC PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY)
Credits - 3
AN OUTLINE OF METHODS OF PREPARATION, USES, SOURCES OF IMPURITIES, TESTS FOR PURITY AND IDENTITY, INCLUDING LIMIT TESTS FOR IRON, ARSENIC, LEAD , HEAVY METALS, CHLORIDE, SULPHUR AND SPECIAL TESTS IF ANY, OF THE FOLLOWING CLASSES OF INORGANIC PHARMACEUTICALS INCLUDED IN INDIAN PHARMACOPOEIA. Acids and Bases: Buffers, Water.
Gastrointestinal Agents: Acidifying agents, Antacids, Protectives and Adsorbents,
Major intra- and Extra-cellular Electrolytes: Physiological ions, Electrolytes used for
replacement therapy, acid-base balance and combination therapy.
Essential and Trace Elements: Transition elements and their compounds of pharmaceutical
importance: Iron and haematinics, mineral supplements.
Cationic and anionic components of inorganic drugs useful for systemic effects.
Topical Agents: Protectives, Astringents and Anti-infectives.
Gases and Vapours : Oxygen, Anesthetics and Respiratory stimulants.
Dental Products : Dentifrices, Anti-caries agents.
Complexing and chelating agents used in therapy.
Miscellaneous Agents: structure chemical properties and uses of Sclerosing agents,
expectorants, emetics, poisons and antidotes, sedatives etc.
Pharmaceutical Aids used in Pharmaceutical industry. Anti-oxidants, preservatives, filter aids, adsorbents, diluents, excipients, suspending agents, colorants etc. Inorganic Radio Pharmaceuticals: Nuclear radio pharmaceuticals, Reactions,
Nomenclature, Methods of obtaining their standards and units of activity, measurement of
activity, clinical applications and dosage, hazards and precautions. Sources of impurities &
their control, limit test for iron, arsenic, lead, heavy metals, chloride &
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY – I
Course Code: PHA – 313
Credits - 2
1. To perform limit test of chloride, sulphate, Iron, Heavy metal and arsenic in the given 2. Salt analysis . 3. Preparation of chemical compounds elonging to the different classes. All identification tests for pharmacopoeial inorganic pharmaceuticals and qualitative tests for cations and anions should be covered.
1. History of Pharmacy : Origin & development of pharmacy, scope of pharmacy, introduction
to pharmacopoeias with special reference to I.P, B.P., U.S.P,.
2. Pharmaceutical Additives : Coloring, flavouring & sweetening agents, cosolvents,
preservatives, surfactants & their applications, antioxidants.
3.Pharmaceutical calculations : Posology, calculation of doses for infants, adults and elderly
patients; Enlargig and reducing recipes,percentage solutions, allegation, alcohol dilution, proof
spirit, isotonic solutions, displacement values, etc.Metrology ,latin terms & abbrevations.
4. Principles involved and procedures adopted in dispensing of :
Monophasic liquid dosage forms
Solutions taken orally, solutions applied externally,solutions instilled into body cavities. Biphasic liquiod dosage forms
Emulsions & suspensions Official solutions.
Semisolid dosage forms
ointments,pastes,creams Solid dosage forms.
5. Incompatibilities :
Physical and chemical incompatibilities, inorganic incompatibilities including incompatibilities of metals and their salts, non-metals, acids, alkalis, organic incompatibilities, Purine bases, alkaloids, pyrazolone derivatives, amino acids, quaternary ammonium compounds, carbohydrates, glycosides, anesthetics, dyes, surface active agents, correction of incompatibilities. Therapeutic incompatibilities. PHARMACEUTICS – I
1. Dispensing of prescriptions falling under the categories : Mixtures, solutions, emulsions, creams, ointments, powders, suppositories, opthalmics, capsules, pastes, jellies, pastiles, lozenges, pills, tablet triturates, lotions, liniments, inhalations, paints, etc. 2. Identification of various types of incompatibilities in prescription, correction of thereof and dispensing of such prescriptions. 3. Dispensing procedures involving pharmaceutical calculations, pricing of prescriptions and dosage calculations for pediatric and geriatric patients. 4. Dispensing of prescriptions involving adjustment of tonicity. BASIC ELECTRONICS AND COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
1. Basic Electronics
Semiconductors, p-n junction diode, LED, Photodiode and its uses, Half & Full wave rectifiers, Transistors configuration, Transistor amplifiers, introduction to integrated circuit, photo cell and photo multiplier tubes. 2. Computers.
2.1 Introduction to Computers
Need and Role, Definition, Characteristics and Applications, Hardware: Basic block diagram & components, System & Application Softwares, Data & its Representation. 2.2 Operating System
Introduction, Functions,Working with DOS and Windows. 2.3 Computer Networks & Internet
Introduction , Types, Internet: History, usage and applications , Intranet. 2.4 Computer Languages
Generations, Translators (Assembler, Interpreter and compiler), Programming Techniques, Algorithms & Flowcharts 2.5 ‘C' Language
Expressions & Operators, Input/Output Statements, Control Statements, Array, Functions 2.6 Introduction to MS Office
MS-Word, MS-Excel and MS-Power point 2.7 Computer applications in Pharmacy.
BASIC ELECTRONICS AND COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
Code: COMP 402
1. Working with operating systems like MS-DOS, Windows 2. Study of Software packages like MS-Word, MS-Excel and MS-Power point 3. Packages related to Medical Applications 4. How to search data, workable knowledge of Internet 5. Cyber etiquettes 6. Simple programs in C language To find the largest among three numbers To check whether the given number is palindrome or not. To find whether the given number is the prime. To find sum and average of n integer using linear array To generate the Fibonacci series To find factorial of a given number using function. REMEDIAL MATHEMATICS
Course Code: MAS- Algebra : Equations reducible to quadratics, simultaneous equations (linear and quadratic),
determinants, prperties of solution of simultaneous equations by Cramer's rule, matrices,
definition of special kinds of matrices, arithmetic operations on matrices, inverse of a
matrix, solution of simultaneous equations by matrices, pharmaceutical applications of
determinants and matrices. Evaluation of En1, En2, and En3, mensuration and its
Trigonometry : Measurement of angle, T- ratios, addition, subtraction and transformation
formulae, T- ratios of multiple, submultiple, allied and certain angles, Application of
logarithms in pharmaceutical computations.
Analytical Plane Geometry : Certain co-ordinates, distance between two points, area of
triangle, a locus of point, straight line slope and intercept form, double- intercept form,
normal (perpendicular form), slope-point and two point form, general equation of first
Limits and functions, definition of differential coefficient, diffentiation of standard functions, including function of a function ( Chain rule). Differentiation of implicit functions, logarithmic differentiation, parametric differentiation, successive differentiation. Integral :
Integration as inverse of differentiation, indefinite integrals of standard forms, integration by parts, substitution and partial fractions, formal evaluation of definite integrals. REMEDIAL BIOLOGY
Methods of classification of plants. Plant Cell : Its structure and non -living inclusions; mitosis and meiosis, different types
of plant tissues and their functions.
Morphology and histology of root , stem , bark , wood , leaf, flower fruit and seed. Modification of root and stem. General Survey of Animal Kingdom, Structure and life history of parasites as illustrated by amoeba, entamoeba, trypanosoma, plasmodium, taenia, ascaris, schistosoma, oxyuris, and ancyclostoma. General Structurre and life history of insects like mosquito, housefly, mites and silkworm. REMEDIAL BIOLOGY PRACTICAL
1. Morphology of plant parts indicated in theory. 2. Care, use and type of microscopes. 3. Gross identification of slides of structure and life cycle of lower plants, animals mentioned in theory. 4. Morphology plant parts indicated in theory. 5. Preparation, microscopic examination of stem, root and leaf of monocot and dicot 6. Structures of human parasites and insects mentioned in theory with the help of COURSE: ENGLISH FOR PROFESSIONALS-I
Course Code: LNG 401 Credit Hours: (2-0-2) 3
b. Parts of Speech d. Vocabulary Building (Synonyms, Antonyms, One word substitution, Homonyms f. Effective use of Punctuation Technical Writing :
a. Formal letters
b. Essay Writing c. Précis Writing Spoken English :
• Martinet A.V. and Thomson A.J.A Practical English Grammar,IV ed. 1986, Oxford University Press, Delhi. • Agarwal, Malti: Krishna's Professional Communication,KRISHNA Prakashan Media(P) Ltd, Meerut. • Iyadurai P. English Phonetics for Beginners, I ed, 1992, Jones • Balasubramaniam, T: A Text Book of English Phonetics for Indian Students, MACMILLAN INDIA LTD. SEMESTER –II
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY – II
Course code: PHA-320
1. Behaviour of Gases: Kinetic theory of gases, deviation from behaviours and
2. The Liquid state: Physical Properties (surface tension, parachor, viscosity,
refractive index, optical rotation, dipole moments and chemical constituents). 3. Solutions: Ideal and real solutions, solutions of gases in liquids, - colligative
properties, partition coefficient, conductance and its measurement, Debye Huckel theory. 4. Thermodynamics: First, second and third laws, Zeroth law, absolute temperature
scale, thermochemical equations. 5. Adsorption: Freudlich and Gibbs adsorption, isotherms, Langmuir theory of
6. Electro chemistry : Faraday's Laws of Electrolysis, Electrolytic conductance & its
measurement, molar & equivalent conductivity, its variation with dilution. Kohlrausch law,Arrhenius theory, degree of ionisation & Ostwald dilution law. Transport number & migration of ion, Hittorfs theoretical device, theory of strong elecrolytes (Debye Huckle theory).] 7. Chemical Kinetics: Zero, first and second order reactions, complex reactions,
theories of reaction kinetics, characteristics of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyasis, acid base and enzyme catalysis. 8. Phase equilibria : Phase, component, degree of freedom, phase rule (excluding
derivation). Cooling curves & Phase diagrams for one & two component system involving eutectics, ongruent & incongruent melting point (examples-water, sulphur, KI-H2O, NaCI-H2O system). Distribution law & application to solvent extraction. PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY – II
Course code: PHA-321
1. To determine refractive index of given liquids and find out the contribution of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in molar refraction of a compound. 2. To determine the specific rotation of sucrose at various concentrations and determine the intrinsic rotation. 3. To determine the cell constant, verify Ostwald dilution law and perform conductometric 4. To determine rate constant of simple reaction. 5. Determination of cell constant, verify Ostwald dilution law and perform conductometric 6. Determination of surface tension. 7. Determination of partition co-efficient. Determination of viscosity. 8. pH determination by different methods. 9. Determination of solubility. PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY –III
Course code: PHA-322 The subject of organic chemistry will be treated in its modern perspective keeping for the sake of convenience, the usual classification of organic compounds: 1. Structure and Properties : Atomic structure, Atomic orbitals, Molecular orbital theory,
wave equation, Molecular orbitals, Bonding and antibonding orbitals, Covalent bond, Hybrid orbitals, intramolecular forces, Bond dissociation energy, Polarity of bonds, Polarity of molecules, structure and physical properties, intermolecular forces, Acids and bases. 2. Stereochemistry : Isomerism and nomenclature and associated physicochemical properties,
optical activity, stereoisomerism, specification of configuration, Reactions involving stereoisomers, chirality, chiral reagents conformations. 3. Structure, Nomenclature, Preparation and Reactions of : Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes;
Cycloalkanes, Dienes, Benzene, Polynuclear aromatic compounds, Arenes, Alkyl halides, Alcohols, Ethers, Epoxides, Amines, Phenols, Aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acids, Functional derivatives of carboxylic acids, Reactive intermediates- carbocations, carbanions, carbenes, nitrene and nitrenium ions. PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY –III
Course code: PHA-323
The student should be introduced to the various laboratory techniques through demonstrations involving synthesis of selected organic compounds ( e.g. aspirin, p-bromoacetanilide, anthraquinone from anthracine, reduction of nitrobenzene etc.) 2. Identification of organic compounds and their derivatisation. Introduction to the use of stereomodels. Purification of solvents like Benzene, chloroform, acetone and Preparation of absolute alcohol. 5. Synthesis of compounds involving benzoylation, acetylation, bromination, reduction & oxidation. 6. Purification of solvents like Benzene, chloroform, acetone and preparation of absolut alcohol. PHARMACEUTICS - II
(UNIT OPERATION- I)
1. Unit Operations : Introduction, basic laws.
2. Stoichiometry : Unit processes, material and energy balances, molecular units, mole
fraction, tie substance, gas laws, mole volume, primary and secondary quantities, equilibrium
state, rate processes, steady and unsteady states, dimensionless formulae, dimensionless groups,
different types of graphic representation, mathematical problems.
3. Heat transfer : Source of heat, heat transfer, steam and electricity as heating media,
determination of requirement of amount of steam/electrical energy, steam pressure, Boiler
capacity, mathematical problems on heat transfer.
4.Fluid Flow : Types of flow, Reynold's number, Viscosity, Concept of boundary layer, basic
equations of fluid flow, valves, flowmeters, manometers and measurement of flow and pressure.
5. Material Handling Systems :
a. Liquid handling – Different types of pumps. b. Gas handling - Various types of fans, blowers and compressors. c. Solid handling – Bins, Bunkers, Conveyors, Air transport. 6. Filtration and centrifugation: Theory of filtration, filter aids, filter media, industrial filters
including filter press, rotary filter, edge filter, etc. Factors affecting filtration, mathematical
problems on filtration, optimum-cleaning cycle in batch filters, Principles of centrifugation,
industrial centrifugal filters, and centrifugal sedimenters.
7. Crystallization: Characteristics of crystals like – purity, size, shape, geometry, habit, forms
size and factors affecting them. Solubility curves and calculation of yields. Material and heat
balances around Swenson Walker Crystallizer. Supersaturation theory and its limitations,
Nucleation mechanisms, crystal growth. Study of various types of crystallizer, tanks, agitated
batch, Swenson Walker, Single vacuum, circulating magma and crystal Crystallizer, caking of
crystals and its prevention. Numerical problems on yields.
8. Material of Construction : General study of composition , corrosion, resistance, Properties
and applications of materials of construction with special reference to stainless steel and glass.
9. Industrial Hazards and Safety Precautions : Mechanical, Chemical, Electrical, fire and
dust hazards. Industrial dermatitis, Accident records, Radiation hazards. etc.
HUMAN ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY & HEALTH EDUCATION –I
a. Introduction to human body & organization of human body. b. Functional & structural characteristics of cell. c. Detailed structure of cell membrane & physiology of transport process. d. Structural & functional characteristics of tissues- epithelial, connective, muscle and nerve. Skeletal system-
Structure, composition & functions of skeleton. Classification of joints, types of movements of joints. Anatomy & physiology of skeletal & smooth muscle, neurotransmission, physiology of skeletal muscle contraction, energy metabolism, types of muscle contraction, muscle tone. Unit-III
Haemopoietic system: Composition & function of blood & its elements, erythopoesis, blood groups, blood coagulation. a) Concepts of health & disease: Disease causing agents & prevention of disease. b) Classification of food requirements: Balanced diet, Nutritional deficiency disorders, their treatment & prevention, specification for drinking water. Sense Organs: Basic anatomy and physiology of the eye (vision), ear (hearing), taste buds, nose
(smell), and skin (superficial receptors).
Composition, formation and circulation of lymphs, lymph node and spleen. HUMAN ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY & HEALTH EDUCATION-I
1. Study of human skeleton. 2. Microscopic study of different tissues. 3. Estimation of haemoglobin in blood, Determination of bleeding time, clotting time, R.B.C, Count, Total leucocyte count, D.L.C. and E.S.R. 4. Recording of body temperature, pulse rate and blood pressure, basic understanding of Electrocardiogram – PQRST waves and their significance. ADVANCED MATHEMEATICS
1. Differential Equations : Revision of integral calculus, definition and formation of
differential equations, equations of first order and first degree, variable separable, homogeneous and linear differential equations reducible to such types, linear differential equations of the order greater than one with constant coefficients, complementary function and particular integral, simultaneous linear differential equations, pharmaceutical 2. Laplace transforms : Definition, transforms of elementary functions, properties of linearity
and shifting, inverse laplace transforms, transforms of derivatives, solution of ordinary and simultaneous differential equations. 3. Biometrics: sample size, data organization, diagrammatic representation of data,bar ,pie, 2-D
and 3-D diagrams, measures of central tendency, measures of dispersion, Standard Deviation and standard error of means, coefficient of variation, probability and events, Bayes' theorem,probability distribution, elements of binomial and Poisson distribution, normal distribution curve and properties, kurtosis and skewness, correlation and regression analysis, method of least squares, statistical inference, Student's and paired t-test, F-test and elements of ANOVA, applications of statistical concepts in Pharmaceutical Sciences. SEMESTER –III
PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS – II
Theoretical considerations and application in drug analysis and quality control of the following analytical techniques. Non-aqueous titrations
Miscellaneous Methods of Analysis : Diazotisation titrations, Kjeldahl method
of nitrogen estimation, Karl-Fischer titration, Oxygen flask combustion, Extraction procedures including separation of drugs from excipients
Chromatography: The following techniques will be discussed with relevant
examples of Pharmacopoeial products.
TLC, HPLC, GLC, HPTLC, Paper Chromatography and Column
PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS – II
1. Nonaqueous Titrations : Preparation and standardization of perchloric acid and
sodium/potassium/lithium methoxides solutions; Estimations of some pharmacopoeial 2. Complexometric Titrations: Preparations and standardization of EDTA solution, some
exercises related to pharmacopoeial assays by complexometric titrations. 3. Miscellaneous Determinations : Exercises involving diazotisation, Kjeldahl, Karl-Fischer,
Oxygen flask combustion and gasometry methods. Determination of alcohol content in liquid galenicals, procedure (BPC) shall be covered. 4. Experiments involving separation of drugs from excipients. 5. Chromatographic analysis of some pharmacopoeial products. 6. Exercises based on acid base titration in aqueous and non-aqueous media, oxidation reduction titrations using potentiometric technique, Determination of acid-base disassociation constants and plotting of titration curves using pH meter. 7. Exercises involving polarimetry. 8. Exercises involving conductometric and polarograpic techniques. PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY – IV (ORGANIC CHEMISTRY – II)
Nucleophilic aromatic substitutions; α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds; conservation of orbital symmetry and rules. Electrocyclic, Cycloaddition and signatropic reactions. Heterocyclic Compound – Nomenclature, Chemistry, preparation, properties and
Pharmaceutical importance of pyrrole, furan, thiophene, pyridine, pyrimidine, imidazole, pyrazole, thiazole, benzimidazole, indole, phenothiazines. Classification, structure, reactions, structure elucidation, identification of Carbohydrates:
Monosaccharides – Glucose and fructose. Disaccharides – Sucrose, lactose and maltose. Polysaccharides – Starch. Classification, identification, general methods of preparation and reactions of amino acids
Chemistry of lipids and Nucleic acids.
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY – IV
(ORGANIC CHEMISTRY – II)
Course code: PHA-433 At least five exercises in synthesis involving various heterocyclic ring systems, An exercise involving stereoselective synthesis of a compound. Resolution of racemic DL- alanine or any other example. Workshop on molecular modelling of primary, secondary and tertiary structures of proteins, molecular modeling on double helical structure of nucleic acid showing hydrogen bonding. Identification of organic compounds with derivatization. PHARMACEUTICS –III
(UNIT OPERATION- II)
1. Evaporation : Basic concept of phase equilibria, factor affecting evaporation,
evaporators, film evaporators, single effect and multiple effect evaporators, mathematical
problems on evaporation.
2. Distillation : Raoult's law, phase diagrams, volatality; simple steam and flash
distillations, principles of rectification, Mc. Cabe Thiele method for calculation of
number of theoretical plates, Azeotropic and extractive distillation. Mathematical
problems on distillation.
3. Drying : Moisture content and mechanism of drying, rate of drying and time drying
calculations; classification and type of dryers, dryers used in pharmaceutical industries
and special drying methods. Mathematical problems in drying.
4. Size reduction and size separation : Definition, objectives of size reduction,
factors affecting size reduction, laws governing energy and power requirements of mills
including ball mill, hammer mill, fluid energy mill, etc.
5. Mixing : Theory of mixing, solid-solid, solid-liquid and liquid-liquid mixing
6.Dehumidification and Humidity Control : Basic concepts and definition, wet bulb
and adiabatic saturation temperatures, Psychrometric chart and measurement of humidity,
application of humidity measurement
in pharmacy, equipments for dehumidification operations. Refrigeration and Air conditioning: Principal and applications of refrigeration
and air conditioning. PHARMACEUTICS –III
(UNIT OPERATION- II)
1. Measurement of flow of fluids and their pressure determination, Reynolds's
number and calculation of Frictional losses. 2. Evaluation of filter media, determination of rate of filtration and study of factors affecting filtration. 3. Experiments to demonstrate applications of centrifugation. 4. Thermometers and Psychrometric charts. 5. Determination of humidity- use of Dry bulb and Wet bulb. 6.Determination of rate of evaporation. 7.Experiments based on steam, extractive and azeotropic distillations. 8.Determination of rate of drying, free moisture content and bound moisture content. 9.Experiments to illustrate the influence of various parameters on the rate of drying 10.Experiments to illustrate principles of size reduction, laws governing energy and power requirements of size reduction. 11.Experiments to illustrate solid-solid mixing, determination of mixing efficiency using different types of mixers. PHARMACOGNOSY – I 1. Definition, history, scope and development of Pharmacognosy. 2. Sources of drugs : Biological, marine, mineral and plant tissue cultures as sources of drugs.
3. Classification of drugs: Alphabetical, morphological, taxonomical, chemical and
pharmacological classification of drugs. 4. Plant taxonomy: Study of the following families with special reference to medicinally
important plants- Apocynacae, Solanaceae, Compositeae, Umbellifereae, Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Liliaceae, Labiatae, Cruciferae, Papaveraceae. 5. Cultivation, collection, processing and storage of crude drugs: Factors influencing
cultivation of medicinal plants. Types of soils and fertilizers of common use. Pest management and natural pest control agents. Plant hormones and their applications. Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants. 6. Quality control of crude drugs: Adulteration of crude drugs and their detection by
organoleptic, microscopic, physical chemical and biological methods of evaluation as per WHO guidelines. 7. Systematic pharmacognostic study of following :
a) Carbohydrates and derived products: Agar, Algin, Guar gum, acacia, Honey, Isabgol,
Pectin, Starch, Sterculia and Tragacanth. b) Lipids: Bees wax, Castor oil, Cocoa butter, Cod liver oil, Hydnocarpus oil, Linseed oil,
Rice bran oil, Shark liver oil and Wool fat, Lard & Suet. c) Fibres : Study of fibres used in pharmacy such as cotton, silk, wool, nylon glass-wool,
polyester and asbestos. d) Pharmaceutical aids : Study of pharmaceutical aids like talc, diatomite, kaolin,
bentonite, gelatin and natural colours. PHARMACOGNOSY – I PRACTICAL Course Code: PHA 437
1. Morphological characteristics of plant families mentioned in theory. 2. Microscopic measurements of cells and Cell contents : Starch grains, calcium
oxalate crystals ,Phloem fibres and other diagnostic characters. 3. Determination of leaf constants such as stomatal index, stomatal number, vein-islet number, vein termination number and palisade ratio. 4. Identification of crude drugs belonging to carbohydrates and lipids. 5. Study of fibres and pharmaceutical aids. 6. Preparation of herbarium sheets. HUMAN ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY & PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF COMMON
Central Nervous System:
Functions of different parts of brain and spinal cord. Neurohumoral transmission in the central nervous system, reflex action, electroencephalogram, specialized functions of the brain. Cranial nerves and their functions. Autonomic Nervous System
Physiology and functions of the autonomic nervous system. Mechanism of neurohumoral transmission the A.N.S. Unit-II:
Cell injury & Adaptation
Courses of cell injury, pathogenesis & morphology of cell injury. Cellular Adaptation
Atropy, hypertropy, aplasia, metaplasia, & dysplasia, intracellular accummulation & pathophysiology of Neoplasm. Basic mechanisms involved in the process of inflammation and repair Alterations in vascular permeability and blood flow, migration of WBC's, mediators of inflammation. Brief outline of the process of repair. Pathophysiology of Joints disorder
Arthritis, gout, myasthenia gravis, spasticity, tetany, fatigue. Unit-IV:
Demography and Family Planning, Medical termination of pregnancy.
First Aid : Emergency treatment of shock, snake bites, burns, poisoning, fractures and
Brief outline, their causative agents, modes of transmission and prevention (Chicken pox, measles, influenza, diphtheria, whooping cough, tuberculosis, poliomyelities, helminthiasis, malaria, filariasis, rabies, trachoma, tetanus, leprosy, syphillis, gonorrhoea, and AIDS). Pathophsiology of anaemia, AIDS, hypersensitivity, allergic conditions, epilepsy, Parkinson & Alzeimer's diseases pathophysiology of cataract, glaucoma etc. SEMESTER –IV
PHARMACEUTICS – IV
1. Micromeretic and Powder Rheology : Particle size and distribution. Average particle size,
number and weight distribution, particle number, methods for determining particle volume , optical microscopy, sieving , sedimentation, measurement, particle shape, specific surface, methods for determining surface area, permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement, densities, bulkiness and flow properties. 2. Surface and interfacial Phenomenon: Liquid interface, surface and interfacial tensions,
surface free energy, measurement of of surface and interfacial tensions, spreading coefficient, adsorption at liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB classification, solubilization, detergency, adsorption at solid interfaces, solid-gas and solid –liquid interfaces, complex films, electrical properties of interface. 3. Viscosity and Rheology : Newtonian systems, Law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect of
temperature, non- Newtonian systems, pseudoplastic, dilatant, plastic, thixotropy in formulation, determination of viscosity, capillary, falling ball, rotational viscometers. 4. Dispersion Systems :
Colloidal Dispersions :
Definition, types, properties of colloids, protective colloids, applications of colloids in pharmacy; Interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling in suspensions, theory of sedimentation, effect of Brownian movement, sedimentation of flocculated articles, sedimentation parameters, wetting of particles, controlled flocculation, flocculation in structured vehicles, rheological considerations; Emulsions:
Types, identification, theories, preparation & physical stability. 6. Complexation: Classification of complexes, methods of preparation and analysis,
PHARMACEUTICS – IV (PHYSICAL PHARMACY)
Course code: PHA-441
.Determination of particle size, particle size distribution and surface area using various methods of particle size analysis. 1. Determination of derived properties of powders like density, porosity, compressibility, angle of repose etc. 2. Determination of surface / interfacial tension, HLB value and critical micellar concentration of surfactants. 3. Study of rheological properties of various types of systems using different 4. Studies of different types of colloids and their properties. 5. Preparation of various types of suspensions and determination of their sedimentation 6. Preparation and stability studies of emulsions. 7. Studies on different types of complexes and determination of their stability PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY
1. Introduction to the scope of microbiology 2. Structure of bacterial cell 3. Classification of microbes and their taxonomy. Actinomycetes, bacteria, rickettsiae, spirochetes and viruses 4. Identification of microbes: Stains and types of staining techniques, electron 5. Nutrition, cultivation, isolation of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, viruses, etc. 6. Control of microbes by physical and chemical methods. a. Disinfection, factors influencing disinfectants, dynamics of disinfection, disinfectants, disinfectants and antiseptics and their evaluation. b. Sterilization, different methods, validation of sterilization methods and 7. Sterility testing of all pharmaceutical products. 8. Immunity, primary and secondary, defensive mechanisms of body, microbial resistance, interferon. 9. Microbial assays of antibiotics, vitamins and amino acidsas per pharmacopoeia. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY
Experiments devised to prepare various types of culture media, subculturing of common aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, fungus and yeast, various staining methods, various methods of isolation and identification of microbes, sterilization techniques and their validation, evaluation of antiseptics and disinfectants, testing the stability of pharmaceutical products as per IP requirements, microbial assay of antibiotics and vitamins, etc. PHARMACOGNOSY - II
Resins : Study of Drugs containing Resins and Resin Combination like Colophony,
podophyllum, jalap, cannabis, capsicum, myrrh, asafoetida, balsam of tolu, balsam of peru,
benzoin, turmeric, ginger.
1. Tannins: Study of tannins and tannin containing drugd like Gambir, black catechu,
gall and myrobalans, Ashoka. 2. Volatile Oils : General methods of obtaining volatile oils from plants, Study of
volatile oils of Mentha, Spearmint, Cinnamon, Cassia, Orange peel, Clove, Coriander, Fennel, Caraway, Dill, Nutmeg, Eucalyptus, Chenopodium, Cardamom, Valerian, Lemon grass, Citronella. 3. Utilization of aromatic plants and derived products with special reference to sandalwood oil, lemon grass oil, vetiver oil, geranium oil and eucalyptus oil. 4. Natural Allergans, Photosensitizing agents & fungal toxins 5. Chemotaxonomy of medicinal plants. 6. Phytochemical Screening :
a. An introduction to extraction, isolation, & purification.
b. classification and properties of phytoconstituents.
c. Screening of alkaloids, saponins, cardenolides and bufadienolides, flavonoids
and leucoanthocyanidins, tannins and polyphenols, anthraquinones, cynogenetic glycosides, amino acids in plant extracts. PHARMACOGNOSY - II
1. Identification of crude drugs mentioned in theory. 2. Microscopic studies of - selected crude drugs of volatile oils and their powders 3. Microscopic studies of - selected crude drugs and their powders mentioned under the category of resin & tannins in theory with their chemical tests. 4. General chemical tests for alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, resins and HUMAN ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY & PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF COMMON
Parts of digestive system, their structure and functions. Various gastrointestinal secretions & their role. Pathology of disorders related to digestive system Peptic Ulcer, Ulcerative colitis, Crohns disease, Zollinger- Ellison syndrome, Amoebiasis, typhoid, Hepatitis, Cirrhosis of liver, pancreatitis. Urinary System
Anatomy & physiology of urinary system, physiology of urine formation, acid- base balance, pathophysiology of renal feature, glomerulonephiritis, Urinary tract infection. Reproductive system
Male & female reproductive system. Menstruation, Pathophysiology of sexually transmitted diseases, spermatogenesis, oogenesis, pregnancy. Unit-III
Anatomy & Physiology of pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, control of harmone secretion, pathophysiology of hypo & hyper secretion of endocrine glands & their disorders e.g. – Diabetes mellitus. Respiratory System
Anatomy & function of respiratory structures, Mechanism of respiration, regulation of respiration, pathophysiology of Asthma, Pneumonia, Bronchits, Emphysema, Tuberculosis. Cardiovascular System
Functional Anatomy of heart, conducting system of heart, cardiac cycle, ECG (Electro cardiogram). Pathophysiology of hypertension, Angina, CHF, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, Ischaemic heart disease, Arteriosclerosis. SEMESTER –V
Course Code: PHA-550
1. Biochemical organization of the cell and transport processes across cell membrane. 2. The concept of free energy, determination of change in free energy from equilibrium constant and reduction potential, bioenergetics, production of ATP and its biological significance. 3.Enzymes: Nomenclature, enzyme kinetics and its mechanism of action, mechanism of
inhibition, enzymes and iso enzymes in clinical diagnosis. 4.Co-enzymes: Vitamins as co-enzymes and their significance. Metals as co-enzyme and their
5.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Conversion of polysaccharide to glucose –1-phosphate,
Glycolysis and fermentation and their regulation, Gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, Metabolism of galactose and galactosemia, Role of sugar nucleotides in biosynthesis, and Pentosephosphate pathway. 6.The Citric acid Cycle: Significance, reaction and energetic of the cycle, Amphibolic role of
cycle, and glyoxalic acid cycle. 7.Lipid Metabolism: Oxidation of fatty acids, ß- oxidation & energetic, α-oxidation, ω oxidation,
Biosynthesis of ketone bodies and their utilization. Biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, control of lipid metabolism, Essential fatty acid and eicosanoids (prostagladins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes), phospholipids and sphingolipids. 8. Biological oxidation: Redox –potential, enzymes and coenzymes involved in oxidation
reduction its control, The respiratory chain, its role in energy capture and its control, Energetic of oxidative phosphorylation, inhibitors of respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation 9. Metabolism of Ammonia and nitrogen containing Monomers: Nitrogen balance,
Biosynthesis of amino acids, Catabolism of amino acids, conversion of amino acids to specialized products, assimilation of ammonia, ureacycle, Metabolism of sulphur containing amino acids, Porphyry biosynthesis, and formation of pile pigments, hyperbilirubinemia, purine biosynthesis, urine nucleotide interconversion, Pyrimidine biosynthesis, and formation of deoxyribonucleotides 11. Biosynthesis of Nucleic Acids: Brief introduction of genetic organization of the mammalian
genome, alteration and rearrangements of genetic material, Biosynthesis of DNA and its replication, Mutation, physical and chemical mutagenesis / carcinogenesis, DNA repair mechanism biosynthesis of RNA. 12. Brief account on genetic engineering, polymerase chain reactions. Genetic code and protein synthesis: PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-V
1. Preparation of standard buffers (citrate, phosphate and carbonate) and measurement of 2. Separation of amino acids by chromatography. 3. The determination of glucose by means of the enzyme glucose oxidase.Enzymatic hydrolysis of glycogen by α & β amylase. 4. Effects of temperature on the activity of alpha amylase. 5. Qualitative analysis of inorganic as well as organic constituents of Urine. 6. Titration curve for amino acids. 7. The separation of lipids by TLC. 8. Quantitative estimation of amino acids. 9. Estimation of cholesterol in Blood. 10. Estimation of Glucose in blood & urine. 11. Estimation of Urea in blood. 12. Estimation of ketone bodies in blood. Estimation of cholesterol in Blood. PHARMACEUTICS - V (PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY- I)
Course Code: PHA-552
1. LIQUID DOSAGE FORMS: Introduction, types of additives used in formulations, vehicles,
stablisers, preservatives, suspending agents, emulsifying agents, solubilizer, colors, flavours and others, manufacturing packaging and evaluation of clear liquids, suspensions and emulsions official in pharmacopoeia. 2.SEMISOLID DOSAGE FORMS: Definitions, types, mechanism of drug penetration, factors
influencing penetration, semisolid bases and their selection. General formulation of semisolids, clear gels manufacturing procedure, evaluation and packaging. 3. SUPPOSITORIES: Ideal requirements, bases , manufacturing procedure ,packaging and
4.EXTRACTION AND GALANICAL PRODUCTS: Principle and method of extraction,
preparation of infusions, tinctures, dry and soft liquid extracts 5. PHARMACEUTICAL AEROSOLOS: Definition, propellants, and general formulation,
manufacturing and packing methods, pharmaceutical applications 6.Packaging of Pharmaceutical Products: Packaging components, types, specifications
and methods of evaluation, stability aspects of packaging. Packaging equipments, factors
influencing choice of containers, legal and other official requirements for containers,
7. COSMETICOLOGY AND COSMETIC PREPARATIONS: Fundamentals of cosmetic
science, structure and functions of skin and hair. Formulation, preparation and packaging of cosmetics for skin, hair, dentifrice and manicure preparation like nail polish ,lipsticks, eye lashes, baby care products etc. (PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY I) PRACTICALS
Course Code: PHA-551
1. Preparation, evaluation and packaging of liquid orals like solutions, suspensions and emulsions, ointments, suppositories, aerosols, eye drops, eye ointments etc. 2. Preparation of pharmacopoeia extracts and galanical products utilizing various methods of 3. Formulation of various types of cosmetics for skin, hair, dentifrices and manicure preparations. PHARMACEUTICS- VI
(HOSPITAL PHARMACY& COMMUNITY PHARMACY)
Course Code: PHA-554
1. Organization and structure: Organization of a hospital and hospital pharmacy,
responsibilities of a hospital pharmacist, pharmacy and therapeutic committee, budget preparation and implementation. 2. Hospital formulary: Contents, preparation and revision of hospital formulary.
3. Prescription : Handling of prescription, source of errors in prescription, care required in
dispensing procedures including labeling of dispensed products.
General dispensing procedures including labeling of dispensed products. 4. Drug store management and inventory control:
a. Organization of drug store, types of materials stocked and storage conditions. b. Purchase and inventory control principles, purchase procedures, purchase order, procurement and stocking. 5. Drug distribution systems in hospitals:
c. out-patient dispensing, methods adopted. d. Dispensing of drugs to in-patients. Types of drug distribution systems. Charging policy, labeling. e. Dispensing of drugs to ambulatory patients. f. Dispensing of controlled drugs. 6. Central sterile supply unit and their management: Types of materials for sterilization,
packing of materials prior to sterilization, sterilization equipments, supply of sterile materials.
7. Drug information services: Sources of information on drugs, disease, treatment
schedules, procurement of information, computerized services (Medline), Retrieval of
information, medication error.
8. Nuclear pharmacy: production of radio-pharmaceuticals, methods of isotopic tagging,
preparation of radio-isotopes ,radio isotope generators, permissible radiation dose level, Role
of pharmacist in handling radio isotopes.
9. Surgical products: Definition, Primary wound dressing, absorbents, surgical gauzes etc.,
bandages, adhesive tape, protective cellulosic hemostatics, official dressings, absorbable
nonabsorbable sutures, ligatures and catguts. Medical prosthetics and organ replacement materials
10. Community Pharmacy : Organisation and structure of retail and whole sale drug store
types of drug store design, legal; requirements for establishment, maintenance and drug store-
dispensing of proprietary products, maintenance of records of retail and whole sale, patient counseling, role of pharmacist in community health care and education. Credits-3
1. Study of the biological sources, cultivation, collection, commercial varieties, chemical constituents, substitutes, adulterants, uses, diagnostic macroscopic and microscopic features and specific chemical tests of following groups of drugs containing glycosides: Saponins: Liquorice, Ginseng,Methi, dioscorea, and senega.
Cardioactive sterols : Digitalis, Squill, Strophanthus and thevetia
Anthraquinone cathartics : Aloe, Senna, Rhubarb and Cascara.
Others : Psoralea, Ammi majus Ammi visnaga Gentian, Saffron, Chirata,
Studies of traditional drugs, common vernacular names, botanical sources, morphology, chemical nature of chief constituents, pharmacology, categories and common uses and marketed formulations of following indigenous drugs: Amla, satavari, Tylophora, Kalijiri, Bach, Punarnava, Chitrack, Aparnarg, Gokhru, Shankhapusphi, Brahmi, Adusa, Lahsun, Guggal, Gymnema, Shilajit, Nagarmotha, Stevia and Neem. The holistic concept of drug administration in traditional systems of medicine. Introduction to ayurvedic preparations like Aristas, Asvas, Gutikas, Tailas, Churnas, Lehyas and Bhasmas. Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy. A brief account of plant based industries and institutions involved in work on medicinal and aromatic plants in India World-wide trade in medicinal plants and derived products with special refernce to diosgenin (Dioscorea), taxol (Taxus sps) digitalis, Liquorice, Ginseng, Aloe, and plants containing laxatives. Utilization and production of phytoconstituents such as calcium Sennoside, podophyllotoxin, diosgenin. 8. Herbs as health foods And Herbal cosmetics. PHARMACOGNOSY - III
Identification of crude drugs listed in theory.
Microscopic study of some important glycoside containing crude drugs as outlined above. Study of powdered drugs. Standardization of some traditional drug & their formulations PHARMACOLOGY – I
Introduction to pharmacology, sources of drugs, dosage forms & routes of administration, mechanism of action, concept of receptors, combined effect of drugs, factors modifying drug action, tolerance & dependence, absorption, distribution. Unit-II :
Metabolism & excretion of drugs, principles of Clinical Pharmacokinetics. Adverse drug reactions & treatment of poisoning. ADME drug interactions, Bioassay of drugs & Biological standardization. Discovery & development of new drugs. Unit-III :
Pharmacology of ANS
a) Neurohumoral transmission (autonomic & somatic) b) Parasympathomimetics, Parasympatholytics, Sympathomimetics, adrenergic receptor & neuron blocking agents, ganglionic stimulants & blocking agents. Unit-IV :
Pharmacology of CNS
a. Neurohumoral transmission in the CNS b. General anesthetics c. Alcohols and disulfiram d. Sedatives, hypnotics, anti-anxiety agents, and centrally acting muscle relaxants e. Psychopharmacological agents (anti-psychotics), anti depressants, anti-manics and f. Anti-epileptics drugs g. Anti-parkinsonian drugs h. Analgesics, antipyretics, anti-inflammatory and anti-gout drugs i. Narcotic analgesics and antagonists j. CNS stimulants k. Drug addiction and drug abuse Drugs acting on PNS
Neuromuscular blockers, Local anaesthetics. PHARMACOLOGY- I
Course Code: PHA- 558
Credit - 3
1. Introduction to Experimental Pharmacology:
Preparation of different solutions for experiments Drug dilutions, use of molar and w/v solutions in experimental pharmacology. Commonly used instruments in experimental pharmacology Commonly used animals and anesthetics used in animal studies. Some common and standard techniques Bleeding and intravenous injection, intragastric administration. Procedures for rendering animals unconscious- stunning of rodents, pithing of frogs, chemical euthanasia. 2. Experiments on Intact Preparations
Study of different routes of administration of drugs in mice /rats To study the effect of hepatic microsomal enzyme inhibitors and induction on the pentobarbitone sleeping time in mice. 3. Experiments on Central Nervous System
Recording of spontaneous motor activity, stereotypy, analgesia, anticonvulsant activity, anti-inflammatory activity and muscle relaxant activity of drugs using simple experiments SEMESTER VI
Course Code: PHA-560
Basic principles of Medicinal Chemistry: Physio-chemical aspects (Optical, geometric and bio-
isoterism) of drug molecules and Biological action. Drug receptor interaction including
transduction mechanisms. Drug-receptor interaction including transduction mechanism, concept
Mode of action, uses, structure activity relationship of the following classes of drugs
(Synthetic procedures of individually mentioned drugs only)
Drugs acting at Synaptic and neuro-effector junction sites:
Cholinergic, Anticholinergic & Anticholinesterases-Neostigmine, carbachol, Methacholine, dicyclamine, Atropine. Adrenergic Drugs-Ephedrine, Isoproterenol, Amphetamine, Salbutamol, Terbutaline, Adrenaline, methyldopa. Psychopharmcological Agents :
Antispasmodic and Antiulcer drugs-Dicyclomine, Ranitidine, Omeprazole. Neuromuscular Blocking Agents – Gallamine Mephenesin, Pancuronium. Neuroleptics – Imipramine, Amitryptyline.flouxitine, busprinone, phenlzine. Antidepressants – Meprobamate, Chlordiazepoxide, Diazepam, phenobarbitol, pentobarbitol. Autocoids :
Antihistaminics : Diphenhydramine, Promethazine, Cyproheptadine, Cetrizine. Ranitidine,
Famotidine, ketodefen, promethaze.
Drugs acting on the Central Nervous Systerm :
General Anaesthetics-Thiopental, Ketamine, Methohexital. Local Anaesthetics-Lignocaine, Benzocaine. Hypnotics and Sedatives-Phenobarbitone, Pentobarbitone alprazolam, Opioid Analgesics-Pethidine, Methadone, Pentazocine. Analgesics-antipyretics, anti-inflammatory (Non steroidal) agents Aspirin, Mefeanamic Acid,
Drugs affecting uterine motility
Oxytocics (including oxytocin and ergot alkaloid.), Eicosanoids Misoprostol, Carboprost.
Course Code: PHA-561
1. Synthesis of selected drugs from the course content involving two or more steps. 2. Establishing the pharmacopoeial standards of the drugs synthesized. PHARMACEUTICS VII (BIOPHARMACEUTICS & PHARMACOKINETICS)
Course Code: PHA-562
Introduction to biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics and their role in formulation development and clinical setting. Biopharmaceutics
a. Factors influencing absorption- physiochemical, physiological and pharmaceutical.
b. Plasma protein binding.
a. Significance of plasma drug concentration measurnments. b. Compartment kinetics – Definition & scope. One compartment and two compartment models. Determination of pharmacokinetic parameters from plasma and urine data after drug administration by intravascular and oral route. c. Pharmacokinetics of drug absorption- Zero order and first order absorption rate constant using wagner- Nelson and Loo Reigelman method. d. Volume of distribution and distribution coefficient. e. Clearance concept, mechanism of renal clearance, clearance ratio, determination of f. Extraction ratio, hepatic clearance, biliary excretion, Entero-hepatic circulation. g. Non-linear pharmacokinetics with reference to one compartment model after I.V. drug administration, Michaelis Menton Equation, detection of non-linearity (saturation mechanism) 4. Clinical Pharmacokinetics
a. Dosage adjustment in patients with & without renal hepatic failure. 5. Bio-availability and bio-equivalence:
a. Measures of bioavailability, Cmax , Tmax and Area Under the Curve (AUC) b. Design of single dose bio-equivalence study and relevant statistics. PHARMACEUTICS VII (BIOPHARMACEUTICS & PHARMACOKINETICS)
1. In vitro evaluation of different dosage forms for drug release. 2. Interpretation of Data's as mentioned in the above topics. PHARMACEUTICAL JURISPRUDENCE & ETHICS Course Code: PHA-564
a. Pharmaceutical legislations – A brief review. 2. An elaborate study of the following b. Pharmaceutical Ethics c. Pharmacy Act 1948 d. Drugs & Cosmetics Act 1940 & rules 1945. e. Medicinal toilet Preparations (excise Duties) Act 1955. f. Narcotic Drugs & Psychotropic Substances Act 1985 & rules. g. Drugs Price Control order. 3.A brief study of the following with special reference to the main provisions. a. poisons Act 1919. b. Drugs & Magic remedies (Objectionable advertisements) Act 1954 c. Medical Termination of pregnancy Act 1970 & rules 1975 d. States Shops & establishments Act & rules. e. Ipr &Patent Act 1970. f. Prevention of cruelty to animals act. Note: The Teaching of all the above Acts should cover the latest amendments
Course Code: PHA-565
1. Systemic study of source, cultivation, collection, processing, commercial varieties, chemical constituents, substitutes, adulterants, uses, diagnostic, macroscopic and microscopic features and specific chemical tests of following alkaloid containing drugs: a. Pyridine- Piperidine: Tobacco, Areca, and Lobelia b. Tropane: Belladona, Hyoscyamus, Datura, Coca, and Withania c. Quinoline and isoquinoline: Chincona, Ipecac, Opium d. Indole: Ergot, Rawolfia, Canthanathus, Nux-vomica e. Imidazole: Pilocarpus f. Steroidal: Veratrum, and Kurchi g. Alkaliodal amine: Ephedra and Colchicum h. Glycoalkaloid: Solanum xanthocarpum i. Purines: Coffee, Tea 2. Biological sources, preparation, identification, tests and uses of the following enzymes: Diastase, Papain, streptokinase, Penicillinase, Haluronidase, Urokinase 3. Plant bitters and sweeteners 4. Introduction, classification and study of different chromatographic methods and their applications in evaluation of herbal drugs. 5. World-wide trade in medicinal plants and derived products with special reference to tropane
alkaloid containing plants, Cinchona, Ipecac, Valerian, Rauwolfia and Papain . 5. Utilization and production of phytoconstituents such as Quinine, Solasodine &Tropane alkaloids. 6. Marine Pharmacognosy PHARMACOGNOSY- IV
Course Code: PHA-566
1. Identification of crude drugs listed above. 2. Microscopic study of characters of eight- selected drugs given in theory in entire and powder form 3. Chemical evaluation of powdered drugs and enzymes 4. Chromatographic studies of some herbal constituents. PHARMACOLOGY – II
Course Code: PHA- 567
Credit – 4
Pharmacology of Cardiovascular System
a) Digitalis and cardiac glycosides. b) Antihypertensive drugs. c) Antianginal and vasodilator Drugs, including calcium channel blockers and beta- adrenergic antagonists. d) Antiarrhythmic drugs e) Antihyperlipidemic drugs. f) Drugs used in the therapy of shock. Unit-II:
Drugs Acting on Hemopoeitic System
a) Hematinics. b) Anticoagulants, Vitamin K and haemostatic agents. c) Fibrolytic and anti-platelet drugs. d) Blood and plasma volume expanders. Unit III:
Drugs Acting on Respiratory System
a) Anti-asthmatic drugs including bronchodilators. b) Anti-tussives and expectorants. c) Respiratory stimulants. Unit-IV:
a) Histamine, 5-HT and their antagonists. b) Prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes. c) Pentagastrin, Cholecystokinin, Angiotensin, Bradykinin and Substance P. Drug acting on the Gastro Intestinal tract
a) Antacids, antisecretory and anti-ulcer drugs. b) Laxatives and antidiarrhoeal drugs. c) Emetics and anti-emetics. Drugs acting on urinary system
a) Fluid and electrolyte balance. b) Diuretics. PHARMACOLOGY – II (PRACTICAL)
a) To record the dose response curve (DRC) of Acetylcholine using ileum of rat / rectus abdominis muscle preparation of frog. b) To study the effects of Physostigmine and d-tubocurarine on the CRC of acetylcholine using rat ileum / rectus abdominis muscle preparation of frog. c) To record the CRC of 5-HT on rat fundus preparation. d) To study the parallel shift of DRC in presence of competitive antagonist on DRC of Ach using frog/ rat ileum. e) To study the CRC of histamine on guinea pig on ileum preparation & study the effect of antihistaminics. f) Effects of autonomic drugs on rabbit eye. SEMESTER –VII
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY – VII
Course Code: PHA-570 Credits: 3 Synthetic procedures of selected drugs, mode of action, uses, structure activity relationship including Physio-chemical properties of the following classes of drugs. Cardiovascular Agents – Antianginal & vasodilators, antiarrhythmics, antihypertensives,
anticoagulants and Antiplatelet drugs, antihyperlipidemics & cardiotonics – Nifedipine, Procainamide, Propranolol, Methyldopa, Captopril, guanethidine. Clofibrate, Warfarin, Phenidione. Antibacterials – Sulphamethoxazole, Sulphadiazine, Sulphacetamide, Nalidixic acid. 
Diuretics – Acetazolamide, Chlorthiazide; Frusemide, Spironolactone triamtrine.
Steroids and related drugs : Introduction, Classification, Nomenclature & Stereochemistry.
(A) Androgens and Anabolic steroids – Testosterone, Stanazolol. (B) Estrogens and Progestational agents – Progesterone, Estradiol. (C) Adrenocorticoids – Prednisolone, Dexamethasone, Betamethasone. Antibiotics-Penicillins, Semi-synthetic, penicillins, streptomycin, tetracyclines, Cephalosporins,
Chloramphenicol, Fluroquinolones. Antimalarials: Cholroquine, Primaquine, Pyrimethamine
Antiparkinsonism drugs-Carbidopa, Levodopa.
CNS Stimulants-Caffeine, Nikethamide.
Antiseptic and disinfectant nalidixic acid
Anticonvulsants-Phenytoin, Carbamazepine, Ethosuximide, Valproic Acid.
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY – VII
Course Code: PHA-571 Credits: 2 1. Synthesis of selected drugs from the course content involving two or more steps. 2. Establishing the Pharmacopoeial standards of the drugs synthesized. 3. Spectral analysis of the drugs synthesized. (PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY II)
Course Code: PHA-572 1.Tablets:
a) Formulation of different types of tablets, granulation technology on large-scale by various techniques, physics of tablets making, different types of tablet compression machinery and equipments employed, evaluation of tablets. b) Coating of Tablets: Types of coating, film forming materials, formulation of coating solution, equipments for coating, coating process, evaluation of coated tablets. Stability kinetics and quality assurance. 2.Capsules: Advantages and disadvantages of capsule dosage form, material for production of
hard gelatin capsules, size of capsules, method of capsule filling, soft gelatin, capsule shell and
capsule content, importance of base absorption and minimum/gm factors in soft capsules, quality
control, stability testing and storage of capsule dosage forms.
a) Preformulation factors, routes of administration, water for injection, pyrogenicity, nonaqueous vehicles, isotonicity and methods of its adjustment. b) Formulation details, containers and closures and selection. c) Prefilling treatment, washing of containers and closures, preparation of solution and suspensions, filling and closing of ampoules, vials, infusion fluids, lyophillization and preparation of sterile powders, equipment for large-scale manufacture and evaluation of parenteral products. d) Aseptic Techniques-source of contamination and methods of prevention, Design of aseptic area, laminar low bench services and maintenance. Sterility testing of pharmaceuticals. ii.Opthalmic preparations: Requirements,formulationsand method of preparation,containers and
4.Microencapsulation: Types of microcapsules, importance of microencapsulation in pharmacy,
micro encapsulation by phase separation, coacervation, multi orifice, spray drying, spray
congealing, polymerization complex emulsion, air suspension technique, coating pan and other
techniques, evaluation of microcapsules.
(PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY II)
PRACTICAL Course Code: PHA-573 1.Experiments to illustrate preparation, stabilization, physical and biological evaluation of pharmaceutical products like powders, capsules, tablets, parenterals, microcapsules, surgical dressing etc. 2. Evaluation of materials used in pharmaceutical packaging. PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Course Code: PHA-574 1. Immunology and Immunological preparations: Principles, antigens and haptens,
immune system, cellular humoral immunity, immunological tolerance, antigen-antibody reactions and their application. Hypersensitivity, Active & Passive immunization; Vaccines-their preparation, standardization and storage. 2. Genetic Recombination: Transformation, conjugation, transduction, protoplast fusion
and gene cloning and their applications. Development of hybridoma for monoclonal antibodies. Study of drugs produced by biotechnology such as activase, humulin, and humatrope, HB etc. 3. Antibiotics: Historical development of antibiotics. Antimicrobial spectrum and methods
for their standardization. Screening of soil for organisms producing antibiotics, fermenter, its design, and control of different parameters. Isolation of mutants, factors influencing rate of mutation. Design of fermentation process. Isolation of fermentation products with special reference to penicillins, streptomycins, tetracyclines and vitamin B12. 4. Microbial transformation: Introduction, types of reactions mediated by
microorganisms, design of biotransformation process and its improvements with special reference to steroids. 5. Enzyme Immobilization: Techniques of immobilization, factors affecting enzyme
kinetics. Study of enzymes such as hyaluronidase, pencillinase, streptokinase and streptodornase, amylases and proteases etc. Immobilization of bacteria and plant cells 6.BLOOD PRODUCTS AND PLASMA SUBSTITUTES: Collection, processing and
storage of whole human blood, concentrated human RBCs ,dried human plasma, human
fibrinogen, human thrombin, human normal immunoglobulin , human fibrin, foam plasma
substitutes- ideal requirements, PVP,Dextran etc. for control of blood pressure as per I.P
PHARMACETICAL INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT
Course Code:PHA-575 1.Concept of Management: Management and Administration (Planning, Organizing,
Staffing, Directing and Controlling), Entrepreneurship development, Operative
Management . Principles of Management (Co-ordination, Communication,
Motivation, Decision-making, leadership, Innovation, Creativity, Delegation of Authority/ Responsibility, Record Keeping). Identification of key points to give maximum thrust for development and perfection. 2. Accountancy:
Principles of Accountancy, Ledger posting and book entries, preparation of trial balance, columns of a cash book, bank reconciliation statement, rectification of errors, profits and loss account, balance sheet, purchase, keeping and pricing of stocks, treatment of cheques, bills of exchange. 3. Economics: Principles of economics with special reference to the laws of demand and
supply, demand schedule, demand curves, labor welfare, general principles of insurance and
inland and foreign trade, procedure of exporting and importing goods.
4. Pharmaceutical Marketing: Functions, buying, selling, transportation, storage, finance,
feedback, information, channels of distribution, wholesale, retail, departmental store, multiple
shop and mail order business, Function of Markets.
5. Salesmanship: Principles of sales promotion, advertising, ethics of sales, merchandising
literature, detailing. Recruitment, training, evaluation, compensation to the pharmacist and
6. Market research:
(a) Measuring and Forecasting Market Demands: Major concept in demand measurement, estimating current demand, estimating industry sales, Market share and future demand. (b) Market segmentation and Market Targeting. 7. Production management:
A brief exposure of the different aspects of production management- Performance Evaluation Technique, Process-Flow, Process Know-how, Maintenance Management. Introduction of Material management with inventory and evaluation of material management. (CHEMISTRY OF NATURAL PRODUCTS)
Credits:3 Introduction to - a. Chemical and spectral approaches to simple molecules of natural origin. b. Stereoisomerism taking examples of natural products. General techniques of biosynthetic studies and basic metabolic pathways. Brief introduction to biogenesis of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. Chemistry, biogenesis and important pharmacological activity of following phytoconstituents a. Medicinally important monoterpenes, sesquiterpene, diterpenes, and triterpenoids. b. Carotenoids: α-carotenoids, β-crotenes, vitamin A, Xanthophylls of medicinal c. Glycosides: digitoxin, sennosides, diosgenin d. Alkaloids: atropine and related compounds, quinine, reserpine, morphine, ephedrine, ergot e. Lignans, Quassanoids & flavonoids. Extraction & Isolation procedures of- Terpene, Carotene, Digitoxin, Sennoside, Atropine, Quinine, Reserpine, Morphine, Flavanoids. Chemistry and therapeutic activity of Penicillin, Streptomycin and Tetracyclines. Historical development of plant tissue culture, types of cultures, nutritional requirements, growth and their maintenance. Applications of plant tissue in pharmacognosy. PHARMACOGNOSY- V
(CHEMISTRY OF NATURAL PRODUCTS)
1) Laboratory experiments on isolation, separation, purification of various groups of chemical constituents of pharmaceutical significance. 2) Exercises on paper and thin layer chromatographic evaluations of herbal drug 3) Extraction of volatile oils and their chromatographic profiles. 4) Introductory Technique experiments in plant tissue culture.
Pharmacology of endocrine system
a) Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones. b) Thyroid hormones and antithyroid drugs, parathormone, calcitonin and vitamin D. c) Insulin, oral hypoglycaemic agents & glucagons. d) ACTH and corticosteroids. e) Androgens and anabolic steroids. f) Estrogens, progesterone and oral contraceptives. g) Drugs acting on the uterus. a) General principles of chemotherapy. b) Sulfonamides and co-trimoxazole. c) Antibiotics-penicillin, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, erythromycin quinolones and miscellaneous antibiotics. Unit III:
a) Chemotherapy of tuberculosis leprosy, fungal diseases, viral diseases, urinary tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases. b) Chemotherapy of malignancy and immunosuppressive agents. Principles of Toxicology
a) Definition of poison, general principles of treatment of poisoning with particular reference to barbiturates, opioids, organophosphorous and atropine poisoning. b) Heavy metals and heavy metal antagonists. PHARMACOLOGY –III
Experiments on Isolated Preparations:
a) To calculate the pA2 value of Atropine & chlorpheniramine using acetycholine as an agonist on rat ileum preparation. b) Bioassay of Ach, histamine & oxytocin on suitable isolated preparations using matching bioassay, bracketing bioassay, three point assay & four point bioassay. SEMESTER VIII
PHA-580 Credits-3 GLP, ISO 9000,TQM, Quality Review and Quality Documentation. Regulatory control, regulatory drug analysis, interpretation of analytical data. Validation, quality audit: quality of equipment, validation of equipment, and validation of analytical procedures. Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrophotometry : Electronic, excitation, quantitative laws,
deviation from Beer's law, graphical presentation of data. Chromophores photometric error, instrumentation, single and double beam spectrohotometer. Colorimetric methods : Chemistry of colorimetry, instrumentation, application (direct methods indirect methods). Nephelometry & turbidimetry and densiometry. Infra Red Spectrophotometry :Theory, characteristics absorbance, bands of organic functional
interpretation of infrared absorption spectra, preparation of sample, sample cells, IR qualitative and quantitative applications in pharmaceutical analysis. Flourimetric Analysis :Theory, quantitative description, experimental factors affecting
intensity, factors affecting IC and F directly, relationship of fluorescence to molecular structure, instrumentation, correction of spectra, pharmaceutical applications. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
An introduction to the theory of 1H-NMR, chemical shift & spin-spin coupling, spectra of (CH3 CH2 -OH, CI-CH2 OH, CH3 – CHO, CH3 (CH2)4 CH3, C6 H6, CH3 C6H5 ). Mass Spectrometry
Introduction to mass spectra, molecular ion peak, fragmentation peaks, mass spectra of some Flame Photometry
Origin of spectra, atomization and ionization, instrumentation, background emission, interference, qualitative & quantitative applications in pharmaceutical analysis. Theory, instrumentation and applications of:
Emission Photometry Atomic absorption spectroscopy PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS-III
1. Quantitative estimation of at least ten formulations containing single drug or more than one drug, using instrumental techniques. 2. IR of samples with different functional groups (-COOH,-COOR, -CONHR;-NH2-NHR,- 3. workshop to interpret the structure of simple organic compounds using UV,IR. NMR and
(MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY III)
Course code: PHA-582
Drug metabolism and Concepts of Prodrugs. Principles of Drug Design: Traditional analogs. Introduction to QSAR and mechanism based Computer –aided drug design and molecular modeling. Biochemical approaches in drug designing wherever applicable should be discussed Mode of action, uses, structure activity relationship of the following classes of drugs
(Synthetic procedures of individually mentioned drugs only)
Antiamoebics: Metronidazole, Tinidazole, Diloxanide
Antimycobacterial Agents: PAS, Ethambutol, Isoniazid, Dapsone
Antineoplastic agents: 5-FU, methotrexate, cisplatin. Thyroid and Antithyroids – Carbimazole, Levothyroxine, Propylthiouracil, Methimazole.
Insulin & Oral Hypoglycaemics – Chlorpropamide, Metformin, Tolbutamide, Glybenclamide.
HIV agents – Zidovudine, Zalcitabine, Saquinavir. Antivirals – Amantadine, Acyclovir, Lamivudine. Diagnostic Aids: Iopanoic Acid
Antiseptics & Disinfectants – Benzalkonium chloride
(MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY III)
1. Workshop related to Computer –aided drug design, QSAR analysis. 2. Synthesis of selected drugs. 3. Establishing the pharmacopoeal standards and spectral studies. PHARMACEUTICS IX
(Dosage Form Design)
1. Preformulation studies: (a) Study of physical properties of drug like physical form, particle size shape, density, wetting, dielectric constant. Solubility dissolution and organoleptic property and their effect on formulation, stability and bioavailability. (b) Study of chemical properties of drugs like hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction, racemization, polymerization, etc., and their influence on formulation and stability of products. (c) Study of prodrugs in solving problems related to stability, bioavailability and elegancy of formulations. 2. Process validation methods for pharmaceutical operations involved in the production of Solid, Liquid and Semi- solid dosage form. 3. Stabilization and stability testing protocol for various pharmaceutical products. 4. Performance evaluation methods: a) In-vitro dissolution studies for solid dosage forms methods, interpretation of dissolution data. b) Bioavailability studies and bioavailability testing protocol and procedures. c) In-vivo methods of evaluation and statistical treatment. 5. Introduction to Novel Drug Delivery System with special reference to Colloidal System (Liposomes, proneosomes, neosomes, etc), Transdermal delivery system, Occular delivery system and Nasal delivery system. CLINICAL PHARMACY AND DRUG INTERACTIONS
Introduction to Clinical Pharmacy
Basic concepts of Pharmacotherapy
a) Clinical Pharmacokinetics and individualization of Drug Therapy. b) Drug Delivery Systems and their Biopharmaceutics and Therapeutical c) Drug Use during Infancy and in the elderly (Pediatrics and Geriatrics). d) Drug use during Pregnancy e) Drug induced diseases. f) The Basics of Drug Interactions. g) Interpretation of Clinical Laboratory Tests. Unit III:
Important disorders of Organ systems and their Management
a) Cardiovascular Disorders-Hypertension, Congestive heart Failure, Angina, Acute Myocardial Infarction, Cardiac arrhythmias. b) CNS Disorders: Epilepsy, Parkinsonism, Schizoprenia, Depression c) Respiratory Disease-Asthma. d) Gastrointestinal Disorders-Peptic ulcer, Ulcerative colitis, Hepatitis, Cirrhosis. e) Endocrine Disorders-Diabetes mellitus and thyroid Disorders. f) Infectious diseases- Tuberculosis, Urinary tract infection, Enteric Infections, Upper Respiratory Infections. g) Hemopoietic Disorders- Anemia's h) Joint and connective Disorders- Rheumatic Diseases, Gout and Hyperuricemia. i) Neoplastic Diseases-Acute Leukemia's, Hodgkin's disease. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Concept of Essential drugs and Rational Drug use.
Students of FHMS are either well placed or perusing higher qualifications in various
institutes of India and abroad. Every year many students of B. Pharm qualify GATE
competition which is a must for higher M.Pharm and other higher degree in academics
List Of Gate Qualified Students, each year
Shilpy 02BPH020 Gaurav Sharma 02BPH014 Jitendra Kumar 02BPH011 Uday Pratap Singh 02BPH062 Abhishek Kumar 03 BPH061 YEAR 2007
Mayank Gupta 03BPH023 Chandan Kashyap Abhisekh Kumar Md.Nurullah Ansari 03BPH024 Pappu Mithilesh Kumar 04BPH012 Singh Nadkar nr. Singh 02BPH053 Rajeev Satyarthi 02BPH037 YEAR 2008
Shweta Kumari Singh Kaushal Kr. Mehato YEAR 2009
Amit Kumar Lav Keshari Peyush Kumar Rakesh Kumar Ravi Nandan Chaubey Rajeev Kumar
Public Health & Aging 24th Annual Student Mentoring n Gerontology and Geriatrics Key Note Address and Paper Abstracts March 29-30, 2013 Copyright © 2014 by The University of Georgia Institute of Gerontology in the College of Public Health. All rights reserved. No portion of this report, or the data that it contains, may be reproduced without the express written consent of the authors. Copies of this report may be obtained from The University of Georgia Institute of Gerontology, 255 E. Hancock Ave., Athens, GA 30602. Our website is http://www.publichealth.uga.edu/geron.