HM Medical Clinic


Striped skunk

CARE OF SKUNKS PART 2 By Laurel A. Beechey Part two is the compilation of all kinds of information on skunks, from a wide variety of sources. Because there is so little published researched information on skunks, skunk rehabbers and vets are sharing as much information as possible with each other. It should be noted that the late Jane Bone Skunk Lady TM of Georgia has the best compilation of information on skunks,that I have found. Jane's expertise lies with domestically raised skunks, however they are physiologically no different that wild skunks, except perhaps in their varied colours. If you are having any physical/medical problems with a skunk please try "Skunk Stuff" written by Jane [complete information] is available on CD for the cost of shipping and partial information can be found in "Skunk Stuff" a link at For a skunk friendly veterinarian in Ontario, contact Dr. Dorothea Kanter at Edwards Vet Service Tillsonburg, Ont. 519-688-2123. Skunk Haven Web Site is excellent for medical conditions and the staff are excellent is assisting. Part 2 contains:
Page 2 Descenting-more information Distemper & Rabies Limping Page 3 Paralysis of back legs Calcium Deficiency Liver Problems Rectal Prolapse Page 5 Heat Cycle Ringworm Page 6 Skunk Biology 603 Dr. Jerry W. Dragoo, PHD and Gwen A. Dragoo, RVT, Page 8 Skunk Trivia--by Jane Bone
Page 9 Great Photos
Page 11 Stripe Skunk Normals - Reference Ranges For Physiological Data Values
Page13 Drugs for Skunks
Page 17 Vitamins/Herbs
Descenting-More Information
Descenting at the proper age.4 weeks or a non-surgical procedure and fairly simple, actually SIMILAR to "popping" a very large pimple--no cutting is involved at all. After that age, it becomes more difficult and requires anesthesia and is a much longer procedure. Most experienced vets won't descent past 6 weeks because of the unnecessary stress to the animal. The glands MUST BE REMOVED.not tied off, as some "experts" will try. Mother Nature is much smarter than Man and finds a way around this procedure and in just a matter of weeks, the glands AND JETS are fully functioning once again!!! Removal must also be COMPLETE, as it has been said, if any tissue is left, the glands are capable of regenerating themselves. A complete gland of a 3-4 week old kit looks much like a slightly filled water-balloon and the large part is about the size of an English Pea. Distemper
Skunks can be infected by both Canine and Feline Distemper but can be inoculated for both. Note that many skunks have reactions and often must have antihistomines to countact the reactions. Ferret injections will be recommended however they are very difficult on the animal. According to Charlatan et al. (1991. Skunk rabies. in The natural history of rabies, 2 ed. [edited by George Baer]. CRC Press), rabies virus may occur in saliva before clinical signs begin. Generally in experimental rabies in skunks, virus occurs in saliva at or slightly before onset of clinical signs and persists for several days (maximum 6 days). The skunk may harbor the virus, but until it reaches the salivary glands, skunks cannot transmit the virus by biting. Clinical signs of rabies in skunks can last from 1-18 days before the animal dies. There is no evidence of a true carrier state. Skunks cannot excrete the virus in saliva and remain clinically free of symptoms for long periods of time, nor do skunks recover from clinical signs and continue to excrete the virus. Skunks, like most mammals, always die from rabies. Once the virus is shed in the saliva, a skunk can go as long as 6 days before showing any clinical symptoms of the disease. Then they die. The problem is that a wild skunk can be infected and harbor a latent form of the virus for up to 18 months (usually not longer than 2-6 weeks). It is not known yet what triggers the latent form to become virulent, and there is no way, yet, to detect the latent form in an animal. If you get bitten by an animal that has a latent form, it will not transmit the virus. Animals can be exposed to and contract the virus at any time, usually through a bite (saliva). The amount of virus and the body part exposed have some affect on the time of incubation. Often times stress on the animal will help the virus become virulent. The stress of being in captivity or going to the veterinarian may cause an animal that is incubating the virus to became rabid. For an animal to contract rabies, it has to be exposed to another animal that is shedding the virus. Jerry W. Dragoo, Ph.D. Mephitologist, Museum of Southwestern Biology University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 Phone: (505) 277-6215 Fax: (505) 277- Start with 250 MGS of Calcium and 500 MGS of Evening Oil of Primrose, but please let the vet check just to be sure. You buy liquid Jalapeno Sauce or sprinkle ground Cayenne pepper on everything she eats.start with a little and increase and increase and increase.but Jalapenos are better!!!! They even work for US and OUR joint problems!!!! Paralysis
If paralysis seems to occur in the back end the skunk. This is quite terrifying as the skunk is unable to use their back legs. Scent is released as they do not have control of their rectal muscles. Feet are warm to touch and responsive. Tail is flat to the ground although is moved occasionally. Water Therapy
Appetite/ Food
Increase the calcium, the Taurine, and meat protein along with 2000 mg of EPO a day will get
the skunk back up and walking again. "I have gone through this and was able to get my skunk back up and walking in approx. 6 weeks. The treatment was 2000 mg EPO (Evening Primrose Oil) daily, 200 mg calcium (in addition to what he is receiving through diet), 50 mg Vitamin D, 1/4 tsp. Whey Protein Powder, give water therapy three times daily."-Viv Chernoff Calcium Deficiency
-500mg a day until the start to improve, then cut it back to 50. Liver problems
Terramycin Soluble Powder, for prevention of liver problems. It has been used in the animal industries for eons. Terramycin is one of our oldest meds around I believe almost as old as penicillin. It was used quite successfully for many many years for our own maladies, but more modern "names" of meds took over. Progress is not always forward!! When it was brought to our attention as a potential solution for liver problems, we began asking various of our vets their opinions and almost EVERY SINGLE ONE basically slapped their foreheads (I could have had a V-*!) and said, "I never even thought about Terramycin!) It can be used either as a prophylactic measure or a curative, depending on the concentration given. It was use in a "three month on and three month off" regimen, as is stated in Skunk Stuff. Kidney, Diabetes and other diseases note Skunk Stuff by Jane Bone
Jane Bone The Skunk Lady TM When this occurs, a portion of the intestine from 1/4 to 2 inches long protrudes from the rectum. A prolapse is not as bad as it looks. The first one I ever saw caused me to replace my front door after I came back from the vet's office as I did not bother to open the door before going through it. The prolapse may be red or swollen and may not return immediately. Rinse with warm water, gently rub with Vaseline, Preparation H, Panalog (obtained from your vet) or Sugar on the intestine while you slowly push small amounts of the intestine back into the rectum. It may take a while for the intestine to return to its normal place, but don't be alarmed if it seems to last forever. IT WILL EVENTUALLY GO BACK IN!! Unless your skunk is chewing at the tissue, it is not necessary to see a vet; however, if he is chewing at it, a vet must replace the intestine and possibly (we hope not, BECAUSE EVEN ONE TINY STITCH CAN DO NERVE DAMAGE IN THESE DELICATE TISSUES!) place a purse string stitch to hold it in place. Until the prolapse is completely gone, replace kitty litter with newspaper and keep the prolapse greased. There are times the prolapse appears as a red ball, much like a cherry tomato. Here again use the same as above and it will go in. Rectal prolapse is caused by diarrhea, (one of the signs of round worms) and bad diet. Due to fluid loss, the intestine shrinks and the body can no longer hold the intestine in place. The intestine must be stretched back to full size to stay where it belongs. High fiber foods plus Fiberall or Metamucil added to the food will help the prolapse to go back inside and minimize intestinal irritation. It is not unusual for baby skunks to have a prolapse, they don't seem to know that it is abnormal and therefore don't bother it. Normally you will be able to push the intestine back into the body. In the rare case that improper descenting is the cause, Panalog Ointment should be used until healing takes place. More Information
The typical causes of prolapse are diarrhea in young skunks and chronic diarrhea in adult skunks,
constipation, improper descenting, worms or other GI parasites, viruses and bacteria. If the problem is worms the skunk will push excessively to get them out of its system. This may lead to successive recurrence of the prolapse until all of the worms are passed. You will need - nail clippers, a large towel or small blanket, warm water, Preparation-H, lubricant gel (KY Jelly or Vaseline), and a comfortable place to sit. 1. Stay calm, rectal prolapse is not life threatening if treated early. 2. Cut your fingernails short, wash with (anti-bacterial) soap and water. 3. Gently clean the exposed rectum and intestines with clear warm water. 4. Sit on a sturdy chair or the floor, put a towel or blanket on your lap, and wrap the skunk to keep it calm and under control. Give a small amount of food if it helps calm the skunk. 5. Mix small amounts of the Preparation-H and lubricant gel together on your fingers then rub onto the exposed rectum and/or intestines. 6. Slowly massage the rectum/intestines back in. It DOES take a LONG time. Add more Preparation-H and lubricant gel as needed to aid in gently pushing the rectum/intestines back in. 7. When the rectum/intestines are completely back inside, hold them in for a short time, keep the skunk calm. Watch for recurrence for the next several hours and check the skunk regularly over the next few If this does not work, get to a vet. The vet will have to put a purse-string stitch in for a few days to hold the intestines in place while the insides heal. Change to a high liquid diet of broth, soups, pureed baby food, etc., while the purse-string is in place. Keep the skunk calm and separate from other animals and children, possibly for several days. Change the skunk's diet - NO fruits or fresh veggies for one-to-two weeks, feed cooked vegetables, pasta, high quality dog food, cooked chicken or turkey, cereals, pureed baby food, canned pumpkin, tofu, etc. Start back on fresh veggies and fruits slowly, make sure food is cut in small pieces. High fiber foods and supplements like Metamucil may help prevent the straining which can lead to prolapse. If there is a risk of infection use Panalog (from vets), an antibiotic ointment, applied inside the rectum after the intestines are back in. A small amount will help prevent infection and aid in reducing that inflammated bowel so that it will reduce and return to it's proper place. Also to help stop from straining get Centrine tablets from the vet; suggested dose for a skunk is 1/2 tablet twice daily for two to three days. An old remedy is to wet the rectum/intestines with warm water, then coat with sugar; it will
shrink the prolapse. You can also make a thin sugar paste and coat the exposed rectum. This has shown excellent results. Can sometimes take 30 minues Another method is a pan of COLD (Ice) water. Stick the skunk's butt in water and the intestines should go back in (this may not work in all cases). Care should be taken with any skunk known to have prolapse problems. They should be
separated from other animals as soon as prolapse is noticed and should remain separated for
several days after the prolapse incidents stop
Skunk Heat Cycle
The Birds and the Bees of Skunks BY DR. Jerry W. Dragoo, Ph.D. Skunks are induced ovulators. In other words the eggs are shed within a few hours of copulation. Because skunks are monestrous (one estrous cycle per year) they cannot afford to shed eggs before copulation. This strategy ensures that the eggs will be fertilized. High levels of luteinizing hormones (LH) are required for ovulation to occur. LH is produced by the anterior pituitary gland which is controlled by the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus requires environmental stimuli before the signal to turn on production of LH can occur. That environmental stimulus is an aggressive male. The male has to be aggressive in order to stimulate the female's hypothalamus. I would not call the aggression fighting but rather foreplay. Unlike the Klingon example, none of the participants would be. Seriously injured. It would require too much energy to heal wounds and to develop an embryo. That would be disadvantageous. In skunks, as in all mammals, sperm are cheap. Males only have to inseminate the female and their work is done. So it is to the male skunk's advantage to find as many females as possible. The females, however, develop the embryo, give birth and raise the young, so they give much more invested in each offspring than does the male After copulation fertilization the females become extremely aggressive toward males, and will do serious damage to a male in order to protect her investment. There are times when a female skunk will produce a litter later in the year, but usually is after she has lost a previous litter; or was not "stimulated" enough to induce ovulation, or was a young, animal. The heat cycle in these animals as a result will be spread out over several months. If a female has not been stimulated to ovulate, she may remain in estrous for a longer period of time. Skunks have many natural predators. The young and weak also can be removed from the population by disease and however, a result of Natural Selection. Fitness is not measured by the strength of an animal but rather it's ability to produce viable offspring's. If skunks were spontaneous ovulators, they would risk not producing young (getting their genes into the next generation) during their one breeding season. The animals that had induced ovulation were able to put more young (i.e., more genes) into the next generation. Jerry W. Dragoo, Ph.D., Mephitologist, and Research, Assistant Professor at the Museum of Southwestern Biology, University of New-Mexico. Ringworm
½ of face only. Hair loss, skin white. Became swollen & lumpy. Not itchy Skunk was very small, not normal growth. He had lost hair on back end earlier but it was growing back in when this condition started. They do not seem to be related. This was diagnosed as ringworm but not while on the skunk. The rehabber [fortunately not me] also developed an unusual rash which lasted for months, it was finally diagnosed, treated and cured. Skunk Biology 603
Dr. Jerry W. Dragoo, PHD and Gwen A. Dragoo, RVT, Mephitologists Copyright 1996 All Rights' Reserved No, a skunk is not a skunk! It is much more complex and exciting than that. There are two species of Mephitis, four species of Conepatus, and three or more species of Spilogale. All of the species in a genus are more like each other than they are to any species in another genus. Therefore, the striped hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus chinga and C.[onepatus] humboldtii)in Argentina are more closely related to our white-backed hog-nosed skunks (C. leuconotus) than they are to the striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis). According to those in the know, a species is the only real category in our classification system. All of the categories above the species level are man-made. For our discussion, a species is "a group of interbreeding natural populations that is reproductively isolated from other such groups." In other words a striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) cannot produce baby skunks with a hooded skunk ([Mephitis] macroura) because they are different species. Often when a species covers a large geographic area, different populations will be genetically adapted to their local environments. The populations of a species that lives in different habitats can be grouped into smaller units called subspecies. About a million or so years ago (The fossil record for skunks is not that good, so I'm guessing on the actual number of years), there was a single population that represented the genus Mephitis. Around that time, the population split into two populations. There are numerous ways for this to happen; I won't go into the details. One of these populations went north and the other went south. They encountered different environmental conditions as they moved from their starting point. They became genetically adapted (this is where Darwin's theory comes in) to their respective environments. As time went on, they tended to stay within their own groups and rarely traveled back and forth between the populations. Times were good. Both populations thrived and began to expand their range. About 10-30 thousand years ago, the two populations grew so much that they came in contact with each other. But by now both had undergone so many genetic changes that they were not able to reproduce with each other, even though they could live in the same place. These two populations today represent the striped and hooded skunks. The various subspecies of striped skunks today have the potential to undergo the same process and eventually mature into new species. Individuals may continue to travel between populations and exchange genetic information and never become separate species. We will have to wait and see (don't hold your breath, it could take a few thousand years). If we were to go back even further, say five to 10 million years, we would find a single population of skunks that represented what we recognize as the striped skunks and the spotted skunks. That population also split and gave rise to two new populations. We already know what happened to the ancestor of the striped skunks. The same thing happened to the population that gave rise to the various species of Spilogale. We can go back even further, 10-15 million years and find a single population that gave us the genus Conepatus and the ancestor of the striped and spotted skunks. We could just lump all of the skunks into a single genus, say Skunkus. But this classification would not convey much information about the evolutionary relationships among the skunks. Above the species level we try to classify organisms to reflect the evolutionary history, but it is done much the same way books in a library are arranged. The library contains books. The books are arranged by subject; history, sci-fi, science. Each subject is broken down further. Science books can be arranged by chemistry, math, biology, etc., and each of these can be grouped into smaller units. Books about biology can be arranged into anatomy, ecology, and so on. We group species into genera because the members of a genus share attributes not shared by species in a different genus. We group genera into Families and Families into Orders. Genera in a family share attributes with each other, that are not shared by genera in other families. Let's take dogs, foxes, cats. and lions as an example. Each of the four groups represents a different genus Canis, Vulpes, Felis, and Panthera respectively. Dogs and foxes are similar and are grouped into the Family Canidae (family names end in -idae) and the cats and lions are similar and grouped into the family Felidae. These two families, however, do have things in common and are thus placed in the same order Carnivora, the carnivores. Keep in mind that the reason these groups have things in common is because somewhere back in time they all shared a common ancestor. The original carnivore population occurred about 60-65 million years ago and all of the diversity (dogs, cats, hyenas, weasels, bears, raccoons, skunks, etc.) we see in the Carnivora can be traced back to that ancestor. You might want to get up and stretch your legs for about 10 minutes before we go into part two. Somewhere along the way I'm, sure you have heard that skunks are in the family Mustelidae. In other words, the genera Mephitis, Spilogale and Conepatus are grouped together in this larger category. Also in this family are the weasels, wolverines, badgers and otters. The mustelids are an interesting family in that they are very primitive compared to some of the other families in the order. If you compared a modern mustelid with the carnivore ancestor that occurred 60 million years ago, they would be very similar. When we classify animals, we look for similarities, but we try to find characters that are newly acquired for a particular group. For example, cats have retractable claws and razor-sharp back teeth. These characteristics are not found in primitive carnivores nor in other families of modern carnivores. Therefore, retractable claws and razor-sharp back teeth are derived characteristics that are shared among members of the cat family. They share these characteristics because their common ancestor had these traits. The members of the Mustelidae are grouped on the basis of several characteristics associated with the teeth, as well as enlarged scent glands. The family is further divided into subfamilies. Weasels, minks, wolverines and the zorilla are in the subfamily Mustelinae (subfamily names end with -inae). Badgers are in the Melinae, otters in the Lutrinae and skunks in the Mephitinae. The characters that unite the mustelids however, do not fit the criteria we use to classify animals. Some of the characters associated with the teeth can be found in other families, such as the bear family or the dog family. This suggests that the trait may have arisen many times during the evolution of carnivores and does not represent a uniquely derived character for the mustelids. Some traits are primitive. The common ancestor of all the carnivores probably had scent glands, because all of the carnivores today have scent glands. However, they are enlarged in mustelids and extremely enlarged in skunks. Is this a result of common ancestry or convergent evolution as a result of similar ecological constraints? The problem is that there are no characters that we can say are unique to the Mustelidae that would enable us to unquestionably group all of the members into this family. In recent years, as genetic analyzes became more sophisticated, it started to look like the skunks may not have shared a recent ancestor with the rest of the family. This has been the primary focus of my dissertation. There is a lot of genetic data (some of which I have collected) that indicate that the family Procyonidae (raccoons, ringtails) shared a common ancestor with the rest of the Mustelidae, after the skunk populations separated. If our classification system is going to reflect evolutionary relationships, then we cannot recognize the skunks as members of the Mustelidae family. In addition, one of the badgers, the Oriental stink badger, has been mis-classified and actually shared an ancestor with the skunks. What I am proposing to do is elevate the subfamily Mephitinae to a separate family, the Mephitidae. This family will include the genera Mephitis, Spilogale, Conepatus, and Mydaus (stink badger). What does this mean to the average person on the street? Not much, however, the scientific study of organic diversity and it's classification make the diversity accessible to the other biological disciplines. Without it, most of them would be unable to give meaning to their findings. Understanding evolutionary patterns and processes may enable us to develop management strategies to conserve and protect the declining bio diversity around us. It certainly allows me to appreciate more the attributes found in skunks and encourages me to continually strive to protect those skunk species that are in danger of extinction. I realize there is a lot packed into this message, but there are several years of study that were left out as well! Have you HUGGED your Skunkasaurus Rex Today? SKUNK TRIVIA
The Skunk Lady TM 1. Skunk's top speed is approx. 6 Miles Per hour. 2. Baby skunks are called kittens. 3. Skunk kittens are born hairless, eyes closed, ears closed, looking somewhat like small seals. You can sometimes tell what color and how they will be marked at time of birth. You can tell what color and how they will be marked at birth. 4. Female skunks can carry fertilized eggs for up to one year before conceiving if she feels the conditions are not favorable to raising a family. 5. Mother skunks have between 1 to 5 kittens normally in a litter, but some female skunks have had as many as 19 kittens in a single litter. 6. Skunks have poor eyesight with an optimum distance of about 3 feet. 7. Skunks' eyes are made for the evening hours and do not respond well to bright lights. 8. Skunks have made up for the lack of eyesight by having keen hearing and a wonderful sense of smell. Every skunk smells---- it has a nose! 9. There are three types of skunks: 1. Striped Skunk. 2. Hog Nosed Skunk. 3.Spotted Skunk. 10. Only the striped skunk likes people, and is successfully kept as domestic pets like the dog or 11. Skunks are not born with RABIES. Some have lived to be 23 years of age with no signs of Rabies. CDC states that there is no true carrier state of Rabies in any mammal. The last time I knew skunks were mammals! 12. Wild skunks are the farmers' friends. They control rodents, insects, snakes and turtles from ruining fishing holes. 13. Not all skunks are black and white. Some are all white with pink eyes, all white with dark eyes, brown, gray, mauve, blonde, beige and white. 14. Skunks are born and bred right here in the USA, they are not from a foreign country as your skunks Great, Great, Grand-Pappy and Mammy waved at Columbus as he came ashore for the very first time. Heck, they even played with the dinosaurs. 15. Domestic Skunks live between 10 to 12 years according to the experts, however, more and more skunks are staying around for 20 + years or more. 16. Skunks that live in the wild only live approx. 2 years [I have been told]. 17. Some skunks sweat to the point they are soaking wet and smell like they have just run a 10 mile race in 90 degree weather. 18. Baby skunks start opening their eyes between 19 and 23 days old. STRIPED SKUNK NORMALS
Physiological reference ranges calculated for: Both sexes combined All ages combined Sample results submitted by 12 member institutions. I.S.I.S. - October 1999
Reference Ranges for Physiological Data Values
*The information listed here has been gathered from data collected from various skunk owners.
Do not presume that these drugs are safe for you individual skunk. Adverse long term effects are unknown and are a risk. Always use caution when administering steroids. Always consult a veterinarian before administrating medications to your skunk. Drug Name
For the temporary relief of nasal congestion due to colds, hay fever or other upper respiratory allergies, or associated with sinusitis. Shrinks swollen nasal membranes Sulfadimethoxine Treatment of sulfadimethoxine-susceptible bacterial infections. 12.5 to 25 mg per pound of body Amoxicillin trihydrate Treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of organisms as 5 mg per pound of body weight twice follows: respiratory tract (tonsillitis, tracheobronchitis) caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus species, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary tract (cystitis) caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus species, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; gastrointestinal tract (bacterial gastroenteritis) caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus species, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; bacterial dermatitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus species and Proteus mirabilis; and soft tissues (abscesses, lacerations, and wounds) caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus species, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis. Acetylsalicylic acid This medication may be used in either dogs or cats to combat different types of infections, especially those involving Pseudomonas. Enrofloxacin is also active against Staphylococci, and thus is commonly used for infections of the skin. Amoxicillin Trihydrate; Treatment of skin and soft tissue infections such as wounds, abscesses 6.25 milligrams (equivalent to 5 Clavulanate Potassium cellulitis, superficial/juvenile and deep pyoderma due to susceptible strains milligrams amoxicillin and 1.25 of beta-lactamase (penicillinase) producing Staphylococcus aureus, milligrams clavulanic acid per pound non-beta-lactamase Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus species body weight) twice daily. Streptococcus species, and E. coli. For treatment of periodontal infections due to susceptible strains of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Methylprednisolone acetate. Treatment of inflammation and related disorders in cats; treatment of 10 to 20 milligrams intramuscularly allergic and dermatologic disorders in cats; and as supportive therapy to antibacterial treatment of severe infections in cats. Topical Antibiotic-Steroid Neomycin sulfate, Thiostrepton, Triamcinolone acetonide The drug is indicated as an anti-inflammatory agent 0.125 to 0.5 milligrams depending on the severity of the condition For removal of feline cestodes Dipylidium caninum (tapeworm) and 4 pounds and under, (11.5 milligrams); Taenia taeniaeformis (tapeworm). 5 to 11 pounds, (23 milligrams); over 11 pounds, (34.5 milligrams). Drontal Praziquantel Tapeworms, hookworms, ascarids, whipworms Pamoate + Febantel Endosorb Activated Attapulgite Anti-diarrhea Pyrantel Pamoate For removal of large roundworms (T. canis and Toxascaris leonina) and Equivalent to 2.27 or 4.54 milligrams hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala). of pyrantel base per pound of body weight. Bacterial infections Antihistaminic, emollient, anti-itch shampoo A laxative and lubricant for hair ball removal and prevention Pyrantel Pamoate For removal of large roundworms (T. canis and Toxascaris leonina) and hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala). Destroys bacteria. For cleaning oral wounds, scrapes, sores Drug Name
For control of large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, S. equinus, S. 2.3 milligrams per pound of body vulgaris), small strongyles, pinworms (Oxyuris equi), and ascarids weight (one 2.5-gram fenbendazole (Parascaris equorum) in horses. For treatment of encysted mucosal syringe for a 1,100-pound horse). For cyathostome (small strongyle) larvae including early third stage (hypobiotic), foals and weanlings (less than 18 months late third stage, and fourth stage larvae in horses. of age), 4.6 milligrams per pound of body weight (one 2.5-gram fenbendazole syringe for each 550 pounds of body weight). 4.6 milligrams per pound of body weight (10 milligrams per kilogram) daily for 5 consecutive days. Diphenhydramine HCI It is used for conditions requiring an anti-inflammatory agent 0.25 to 1.0 milligram per pound of Pyrantel Pamoate For the removal and control of infections from the following mature Equivalent of 3 milligrams pyrantel parasites: Large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris Strongylus edentatus, base per pound of body weight. Strongylus equinus), small strongyles pinworms (Oxyuris), and large roundworms (Parascaris) Torbutrol tablets Butorphanol Tartrate For the relief of chronic nonproductive cough associated with 0.25 milligram of butorphanol base tracheto-bronchitis, tracheitis tonsillitis, laryngitis, and pharyngitis activity per pound of body weight. associated with inflammatory conditions of the upper respiratory tract. Used to relieve anxiety, muscle spasms, and seizures Winstrol tablets Anabolic steroid 2 mg tablet. Administered orally to cats 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks. INGREDIENT
Mephyton, Vitamin K1 Used to prevent bleeding. Given for accidental rat poisoning Protects and regenerates the liver Star of Bethlehem: For trauma Clematis: For the tendency to "pass out", and unconsciousness, being ‘far away.' Cherry Plum: Fear of mind giving way, verge of breakdown, anger. Impatiens: For irritability, tension and fidgety. Rock Rose: For frozen terror and panic. A concentrated Fatty Acid Skin and Coat Conditioning, Reduce dietary supplement Dry Skin, Pruritis Major anti-oxidant nutrient; retards cellular aging due to oxidation; supplies oxygen to the blood which is then carried to the heart and other organs; thus alleviating fatigue; aids in bringing nourishment to cells; strengthens the capillary walls & prevents the red blood cells from destructive poisons; prevents & dissolves blood clots; has also been used by doctors in helping prevent sterility, muscular dystrophy, calcium deposits in blood walls and heart conditions. Good for house skunks getting no sun Vitamins/herbs INGREDIENT
Clinically, taurine has been used with varying degrees of success in the treatment of a wide variety of conditions, including: cardiovascular diseases, hypercholesterolemia, epilepsy and other seizure disorders, macular degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, hepatic disorders, alcoholism, and cystic fibrosis. Colloidal Silver A natural antibiotic and healing agent. Also used for its anti-fungal and anti-viral A powerful nervine, stimulant, carminative and antispasmodic. The drug allays pain and promotes sleep Works as an intestinal cleanser. Also helps prevent fungus, diverticulosis, acne, and bad breath. It helps in the absorption of calcium as well as other Known as a natural anti-biotic. This anti-oxidant is also believed to help lower cholesterol Contains Choline & Inositol which are essential for the breakdown of fats and cholesterol. It helps prevent arterial congestion, helps distribute body weight, increases immunity to virus infections, cleans the liver and purifies the INGREDIENT
An herbal remedy for asthma and coughs related to inflammation or allergies. Ginger has been used to treat nausea, indigestion, cramps, migraine headaches and to lower blood cholesterol and as a cleanser. Builds and maintains bones and teeth; regulates heart rhythm; eases insomnia; helps regulate the passage of nutrients in & out of the cell walls; assists in normal blood clotting; helps maintain proper nerve and muscle function; lowers blood pressure; important to normal kidney function and in current medical research reduces the incidence of colon cancer, and reduces blood cholesterol levels. Necessary for the synthesis & breakdown of amino acids, the building blocks of protein; aids in fat and carbohydrate metabolism; aids in the formation of antibodies; maintains the central nervous system; aids in the removal of excess fluid of premenstrual women; promotes healthy skin; reduces muscle spasms, leg cramps, hand numbness, nausea & stiffness of hands; helps maintain a proper balance of sodium & phosphorous in the Hartz Cat Vitamins
Good general vitamin with Taurine Follow directions for cat weights INGREDIENT
Helps in the formation & regeneration of red blood cells, thus helping prevent anemia; necessary for carbohydrate, fat & protein metabolism; maintains a healthy nervous system; promotes growth in children; increases energy; needed for Calcium absorption. A "free amino acid" which has been found to improve fat metabolism in the heart and other organs and tissues, reduces Triglyceride and cholesterol levels, improves heart muscle tolerance, prevents irregular heartbeat and angina, provides more energy for the heart and helps lower blood pressure. Evening Primrose oil
Promoted for a wide variety of ailments including reduction of premenstrual and menopause syndrome symptoms, weight loss without dieting, hypertension, improved lipids, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis. Flax seed oil
Omega-6 and Omega-3 fatty acids are known to play important roles in the formation of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are important cellular regulators which control inflammatory processes in the body. Flax seed oil, which contains large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids and useful amounts of omega-6 fatty acids, may be a helpful adjunct in protocols which deal with Cardiovascular disease, Hypertension, Arthritis and other inflammatory disorders, Psoriasis and other skin problems, Cancer, Diabetes and Kidney disease. Vitamin mineral supplement Vitamin mineral supplement Necessary for protein synthesis; wound healing; vital for the development of the reproductive organs, prostate functions and male hormone activity; it governs the contractility of muscles; important for blood stability; maintains the body's alkaline balance; helps in normal tissue function; aids in the digestion and metabolism of phosphorus.


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