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Which media set the news agenda: Mass media or/and social media?An independent research report sponsored by iSentia EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Professor Jim Macnamara. PhD, MA, FAMI, CPM, FAMEC, FPRIA Media provide a megaphone for the voice of The popularity of social media and networks such individuals and organisations and mass media – as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, Pinterest press, radio and television – have been the dominant and Instagram is spurring the growth of ‘owned channels of public communication media' and potentially allowing corporations and for the past century. organisations to set the news agenda – both directly However, the collapse of traditional media business and through intermediation and remediation (i.e., models, which has triggered what many media mass media sourcing leads and republishing content academics and practitioners are calling a ‘crisis in from social media). journalism'1, and the rapid growth of social media On the other hand, some claim that social media are use, is substantially changing practices such as largely ‘parasitic', deriving much or most of their journalism, public relations and corporate and information and topics from mass media. marketing communication. THE MILLION DOLLAR RESEARCH QUESTION: Which media primarily set the news agenda today? A major question with relevance for governments, Findings of this research are summarised in Part 1 corporations and organisations today is which media of this report.
primarily set the news agenda today? The answer Secondly, iSentia analysed mass media and social to this question significantly informs media and media reporting and discussion of three major news events to identify the timing and focus of information iSentia commissioned an independent review of distributed. Findings of this analysis are summarised research literature worldwide to examine the latest in Part 2 of this report.
data on news sources and the relationship between mass media (also referred to as mainstream and traditional media) and social media (also referred to as new media).
The 24 hour news cycle is an illusion – there is no news ‘cycle' – today we live in an age of ambient news.
News and information criss-cross, intersect, collide, conflict, and coalesce online and offline with no single
The news breaking potential of traditional vs social media varies according to:• The scale of news – major events are well covered by traditional media, although disasters will often by first reported through social media • Relationship to officialdom – government and corporate stories are "spoon fed" to journalists• Geography – traditional media focus on city centre news while social media often break other news• Community issues – ‘sleeper' local issues often bubble through social channels before gaining traditional media prominence.
Content should no longer be categorised by platform or traditional labels. Content creators increasingly work across all platforms. A more useful approach is to identify content as professional or citizen produced.
IT IS SIMPLISTIC TO VIEW MASS MEDIA AND SOCIAL MEDIA AS OPPOSITIONAL – THESE FORMS OF MEDIA ARE INCREASINGLY INTERCONNECTED AND INTERRELATED.
Individual social media audiences are overwhelmingly very small (97% of Twitter accounts have less than 100 followers), so the volume of items, and even who breaks news first, are not the main considerations; audience reach and credibility are more important factors in analysing impact.
SOCIAL MEDIA USE BY GOVERNMENTS, CORPORATIONS AND ORGANISATIONS AS WELL AS INDIVIDUALS IS GROWING RAPIDLY AND IS BECOMING COMMON PRACTICE. FOR EXAMPLE: A recent McKinsey survey of 3,542 executives globally found that 83% of companies use at least one social media technology. According to McKinsey, companies extensively use online video conferencing (60%), social networks (53%), blogs (43%), video sharing (41%), wikis (26%), microblogging (25%) and podcasts (25%)2. Academic research intortune 500 companies conducted by the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth Center for Marketing Research each year since 2008 reported that, in 2012, 73% of Fortune 500 companies had a Twitter account and had tweeted in the previous 30 days, 66% had a Facebook community page, "62% had a corporate YouTube account, and 28% had a corporate blog3.
In 2011, IBM declared itself a "social business" in a white paper titled The Social Business: Advent of a New Age4. Also in 2011, Gartner Inc. published a book titled The Social Organisation: How to Use Social Media to Tap the Collective Genius of Your Customers and Employees5. 83% OF COMPANIES USE AT 73% OF FORTUNE 500 62% OF FORTUNE 500 LEAST ONE SOCIAL MEDIA COMPANIES HAD A TWITTER COMPANIES HAD A CORPORATE ACCOUNT AND HAD TWEETED YOUTUBE ACCOUNT, AND IN THE PREVIOUS 30 DAYS 28% HAD A CORPORATE BLOG SOCIAL MEDIA ARE HAVING SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON NEWS AGENDAS AND PUBLIC COMMUNICATION, AS SHOWN BY NUMEROUS MUCH-PUBLICISED EXAMPLES. FOR INSTANCE: When US Airways Flight 1549 was forced to crash-land in the Hudson River in 2009, it was photos taken by ferry passenger Janis Krums on a mobile phone and posted on Twitpic that provided the mass media and the world with the first images and record of the event6. Despite the vast ‘army' of entertainment reporters based in Los Angeles, the news of Michael Jackson's death in June 2009 came from the social news Web site, TMZ and was passed on to millions of people around the world via Twitter and other social media7. News of the death of Osama Bin Laden in 2011 was broken on Twitter when a neighbour tweeted complaining about the noise next door when US security forces attacked Bin Laden's hiding place8. Twenty-seven minutes before mainstream media broke the news of singer-actor Whitney Houston's death in 2012, the story was on Twitter, reported by a man who tweeted the news to his 14 followers9. When Clarence House (@ClarenceHouse) announced the engagement of Prince William to Catherine (Kate) Middleton on 16 November 2010, the Royal Family ‘tweeted' the announcement, as well as releasing an official statement10. The success of democracy movements in Tunisia, Egypt, Iran and Syria referred to as the ‘Arab Spring' has been attributed in significant part to social media. Wael Ghonim, former marketing manager for Google who created the Facebook page that helped organise the uprising in Egypt, said in an interview on CNN "I want to meet Mark Zuckerberg one day and thank him…if you want to liberate a society just give them the internet"11. THE ROYAL FAMILY ‘TWEETED' THE NEWS OF MICHAEL NEWS OF THE DEATH OF THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE JACKSON'S DEATH IN JUNE OSAMA BIN LADEN IN 2011 ENGAGEMENT OF PRINCE 2009 CAME FROM THE SOCIAL WAS BROKEN ON TWITTER WILLIAM TO KATE MIDDLETON NEWS WEB SITE, TMZ RESEARCH BY PEW RESEARCH CENTER INDICATES THAT NEWS CONSUMPTION AND AGENDA SETTING REMAINS LARGELY FOCUSSED ON MASS MEDIA, BUT IS ON THE CUSP OF CHANGE.
For example, in its 2012 State of the News Media report, which presented 2011 data, the Pew Research Center's Project for Excellence in Journalism noted that television continued to dominate as a source of news for most people and that the majority of internet users most often went directly to a news media organisation Web site (36%), used key word search for news (32%), or went to a news aggregation site (29%) when seeking news online. Only a relatively small percentage used Facebook or Twitter to find news (9%)12. However, in its 2013 State of the News Media report, the Pew Research Center found a shift, reporting that a significant percentage of people have noticed a decline in quantity and quality of news reported by mass media because of cutbacks in journalistic staff and have "stopped reading, watching or listening to a news source because of it". Almost one-third (31%) of Americans say that they have deserted a mass media news outlet because it no longer provides the news and information that they were accustomed to and need13. Significantly, this trend is most pronounced among higher educated and more highly paid/wealthier citizens – a noteworthy trend for businesses and organisations.
Also, as widely reported, the shift to online – and to social media in particular – is most pronounced amongst younger demographics.
In its latest study of News Media Consumption in the US, the Pew Research Center reported that online news consumption rose sharply between 2011 and 2012, with 50% of people obtaining their news online – slightly less than television, but well ahead of newspapers (29%) and radio (33%). This study found that 19% of respondents gained news and information from social media and networks such as blogs, microblogs (e.g., Twitter) and Facebook. Another 8% said they had listened to a podcast to access news and information14. ONE-THIRD OF AMERICANS BETWEEN 2011 AND 2012. THE SHIFT TO ONLINE – AND TO SAY THAT THEY HAVE 50% OF PEOPLE OBTAINED SOCIAL MEDIA IN PARTICULAR DESERTED A MASS MEDIA THEIR NEWS ONLINE – IS MOST PRONOUNCED AMONGST YOUNGER DEMOGRAPHICS RESEARCH BY PEW RESEARCH CENTER INDICATES THAT NEWS CONSUMPTION AND AGENDA SETTING REMAINS LARGELY FOCUSSED ON MASS MEDIA, BUT IS ON THE CUSP OF CHANGE.
In the UK, a 2011 report by the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism at the University of Oxford concluded that "social media are beginning to rival search as a way of discovering news content in the UK"15. An important trend that is driving the shift to digital media, including social media, is the growth of mobile devices. In 2012, 39% of Americans obtained news from a mobile device – up from 34% in 2010.
While noting that the number of people relying primarily or substantially on social media for news is still relatively small, the Pew Research Center also noted that, even when people use mass media as their primary site for sourcing news, sharing of news (a ‘pass along' effect) through social media substantially increases distribution and audiences16. The 2011 report by the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism at the University of Oxford also drew attention to the importance of referrals from social media to mass media through the posting of comments and links. The Reuters Institute reported that "the average [mass media] news site receives 7.5% of traffic from Facebook alone"17. The growing roles of social media as a direct source of news, as well as for sharing news and providing referrals to mass media, indicates that it is simplistic to view mass media and social media as oppositional – these forms of media are increasingly interconnected and interrelated. IN 2012, 39% OF AMERICANS SHARING OF NEWS.THROUGH IT IS SIMPLISTIC TO VIEW MASS OBTAINED NEWS FROM A SOCIAL MEDIA SUBSTANTIALLY MEDIA AND SOCIAL MEDIA AS INCREASES DISTRIBUTION AND OPPOSITIONAL – THESE FORMS OF MEDIA ARE INCREASINGLY INTERCONNECTED AND INTERRELATED A NUMBER OF STUDIES SHOW THAT SOCIAL MEDIA ARE LARGELY DERIVATIVE AND PARASITIC – I.E., THEY FOLLOW TOPICS REPORTED IN MASS MEDIA AND EVEN SOURCE CONTENT FROM MASS MEDIA.
This has been anecdotally claimed by a number of editors and journalists – e.g., Oliver Kamm in The Guardian.
A 2008 study by academic Alvin Goldman reported that blogging in particular is reliant on mass media for content18. Similarly, a 2009 academic study of traditional media and blogs reported that "traditional media entities still account for the lion's share of blog links, with only four of the top 20 sites representing citizen media" – i.e., bloggers mainly link to major mass media19. More recently, a 2011 Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism report stated that "mainstream media content is the lifeblood of topical social media conversations in the UK – providing the vast majority of news links that are shared." Furthermore, the Reuters Institute noted that even when social media do not directly follow masy are influenced by mass media coverage20. One of the most extensive quantitative studies of the news cycle examined memes (themes, key concepts and phrases) on 1.6 million mass media Web pages and independent blogs over a three-month period in 2009, tracking a total of 90 million articles. This found that memes first appear in mass media in most cases and then diffuse to the blogosphere. In only 3.5% of cases did stories appear first in blogs and subsequently appear in mainstream media21. However, the study also found that mass media are slower to take up an issue than social media, and quicker to drop it. Social media (blogs in particular were examined in this study), quickly take up memes and discuss them for much longer. This illustrates a ‘long tail' of social media discussion, which should be noted by organisations and businesses.
MAINSTREAM MEDIA IN ONLY 3.5% OF CASES MASS MEDIA ARE SLOWER CONTENT IS THE LIFEBLOOD DID STORIES APPEAR FIRST TO TAKE UP AN ISSUE THAN OF TOPICAL SOCIAL MEDIA IN BLOGS AND SUBSEQUENTLY SOCIAL MEDIA, AND QUICKER CONVERSATIONS IN THE UK APPEAR IN MAINSTREAM MORE RECENT RESEARCH SHOWS THAT SOCIAL MEDIA SET THEIR OWN AGENDA AND THAT THEY ARE INCREASINGLY BEING USED AS A SOURCE OF LEADS AND NEWS BY MASS MEDIA.
The examples cited under Finding 2 amply illustrate this on a national and even global scale.
Research undertaken for a PhD by former journalist now Assistant Professor at the University of North Carolina, Brendan Watson, and presented in a paper to the 2012 Association for Education in Journalism & Mass Communication (AEJMC) conference in the US concluded: "This study of 100 blogs found that contrary to media assertions and prior research, local public affairs bloggers do not rely on newspapers for a majority of their sources. Bloggers in this study were more likely to use original sources and original reporting than rely on media sources, particularly when writing about local topics [that] the news media frequently ignore."22 A 2010 Pew Research Center study found that "the stories and issues that gain traction in social media differ substantially from those that lead in the mainstream press" 23. In his 2010 book Insidious Competition: The Battle for Meaning and the Corporate Image, Richard Telofski said "social media are the birthplace of many stories that make their way into the mainstream media"24. Telofski's warning that social media are particularly well-suited to ‘underdogs' such as activist organisations should be noted by governments and businesses, and is further discussed in Finding 7.
A 2013 academic analysis of reporting on the 2011 London riots by Farida Vis serves as an illustration of a new hybrid model of news that is emerging. Vis reported that journalists extensively used Twitter during the riots to find out about developments, exchange information with citizens, ask questions and check facts by following the Twitter stream through key hashtags such as #ukriots, #tottenham and #tottenhamriots. They also used images and video recorded by citizens on camera phones25. (See Finding 6.) CONTRARY TO MEDIA SOCIAL MEDIA ARE JOURNALISTS EXTENSIVELY ASSERTIONS AND PRIOR PARTICULARLY WELL-SUITED USED TWITTER .TO FIND OUT RESEARCH, LOCAL PUBLIC TO ‘UNDERDOGS'24 ABOUT DEVELOPMENTS, AFFAIRS BLOGGERS DO EXCHANGE INFORMATION WITH NOT RELY ON NEWSPAPERS CITIZENS.AND CHECK FACTS25 FOR A MAJORITY OF THEIR SOURCES22 INCREASINGLY, MASS MEDIA AND SOCIAL MEDIA ARE INTERDEPENDENT AND NEWS AGENDAS ARE MUTUALLY CONSTITUTIVE. AS JOHN CLARE WROTE IN A 2012 BOOK, "MAINSTREAM MEDIA FEED OFF SOCIAL MEDIA WHICH IN TURN REPACKAGES, RECYCLES AND COMMENTS IN ARTICLES IN THE MAINSTREAM MEDIA."26 IN TERMS OF CORPORATE AND ORGANISATIONAL COMMUNICATION AND PUBLIC RELATIONS, SOCIAL MEDIA SET OR INFLUENCE THE NEWS AGENDA IN THREE WAYS. THESE COULD BE DESCRIBED AS: 1. Consumer initiated – companies and organisations can find themselves criticised or discussed in social media in the way that McDonalds Restaurants and Qantas (#QantasLuxury) have when consumers responded negatively to corporate tweets and promotions. Also, consumers increasingly post complaints in social media. These may be picked up by mass media. 2. Employee initiated (unauthorised) – even with social media governance in place, employees can intentionally or inadvertently post comment in social media that impact the organisation. For example, in 2012, a Vodafone employee in Australia working on the telecommunications company's ‘Ambassador' program derided customers on Twitter, calling them "mentally retarded" and threatening them with a "pimp slap backhand"27. ORGANISATIONS CAN FIND CONSUMERS INCREASINGLY EMPLOYEES CAN INTENTIONALLY THEMSELVES CRITICISED OR POST COMPLAINTS IN SOCIAL OR INADVERTENTLY POST DISCUSSED IN SOCIAL MEDIA MEDIA. THESE MAY BE PICKED COMMENT IN SOCIAL MEDIA UP BY MASS MEDIA.
THAT IMPACT THE ORGANISATION IN TERMS OF CORPORATE AND ORGANISATIONAL COMMUNICATION AND PUBLIC RELATIONS, SOCIAL MEDIA SET OR INFLUENCE THE NEWS AGENDA IN THREE WAYS. THESE COULD BE DESCRIBED AS: 3. Organisation initiated (official) – increasingly and ideally, organisations are proactively using social media to distribute news and information. For example: • Following the Boston Marathon bombing in 2013, the Boston Police Department turned to social media because of the speed of communication required as information came to hand and events unfolded28. Most news was released by the Boston Police Department on its Website and on social media such as Twitter, with 148 tweets posted about the crisis, some of which received up to 144,000 retweets29. • Effective use of social media can also help organisations avoid a crisis. In 2009, when two employees of Domino's Pizza chain in Conover, North Carolina, uploaded a video of themselves contaminating food with human excrement, attracting one million views in two days, Domino's Pizza president Patrick Doyle went on YouTube explaining the company actions and saved the company's reputation30. • Organisations can also use social media for customer relations and marketing. For example, in 2011 regular Morton's Steakhouse patron Peter Shankman jokingly asked over Twitter if the restaurant chain could meet him with a porterhouse steak when he landed from an interstate flight. They did. Not only did this initiative gain wide discussion in social media, but it was picked up by mass media, gaining substantial positive publicity. A major trend in the second decade of the 21st century is the rapid growth of owned media, particularly owned social media sites. This is leading to an expansion of what it termed brand or corporate journalism, as organisations employ specialist content producers to create appealing, interesting sites and increase their efforts to set the agenda of news and public communication.32 Progressive organisations are also creating social media newsrooms which, instead of textual content such as ‘news releases', contain rich multimedia content such as videos, images and podcasts (e.g., of speeches) as well as links to documents such as reports, archives and the Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and other social media sites of the organisation31. 148 TWEETS
FOLLOWING THE BOSTON MORTON'S STEAKHOUSE PATRON PROGRESSIVE ORGANISATIONS MARATHON BOMBING.
PETER SHANKMAN JOKINGLY ARE ALSO CREATING SOCIAL [FROM] 148 TWEETS POSTED ASKED OVER TWITTER IF THE ABOUT THE CRISIS, SOME RESTAURANT CHAIN COULD MEET OF WHICH RECEIVED UP TO HIM WITH A PORTERHOUSE STEAK 144,000 RETWEETS29 WHEN HE LANDED FROM AN INTERSTATE FLIGHT.THEY DID GOVERNMENT BODIES, COMPANIES AND ORGANISATIONS NEED TO ADOPT AN INTEGRATED MEDIA STRATEGY INVOLVING MAINTENANCE OF MASS MEDIA RELATIONS AS WELL AS USING SOCIAL MEDIA, NOTING: Mass (traditional/‘mainstream') media remain key communication channels because of: 1. The continuing dominance of TV as a mass news source overall; 2. The ‘newspaper of record' role of leading newspapers, particularly long-established national and metropolitan dailies and specialist business and financial press, which are seen as authoritative even if their circulation is small and/or declining33; 3. The influence of mass media, particularly ‘newspapers of record' and television on politicians, policy makers and government (which is often disproportionate to their actual audience)34; 4. Their reach into older demographics.
Social media have become beneficial and increasingly essential communication channels because of: 5. The increasing use of social media as sites of news and information among an increasing percentage of people; 6. The heavy use and reliance on social media among young demographics in particular; 7. The extensive sharing of news and information that occurs through social media and social networks, extending the audience of mass media; 8. Referrals to major news sites that frequently come through social media (e.g., in online conversations and posting links); 9. The growing use of social media for customer, employee and citizen initiated public communication, including comments about brands, products and services. CONTINUING DOMINANCE OF SHARING OF NEWS AND GROWING USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA TV AS A MASS NEWS SOURCE INFORMATION THAT OCCURS FOR CUSTOMER, EMPLOYEE AND THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA AND CITIZEN INITIATED PUBLIC 1. In addition to the traditional news cycle being obsolete, the 24-hour news cycle is also an illusion. Today there is no news ‘cycle' – a notion that implies there is a single originating point for stories and that news travels in a pattern with intervals between stages in the cycle. • Today, we live in an age of ambient news. Stories and commentary can emerge from anyone, anytime, anywhere. News and information criss-cross, intersect, collide, conflict, and coalesce online and offline. Professional content creators draw information from citizens, and citizens redistribute professional content. Mass media organisations use social media and social media use mass media. Professional content producers use social, and non-professionals (amateurs or citizens) use social.
2. The predominance and news breaking potential of mass media and social media vary according to a number of factors including: • The scale of news – i.e., big news stories such as resignations of political leaders and catastrophes are typically well-resourced by mass media and a focus of attention (= high mass media coverage); • Relationship to officialdom – i.e., stories originated by government, institutions and corporations such as announcements, appointments, etc. are usually ‘spoon-fed' to mass media (= high mass media coverage); • The proximity of news events to mass media centres and ‘rounds' (i.e., specialist reporters such as business, finance, IT, etc.) (= high mass media coverage); • The degree of direct impact on citizens (= high social media comment); • ‘Sleeper' issues that do not have a specific news ‘event', such as rising concern about coal seam gas extraction, environmental issues, emergent trends, etc. (= low mass media coverage until an event occurs such as a protest or a high profile spokesperson emerges; can = high use of social media).
The final point above requires further research, but there are strong indications that, while mass media continue to dominate most news breaking overall, social media reflect a range of concerns and views that are not considered ‘newsworthy' by mass media until they escalate or erupt. In short, mass media and social might be effective at telling different kinds of stories in different contexts. 3. The preceding conclusions suggest that it is no longer productive to categorise content by platform or traditional labels. Content producers increasingly work across platforms and so-called ‘mass', ‘mainstream' and ‘traditional' media producers also use social media to source and distribute their content. These are no longer discrete media spaces. A more useful approach is to identify content as professional or citizen produced (the term ‘user' is not of much use either as everyone is a user of media and information). Media are becoming increasingly hybridised and integrated. Does it matter where someone speaks – i.e., which platform, which channel, on which technology? It seems more valuable to know who speaks and what they have to say, subjected to protocols to test authority and credibility.
4. A further factor for careful consideration in relation to social media is audience – both size and relevance. While extensive data are available on the audience of mass media (e.g., audited circulation statistics and broadcast program ratings), the size of social media audiences is often small compared with mass media – e.g., 97 per cent of Twitter users had fewer than 200 followers in 2012 and the average Facebook user had 200 friends in 2014. So the volume of items, and even who is first, are not the main considerations; audience reach and credibility are more important factors in analysing the impact of media content. This, combined with the previous point, indicate key metrics, rather than being first and volume of items.
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Introduction and evaluation of a ‘pre-ART care' service in Swaziland:an operational research study David Burtle,1 William Welfare,2 Susan Elden,2 Canaan Mamvura,2Joris Vandelanotte,3 Emily Petherick,4 John Walley,1 John Wright4 To cite: Burtle D, Welfare W, Elden S, et al. Introduction Objective: To implement and evaluate a formal and evaluation of a ‘pre-ART pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) care service at