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Landscape, Nursery & Turf Edition Plant & Pest advisory A Rutgers Cooperative Extension Publication Foliar Diseases in the Landscape
Ann B. Gould, Ph.D., Specialist in Plant Pathology Recent rains and the promise of more to come is ideal for the foliar diseases in the landscape. The most common diseases on trees and shrubs affect the foliage as spots, blotches, and blisters. Although unsightly, most foliar diseases do not greatly impact the health of the plant, and chemical inputs are rarely necessary. The development of the diseases described below, as well as many others, is favored by abundant moisture and cooler temperatures. These conditions in the spring months can vary significantly, which is why we see more disease in some years than in others. Management of springtime foliar diseases benefits from a few basic strategies: reduce Apple scab lesion on crabapple leaf. leaf wetness and humidity in plantings (e.g., improve air-flow through proper spacing and weed management, irrigate during early morning hours, and avoid overhead watering); remove leaf litter to reduce fungal inoculum; and improve plant vigor to help reduce disease severity. Remember, however, that the environment drives the foliar disease pro- cess, so expect to see more of these following wet springs. Although spring-time diseases require chemical inputs only when troublesome, there are pesticides labeled for management of each of these diseases. When using a fungicide, always check the label for host, timing, and rates.
Apple Scab
Scab, caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, is one of the most Foliar Diseases in the
common diseases of apple, crabapple, and other rosaceous ornamen- Landscape .1
tals such as cotoneaster, hawthorn, mountain ash, and pyracantha. Symptoms of this disease include olive-colored spots (1/4 inch in Plant Diagnostic Lab Update .3
diameter) with fuzzy borders on leaves and petals. Corky-looking le-sions (hence the name "scab") may appear on twigs and fruit. Severely infected leaves, petals, and fruit may turn brown and drop prematurely.
Diseases of Turfgrass.4
The best way to manage this disease in the landscape is to use resistant crabapple varieties. These include Anne E, Bob White, Molten Sample Monitoring Calendar
Lava, Ormiston Roy, Prairifire, Red Jewel, Sargent, Sentinel, Strawberry for Landscape Plants .5
Parfait, and Sugar Tyme. Contact your county Cooperative Extension Chemical controls include (see label for hosts and rates): Armada, Weekly Weather Summary .7
azoxystrobin (see list of tolerant varieties on label), Consyst, chlorotha-lonil, copper (sulfate), fenarimol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, myclobu-tanil, phosphate (trunk injection), propiconazole, Quali-Pro TM/C WDG, Spectro, SysStar, tebuconazole (trunk injection), thiophanate-methyl, trifloxystrobin, triflumizole, TwoSome (no commercial uses), Zyban.
See Foliar Diseases on page 2
Foliar Diseases from page 1
disease can be obtained with foliar applications of fungi- Leaf Spot and Blotch
cides which include Armada, Bacillus subtilis, chlorotha- Leaf diseases are caused by many different species lonil, ConSyst, copper, (Badge, hydroxide, oxychloride, of fungi, and most ornamental plants are susceptible to salts, sulfate), Junction, mancozeb, neem oil, phosphate one type of leaf spot or another. Fungal spores, pro- (trunk injection), Quali-Pro TM/C WDG, Spectro, SysStar, duced in fruiting structures in leaf litter on the ground, are thiabendazole (trunk injection), thiophanate-methyl, splashed to developing tissue after budbreak. Typical leaf TwoSome (no commercial uses), trifloxystroban, or Zyban. spotting occurs soon after the infection process begins. Sphaeropsis shoot blight and canker
Leaf spot diseases are caused by a wide variety of This disease, also known as tip blight (or in the older fungal and (some) bacterial pathogens. Leaf blotches, literature Diplodia tip blight), is one of those diseases which encompass a larger portion of the leaf surface, that is so common on susceptible 2- and 3-needle pines are rarer but still prevalent. A very common leaf blotch that I often don't even notice it. The disease is caused in New Jersey landscapes is horsechestnut leaf blotch by a fungus called Sphaeropsis that infects and kills caused by the fungus Guignardia aesculi. developing needles, resulting in short, dead candles. Chemical controls include (see label for hosts and Sunken cankers may form on branches and stems, killing rates) Armada, azoxystrobin, Bacillus subtilis (Japanese the tissue further from the trunk. The lower branches of maple), chlorothalonil, Concert, copper, (Badge, hydrox- pine are usually affected first, where tiny, black, "fruiting ide, metallic, oxychloride, salts, sulfate), ferbam, iprodi- bodies" can be seen with the aid of a hand lens at the one, Junction, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, propicon- base of dead needles and on cones. Spores are released azole, Spectro, Stature, SysStar, sulfur (dusting, flowable, from these fruiting bodies in cool, rainy weather and are wettable), thiophanate-methyl, triadimefon, trifloxys- transmitted to susceptible tissue. trobin, TwoSome (no commercial uses), Zyban.
Management practices for tip blight include the Anthracnose of Shade Trees
pruning and removal of dead or dying branches dur- Anthracnose is a common disease of many shade ing dry weather, watering during times of drought, and tree species, particularly sycamore, ash, oak, maple, and maintenance of plant vigor. Thorough coverage of new walnut. This disease affects foliage as a scorch along growth with azoxystrobin, Concert, copper (salts), Junc- leaf margins and veins, and also causes dieback and tion, propiconazole, Spectro, SysStar, or thiophanate- cankers to form on twigs.
methyl is essential for optimum control. Apply fungi- Anthracnose begins its annual cycle in the spring. cides with a compatible spreader-sticker to entire trees at Small fruiting structures situated on small twigs infected budbreak and repeat at intervals specified on label. the previous year produce spores. Spores are splashed Juniper tip blight
and carried by wind to infect developing leaves. These Although tip blight on junipers has the same name diseased leaves develop lesions along veins and leaf as the tip blight on 2- and 3-needle pines, it's caused by margins, causing the tissue to appear "scorched." In different fungi and has a slightly different disease cycle. severe cases, leaves soon completely blight and fall Tip blight on juniper is caused by two fungi, Phomopsis from the tree. In some species such as sycamore, trees and Kabatina. promptly refoliate in the drier, early summer months. Phomopsis attacks new growth all season long, es- These new leaves are not usually affected by the disease; pecially on the lower branches. Affected shoots die from anthracnose is more severe when temperatures during the tip toward the main stem. Kabatina attacks wood leaf expansion remain between 55 and 60 F, and when older than 1 year through wounds at any rainy time dur- moisture remains on leaf surfaces for long periods of time. ing the growing season. This fungus is more troublesome In the twig blight phase of the disease, infected twigs on plants that are weakened by soil moisture extremes, may die back 6 to 8 inches from the tips, and larger winter injury, or mechanical injury. Sometimes I notice cankers may form if infection is severe or if the tree is in this disease in beds beside parking lots where plows poor health. Repeated tip dieback results in clusters of deposit piles of snow during winter.
dead twigs called "witches' brooms," which are readily The tip blight fungi produce small, black fruiting apparent as you look at the silhouette of the tree.
bodies in cankered regions at the base of killed twigs. To manage anthracnose, improve plant vigor, prune The disease cycle begins in spring, when spores of the cankers and dead branches, and avoid planting highly fungi are released in wet weather. Infections can contin- sensitive plants. Irrigate in the early morning hours and ue throughout the growing season as long as wet weather avoid over-head watering to prevent excessive moisture prevails. Expect to see both diseases when junipers are from remaining on foliage.
crowded closely together or the humidity is high. Since anthracnose does not usually cause serious To manage tip blight, improve plant vigor, avoid me- damage to healthy trees, application of fungicides is chanical injury, prune affected tissue, control insect pests recommended only when it is necessary to keep trees as when present, and space plants adequately to ensure blemish-free as possible. If desired, some control of this See Juniper tip blight on page 3

Juniper tip blight from page 2
Plant Diagnostic
good air circulation. To control Phomopsis, apply azoxystrobin, copper (Badge, hydroxide, salts, sulfate), Junction, mancozeb, propicon- azole, Spectro, thiophanate methyl, or Zyban. Richard J. Buckley, Laboratory Coordinator For tip blight caused by Kabatina, apply man- cozeb, Spectro, SysStar, or thiophanate-methyl. Add a spreader-sticker for best results.
As we pass through spring, Oak Leaf Blister
grass samples are coming into Look for symptoms of this disease, little the laboratory with increasing "pockets" on the leaves of susceptible oaks, frequency. We have documented later this spring. The fungus that causes this the unusually high number of disease, Taphrina deformans, overwinters in anthracnose basal crown rot
budscales and twigs. Leaves become infected samples from golf courses in as they develop in spring, and symptoms begin recent days and can add a couple to appear within several weeks. As the blisters age, they become dry, brown leaf spots, and more of them to our growing list Active pink snow mold on heavily affected trees may defoliate. As with of samples. Even as the weather putting green sample. most diseases that development in the spring, warms, the real fun came because oak leaf blister is favored by wet weather. This of the cold rain last week. The cool and wet weather completed disease does not seriously harm healthy trees the disease triangle and drove cold weather turf diseases into and control with fungicides is not usually rec- the lab. Turf samples submitted from local golf courses were diagnosed with pink snow mold, which is caused by the fungus
Chemical controls include chlorothalonil Microdochium nivale. This disease also is known as fusarium (red group only), Junction (laurel oak), manco- patch. Small bronze patches and slight rings suddenly appear in zeb, Spectro, TwoSome (no commercial uses), the turf during the wet weather. It is not uncommon at this time ziram (dormant spray before budswell).
of year for the fungus to spread on mowers and rollers and cause Volutella Blight of Pachysandra
bronze streaks of disease. Yellow patch, which has its own alias
Volutella blight (also called Pachysandra – cool season brown patch, and is caused by Rhizoctonia cerealis leaf and stem blight) is easy to spot. Plants in- was also diagnosed on a sample from Long Island. Be aware that fected with the fungus Volutella exhibit wonder- these diseases will continue to pop up during cool and wet peri- fully large, "bulls-eye" leaf spots and elongate ods into late May or even early June. The most interesting sample; cankers on petioles and stems. Within several weeks, highly diagnostic, pink-colored fruiting however, may have been the sample from a home lawn in north- bodies form on affected tissue. This disease can west Warren County. This grass was loaded with the characteristic be very destructive in beds, causing circular sclerotia of the fungus Typhula incarnata, the cause of gray snow
patches of dying plants to form and enlarge mold. Unlike the pink snow mold, gray needs substantial snow
cover to cause disease. After a couple 90oF days, I don't think we Like many diseases in the landscape, Vo- will be seeing any more snow cover or gray snow mold. lutella blight cannot be sufficiently managed by only using fungicides. There are cultural factors Ornamental plants are also coming in with increasing fre- that contribute to disease severity. First, water is essential in the disease infection process, quency. We have documented the impact of the winter on orna- so "managing the moisture" helps to manage mental plantings in the last two newsletters and still continue to the disease. Avoid practices that encourage receive broad-leaved evergreens and conifers with winter injury.
excessive moisture (such as including heavy Winter damage aside, we had a couple interesting samples from mulching and over watering). Periodically thin the landscape. Phyllosticta leaf spot was identified on English
the beds to increase light and air circulation. ivy from a Middlesex County landscape. Cottony camellia scale
Avoid watering during times of the day, such as nymphs were found on a holly from Morris County. And Vo-
late afternoon, when the beds are apt to remain lutella leaf and stem blight was diagnosed on a boxwood from a
wet for long periods. Consider that heavy Sussex County landscape.
shade may also contribute to longer periods of leaf wetness. Winter injury and wounding Nursery and greenhouse
predispose pachysandra to this disease. Com- In last year's late April newsletter, we wrote of rose with mon things to watch out for include mechanical downy mildew. Interestingly enough, we have a couple from
injury (foot traffic, pets, or children playing in a central Jersey grower right now with symptoms that are very beds), scale insects, and poor nutrition. suspicious. The diagnosis is not complete, but I smell the downy Chemical controls include chlorothalonil, mildew (I'll let you know how it turns out). Downey mildew of copper, (Badge, hydroxide, metallic, oxychlo- rose is a disease that will rapidly infect a rose crop during cool ride, salts, sulfate), Junction, mancozeb, Spec- (50oF, overcast, and damp weather). Timely fungicide treatments will prevent the disease. o Diseases of Turfgrass
susceptible turf at this time. Outbreaks were delayed due to the usually cool weather in March and April, but Bruce B. Clarke, Ph.D., Specialist in Turfgrass the disease should become more prevalent in early-May because of the recent heavy rainfall. Infections are char-acterized by the appearance of short red threads (1/16- Brown Ring Patch
1/4 inch long) emerging from tan-colored leaf blades. We continue to receive samples of turf infested Affected patches are typically pink in color and range with brown ring patch, a relatively new disease of
from 1 to 6 inches in diameter. Although perennial annual bluegrass putting greens caused by the fungus ryegrass and fine fescue are most susceptible, Kentucky Rhizoctonia circinata var circinata (= Waitea circinata bluegrass, velvet bentgrass and tall fescue may also be var circinata). Bentgrass can also be affected, however, affected. Red thread is typically found on "hungry" (low
annual bluegrass is typically much more susceptible. fertility) turf during cool, wet weather. Well-fertilized This disease is similar in appearance to yellow patch, but turf, however, may also be attacked. To obtain optimum it can occur at much higher air temperatures (50 to 85oF disease control, maintain adequate fertility levels, avoid for brown ring patch, compared to 50 to 65oF for yellow drought stress and excessive thatch, and apply Armada, patch). Infested patches become chlorotic and range in Banner, Bayleton, Chipco 26GT*, Compass, Curalan*, size from several inches to three feet in diameter. The Eagle, Endorse, Headway, Heritage, Insignia, ProStar, centers of patches are frequently green, resulting in a Rubigan, Tartan, Trinity or Touche* per manufacturer's "frog-eye" or "donut-shaped" effect. The outer ring turns recommendations (*not for use on residential properties). necrotic during warm, wet weather and may become de- Stripe Smut
pressed as the thatch is decomposed. Since the leaves, This disease, caused by the fungus Ustilago stri- crowns and thatch are often infested, brown ring patch
iformis, is starting to appear in susceptible Kentucky can be difficult to control with one fungicide applica- bluegrass plantings. To identify stripe smut in the field,
tion. Banner (propiconazole), Daconil (chlorothalonil), look for thick masses of black spores protruding through Chipco 26GT (iprodione), Endorse (polyoxin-D), Heri- "shredded" leaf blades. Although fungicides are most tage (azoxystrobin), Insignia (pyraclostrobin), Medallion effective when applied once in mid-October, present (fludioxonil) and ProStar (flutolanil) have provided good infections can be controlled with two applications (14 control when used on a curative basis at brown patch days apart) of a penetrant fungicide such as Armada, rates, but this disease is most effectively suppressed Banner, Bayleton, Eagle, Rubigan, Tartan, or thiophan- when fungicides are applied on a preventive basis (mid- ate-methyl. Follow label directions carefully for best to late-April in the tri-state area),. Multiple applications may be needed and fungicides must be applied in suf- ficient water to ensure good penetration into the crown Take-all patch, caused by the root and crown infect- and thatch (e.g., at least 2 gal water / 1,000 sq ft at 40 ing fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. avenae, has to 60 psi). Once controlled with fungicides, symptoms started to develop on golf course turf. Although infec- may take 14 to 28 days or more to recover. It is impor- tion takes place during cool, wet weather in the fall, tant to note that brown ring patch is not controlled with winter and spring, symptoms are most striking in April benzimidazole fungicides. and May after periods of stress. Infected grass first ap- Leaf Spot and Melting-Out
pears bronzed to reddish-brown and then fades to a dull This disease, caused by the fungus Drechslera poae, brown color. Patches are usually circular, range in size is apparent on susceptible Kentucky bluegrass lawns from several inches to two feet or more in diameter, and throughout the State. To prevent severe damage from may exhibit a bronzed colored outer ring when active. the melting-out phase of this disease during the next The centers of patches are frequently colonized by blue- six weeks, avoid heavy applications of nitrogen in the grass (Poa spp.), fescue (Festuca spp.) or weeds. Upon spring (especially quick-release formulations such as close examination, decaying roots and leaf sheaths ap- urea or ammonium nitrate), maintain the cutting height pear black and dark strands of mycelium often develop at or above 2 to 2-1/2 inches, remove excess thatch, and parallel to the root axes. The disease is enhanced by apply Armada, Compass, Headway, Heritage, Insignia, poorly drained, light textured soils and high soil pH. mancozeb, Medallion, or Tartan, now per manufacturer's For best results, use acidifying fertilizers during cool- recommendations. Avoid the use of certain acropetal weather to lower soil pH (e.g., between 5.5 and 6.0) and penetrant fungicides (e.g., benzimidazoles) this spring in apply Banner, Bayleton, Headway, Heritage, Insignia, areas with a history of leaf spot and melting-out, since
Trinity, or Rubigan now and repeat in 4 weeks. Apply these fungicides may intensify symptom expression.
manganese (2 Lb Mn/A as a "foliar spray"), if soils are Red Thread
deficient in this nutrient, to reduce disease severity.
We are starting to see the development of Red
See Turf Diseases on page 7
Thread, caused by the fungus Laetisaria fuciformis, on
Sample Monitoring Calendar for Landscape Plants
For the Months of May & June
Steven K. Rettke, Ornamentals IPM Program Associate COMMON HOSTS
Petal fall of flowering dogwood (=PPI) Honeydew or sooty mold Deformed leaf terminals Norway maple flower bud break = PPI Fine stippling discolors leaf surface Dark red eggs on undersides of leaves Use beating tray & hand-lens to determine population levels – Treat ASAP! Redbud bloom = PPI Adults appear when leaves half expanded Larvae inside leaves 10 days, then drop to ground 2nd generation in early June Native Holly Leaf American Holly Pin Oak leaf bud break = PPI Larvae produce serpentine mines in leaf Larvae overwinter within mines (handpick) Adult feeding causes leaf punctures Pin Oak leaf bud break = PPI Up to 1" long, green or brown "inchworms" "inchworms" may hang on threads Shothole damage on leaves in light infestations --- Defoliation when heavy Flowering dogwood bloom = PPI Adults emerge when new leaves first form Young infested leaves (two inches or less) develop inwardly rolled margins Developed swollen greenish yellow tissue stunted, distorted leaves may turn brown End of crabapple bloom = PPI Honeydew & sooty mold, sparse foliage Insect covered with white powdery wax with four stripes MAY & JUNE
Pine Needle Scale Pines Begin bloom of Kousa Dogwood = PPI Reddish brown crawlers in May & July (1st generation) Many white scales per needleCheck scale covers for parasitic wasp emergence holes Feed in clusters at branch crotches Full bloom of Weigela, Leucothoe species = PPI Reddish eggs within tufts of white wax at base needles Dark colored crawlers moving about Infestations cause premature leaf-drop & dieback See May & June Monitoring Calendar on page 6
May & June Monitoring Calendar from page 5
Elongate Hemlock Hemlock Full bloom Weigela, Leucothoe species = PPI Yellow blotchy needles Premature needle drop "Scurfy" appearance to underside of leaves Crawlers can be transported by wind and birds to other hemlocks Full bloom of Weigela = PPI (larvae & adults) Pointed yellow eggs laid on undersides Adults skeletonize leaves Rasping mouthparts of larvae cause leaves to turn Begin bloom of the Japanese tree lilac Yellow to white stippling damage visible on upper Black "varnish" spots on undersides of leaves (excrement) Overwinters as eggs near leaf mid-vein Begin bloom of the mountain laurel = PPI Dead leader-raised ridges in bark Winding galleries under bark Adults chew "D" shaped exit holes in bark No pheromone traps available Black Vine Weevil Full bloom of American Holly Small crescent shaped notches along leaf margins Azalea (broadleaf Look for first notching of new growth before treating Check for bark feeding at root crown Begin bloom of the Japanese tree lilac Yellow blisters or mines most noticeable on undersides of leaves Most mining damage done in the fall and early spring COMMON HOSTS
Begin bloom of the Japanese tree lilac Cloud of tiny white insects fly when plant is shaken Honeydew & sooty mold Mottled discoloration of foliage Treat only high populations Weigela full bloom = PPI Plant appears drought stressed Holes in bark/check limb crotches Only one limb may be dead Monitor adults with pheromone traps Begin bloom of Catalpa tree = PPI Adults only lay eggs in new, soft leaves (2nd generation) Treat only if 1st generation damage was severe A third generation in July is usually insignificant Begin bloom of Catalpa tree = PPI White male scales mostly on leaves Brown female scales mostly on stems Prune out severely infested branchesl See June Monitoring Calendar on page 7
June Monitoring Calendar from page 6
Begin bloom of common Smoketree = PPI "Gummosis" present on main trunk Extended adult flight & egg laying period At least 2 bark spray treatments required Arborvitae, Spruce, 600-900 Full bloom of Kousa dogwood = PPI Brown, sparse foliage Spindle-shaped bags up to 2 inches long composed of Early June, check for very small larva & bags moving within foliage Eggs overwinter within bags from early fall to late spring J. Flowering Cherry 707-1151 Begin Bloom of Clematis spp. = PPI Dead twigs and branches Branches coated with white fluffy wax Female scale cover circular; white with yellow center Male scale cover white & elongated Check for predators & parasitoid exit holes Begin bloom of Clematis spp. = PPI Yellow foliage initially; then brown Female scale covers are white & circular Prune out severely infested branches Begin bloom of (Golden Rain Tree)=PPI Upper surface of leaves have bronze stippling Oak mites feed on upper surfaces Turf Diseases from page 4
morning educational session with NJ, NY and PA pesti- Rutgers Turfgrass Research Golf Classic on
cide recertification credits and GCSAA CEUs has been May 4, 2009
added to the program this year. Proceeds will be used Come out and support turfgrass research by attend- to support practical, problem-solving research, student ing/sponsoring the 14th Annual Rutgers Turfgrass Golf scholarships, and new facilities for the Rutgers Turfgrass Classic at Fiddler's Elbow Country Club on Monday, Program. Registration information, a program brochure May 4, 2009. This is a major fundraising event that has and directions to the event can be obtained at raised more $830,000 over the past thirteen years. A Weather Summary for the Week Ending 8 am Monday 4/27/ 9

New Brunswick, N.J A and Biological Sciences vironmental utgers School of En PLANT & PEST ADVISORY
Landscape, Nursery & Turf Edition Contributors Rutgers NJAES-CE Specialists and Staff
Pesticide User Responsibility: Use
Bruce B. Clarke, Ph.D., Turf Pathology pesticides safely and follow instruc- Ann B. Gould, Ph.D., Ornamentals Plant Pathology tions on labels. The pesticide user Steven Hart, Ph.D., Weed Science is reponsible for proper use, storage Joseph R. Heckman, Ph.D., Soil Fertility Albrecht Koppenhofer, Ph.D., Turfgrass Entomology and disposal, residues on crops, and James A. Murphy, Ph.D., Turf Management damage caused by drift. For specific Gladis Zinati, Ph.D., Nursery Management labels, special local-needs label 24(c) Richard J. Buckley, Coordinator, Plant Diagnostic Laboratory registration, or section 18 exemption, RCE County Agricultural Agents and Program Associates
contact RCE in your County.
Bergen, Joel Flagler (201-336-6780) Burlington, Raymond J. Samulis (609-265-5050) Use of Trade Names: No discrimina-
Camden, Steven Rettke, Program Associate IPM (856-566-2900) tion or endorsement is intended in the Cape May, Jenny Carleo (609-465-5115) use of trade names in this publication. Cumberland, James R. Johnson (856-451-2800) In some instances a compound may Essex, Jan Zienteck, Program Coordinator (973-353-5958) be sold under different trade names Gloucester, Jerome L. Frecon (856-307-6450, ext. 1) Hunterdon, Winfred P. Cowgill, Jr. (908-788-1338) and may vary as to label clearances.
Middlesex, William T. Hlubik (732-398-5260) Reproduction of Articles: RCE invites
Monmouth, Richard G. Obal (732-431-7261) reproduction of individual articles, Morris, Peter Nitzsche (973-285-8307) source cited with complete article Passaic, Elaine F. Barbour, Agric. Assistant (973-305-5740) name, author name, followed by Somerset, Nick Polanin (908-526-6293) Sussex, Brian Oleksak, Program Associate (973-948-3040) Rutgers Cooperative Extension, Plant Union, Madeline Flahive-DiNardo (908-654-9854) & Pest Advisory Newsletter.
Warren, William H. Tietjen (908-475-6505) Jack Rabin, Associate Director for Farm Services, NJAES Cindy Rovins, Agricultural Communications Editor For back issues, visit our web site at:


Visit for additional cases and activities Clinical Perspectives in As a physician scientist who has been studying and treating hyponatremic patients for the past 30 years, I am pleased to introduce this case-based continuing medical education publication and associated Web-based interactive learning program, Clinical Perspectives

Stressresponse balance drives the evolution of a network module and its host genome

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