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Manizheh

International Journal of Information Technology & Computer Science ( www.ijitcs.com ) Volume 14 Issue No 2, May 2014 ISSN ( online ) : 2091-1610 Study On Implementation And Management Of The Bpl Networks In Islamic Azad Manizheh Safarkhani GarGari
Islamic Azad University, Hadishahr Branch, Hadishahr, Iran Elnaz Mousavi GarGari
Islamic Azad University, Hadishahr Branch, Hadishahr, Iran Adalat safarkhanlou
Islamic Azad University, Hadishahr Branch, Hadishahr, Iran Abstract:
Broadband over power lines are Systems for carrying data on conductors used for electric power transmission. Power line communication technologies can be used for different applications ranging from home automation to internet access. With the spread of broadband technologies in the last few years, there are yet significant areas in the world that do not have access to high speed internet, as compared with the few internet service providers in existence, the additive expenditures of laying cables and building necessary infrastructure to provide DSL in many areas most especially rural areas is too great. But if broadband is served through power lines considering the fact that it exist all over the country, there will be no need to build new infrastructure. Therefore, anywhere there is electricity, there could also be broadband. Broadband over Power line is designed to offer an alternative means to provide high speed internet access, voice over Internet protocol (VOIP) and other broadband services, using medium and low voltage lines to reach customers and businesses by combining the principle of wireless networking, modems and Radio. Researchers and developers have created ways to transmit data over power lines into homes at speeds between 500kilobits and 3 megabits per second which is equivalent to the cable DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) and this is achieved by modifying the present power grids with specialized equipments. This paper provides an introduction to broadband power line communications systems and the potential issues relating to their widespread use in Islamic Azad University of Hadishahr. It examines the current status of technology development and reports on the regulatory arrangements currently in place and being developed overseas to cope with the issues raised by the use of these systems. This paper was prepared following concerns raised in Islamic Azad University of Hadishahr about the risk of Interference to HF radio communications services from broadband power line Communications systems. With this knowledge, the broadband power line developers could partner with power companies and Internet service providers to bring broadband to everyone with access to electricity. Keywords- Broadband over power line, voice over Internet protocol, Digital Subscriber Line.
This paper was presented @ 3rd International Conference on Information Technology, System & Management ( ICITSM 2014 ) (http://www.icitsm.com ) – Abu Dhabi, UAE on May 8-9, 2014 : Copyright International Journal of Information Technology & Computer Science ( IJITCS ) ……. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37 International Journal of Information Technology & Computer Science ( www.ijitcs.com ) Volume 14 Issue No 2, May 2014 ISSN ( online ) : 2091-1610 The main aim of power line communication is to use the power supply system for communication purposes. Broadband over Power Line (BPL) can provide a vast coverage for broadband services. They have the potential to provide simplified in-house interconnection of computers and peripherals, and cost effective last-mile delivery of broadband data services. The power line communication systems consist of terminal devices that are plugged into to the electrical power supply network and allow data to be transmitted via the network to other terminal devices plugged into or attached to the network. The use of the existing electrical power supply network wiring reduces costs and provides convenient access to broadband interconnection between devices. This technology can however achieve 14 Mbps raw data rate and it has the potential for up to 200 Mbps. which makes it competitive with cable and DSL technology. Historically, power line communications systems are known to be limited to low data rates typically less than 500 Kbit/s. These low data rate systems are used in applications such as the remote control of switches in domestic installations and by power supply authorities. Broadband power line communications systems, also known as power line telecommunications (PLT) systems or broadband power line (BPL) systems are a new type of power line communications (PLC) system capable of providing significantly higher data rates than previous PLC systems. They have the potential to provide simplified in-house interconnection of computers and peripherals, and cost effective last-mile delivery of broadband data services. PLC systems consist of terminal devices that are plugged into or attached to the electrical power supply network and allow data to be transmitted via the network to other terminal devices plugged into or attached to the network. The use of the existing electrical power supply network wiring reduces costs and provides convenient access to broadband interconnection between devices. Historically, power line communications systems had been limited to relatively low data rates - typically less than 500 kbit/s. These low data rate systems are still in use and are used in such applications as the remote control of switches in domestic installations and by power supply authorities. Examples include domestic appliance control systems, off peak hot water supply control systems and power supply authority switch yard control and monitoring systems. Net access and Power Plus Communications (PPC) partnered specifically to collaborate on projects within the military sector, utilizing the specific skills and experience of both companies to offer the benefits of PPC's IP- based BPL technology and the IP-based security systems and international sales channel of net access. PPC is internationally acknowledged as the market leader for broadband power line communication (BPL) systems and the integration of BPL-based solutions. Since its foundation in 2001, PPC has successfully installed BPL networks covering more than 300,000 households. II. WHAT IS BPL
Broadband Power line Communication (BPL) technology uses the existing and most widely distributed infrastructure for broadband data transmission: the existing power grid. BPL systems provide significantly higher data rates than old-fashioned narrowband PLC systems. The usage of the Internet protocol (IP), together with the high This paper was presented @ 3rd International Conference on Information Technology, System & Management ( ICITSM 2014 ) (http://www.icitsm.com ) – Abu Dhabi, UAE on May 8-9, 2014 : Copyright International Journal of Information Technology & Computer Science ( IJITCS ) ……. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 38 International Journal of Information Technology & Computer Science ( www.ijitcs.com ) Volume 14 Issue No 2, May 2014 ISSN ( online ) : 2091-1610 speed of data transfer and the open interfaces of BPL systems, increases the sustainable worth of existing power networks and enables a wide variety of applications. III. BPL - SYSTEM
PPC's BPL system is the latest generation of the development of Access Broadband over Power line technology (BPL). Based on the 200 Mbps standard, the BPL technology turns existing electricity grids into an Internet protocol-based communication platform. It enables broadband data transmission with 200 Mbps gross data rate on low (110/230/400V) and medium voltage (1-24kV) electricity networks. The BPL system is adapted to the operational standards of electricity grids and does not affect the controlled operation of any power grid. Dynamic routing between the different units ensures continuous optimal connection quality, even during switching processes in the distribution network. Based on PPC's long-term experience with BPL technology, power and telecommunication networks, the new BPL system enables a fast and easy setup of extended BPL networks. And, for optimal network operation, the network management system provides permanent control and central configuration of all BPL system components. IV. BPL ARCHITECTURE
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 7-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Communications Reference Model is defined in ISO 7498. In this model the first layer is defined to be the Physical layer. For BPL, layer 1 is inclusive of all the in-place, power line distribution systems, the electrical power line distribution system, and the in home electrical wiring down to the wall sockets. In some configurations, however, the power line transformers are bypassed, which excludes them from being part of the communications system architecture. A BPL Access network is usually comprised of a base station and a number of users connected via BPL modems. The modems can provide various standardized user interfaces into the BPL network. For example, a BPL modem can provide the user with a standard IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) interface for connecting a personal computer to the network. The BPL modem connects to the power line transmission medium by means of a BPL specific (e.g., vendor proprietary) interface. Typically, BPL user interface modems provide the Medium Access Control (MAC) lower sub layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) upper sub layer functions of the Layer 2 of the OSI model in addition to the physical layer. The modems also provide the Network Layer functionality of Layer 3 by supporting Internet Protocol (IP) routing. The manufacturers of existing BPL systems developed proprietary solutions for the MAC layer that are incompatible. The basic BPL components of injectors, repeaters, and couplers have been implemented in a variety of systems architectures, which feature different modulation techniques and designs at the Physical layer, MAC, and LLC. The Physical layer channel impairments in BPL systems include: noise, multipath, strong channel Selectivity, and non-linear channel characteristics. To combat these impairments a number of different technologies have been employed that range from spread spectrum to Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). BPL channel impairments reduce the available bandwidth to users, which is of most concern, because BPL access networks operate in a shared transmission medium where subscribers compete to use the same transmission This paper was presented @ 3rd International Conference on Information Technology, System & Management ( ICITSM 2014 ) (http://www.icitsm.com ) – Abu Dhabi, UAE on May 8-9, 2014 : Copyright International Journal of Information Technology & Computer Science ( IJITCS ) ……. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 39


International Journal of Information Technology & Computer Science ( www.ijitcs.com ) Volume 14 Issue No 2, May 2014 ISSN ( online ) : 2091-1610 V. BPL TECHNOLOGY
The general technical idea of Power Line Communication is to modulate a radio signal with data and send it through power lines in a band of frequencies which are not used for supplying electricity. The used frequencies and the modulation scheme have a significant influence on the efficiency and the speed of the BPL service. The modulation scheme which is used in BPL is orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). This is a multi-carrier transmission technique which has been recently recognized as an excellent method for high speed data communication. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) was first used on military high frequency radio links starting in the 1960s. It performs services at the physical layer of the OSI model. OFDM is based on the idea of frequency division multiplexing (FDM), which is a technology that uses multiple frequencies to transmit multiple signals in parallel at the same time. VI. TYPES OF BPL
There are two main types of BPL, The Access BPL and the In-Home BPL. A. Access BPL
Provides internet and other broadband services like voice (IP Telephony), Video, surveillance systems and entertainment (gaming) for homes and offices, utilities metering (electricity/water/gas) services. It is comprised of injectors which serve as the interface between internet backbone and medium voltage power lines and are also used to inject high frequency signals unto medium or low voltage power lines, Extractors used to retrieve the signals and provide the interface between end-users and medium-voltage power lines. Extractors are placed at each distribution transformer which provides low voltage electric power for a group of homes in that area. BPL signals can propagate for 1000 to 3000 feet before they become too distorted and weak. Repeaters are then used to regenerate and amplify the signals to prevent loss due to attenuation. B. In-Home BPL
Modems utilize the existing house wiring to provide local area network (LAN) that can be used throughout the home. These applications occur within a single building with both ends of the communications link within the same building. The building might be a house, an apartment block or an office building. The path over which the transfer of data occurs within these buildings is relatively short - typically it is less than 100 m between devices. There are, This paper was presented @ 3rd International Conference on Information Technology, System & Management ( ICITSM 2014 ) (http://www.icitsm.com ) – Abu Dhabi, UAE on May 8-9, 2014 : Copyright International Journal of Information Technology & Computer Science ( IJITCS ) ……. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 40


International Journal of Information Technology & Computer Science ( www.ijitcs.com ) Volume 14 Issue No 2, May 2014 ISSN ( online ) : 2091-1610 however, some cities in overseas countries where the building density, the configuration of the AC power line network (e.g. underground) and the existing broadband data network infrastructure have been such that it has only been necessary to use outdoor power line communications systems over distances of a few hundred meters. This has allowed the use of devices with signal levels similar to in-house systems. VII. ADVANTAGES OF BPL
BPL has the ability to provide internet service by means of transmission line control protocol/ Internet protocol (TCP/IP) which can support voice, Data and video services the advantages therefore are: Wide Coverage: BPL can provide wide coverage, since the power lines are already installed almost everywhere. This
is advantageous especially for substations in rural areas where there is usually no communication infrastructure. Cost: The communication network can be established quickly and cost-effectively because it utilizes the existing
wires to carry the communication signals. Thus, PLC can offer substations new cost-saving methods for remotely monitoring power uses and outages. VIII. DISADVANTAGES
High noise sources over power lines: The power lines are noisy environments for data communications due to several
noise sources such as electrical motors, power supplies, fluorescent lights and radio signal interferences .These noise sources over the power lines can result in high bit error rates during communication which severely reduces the performance of BPL. Capacity: Power line is a shared medium and therefore, the average data rate per end user will be lower than the total
capacity depending on coincident utilization, i.e., the number of users on the network at the same time and the applications they are using. Thus, possible technical problems should be comprehensively addressed with various field tests before the BPL technology is widely deployed. Open circuit problem: Communication over the power lines is lost with devices on the side of an open circuit. This
fact severely restricts the usefulness of PLC for applications especially involving switches. Signal attenuation and distortion: In power lines, the attenuation and distortion of signals are immense due to the
reasons such as physical topology of the power network and load impedance fluctuation over the power lines. In This paper was presented @ 3rd International Conference on Information Technology, System & Management ( ICITSM 2014 ) (http://www.icitsm.com ) – Abu Dhabi, UAE on May 8-9, 2014 : Copyright International Journal of Information Technology & Computer Science ( IJITCS ) ……. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41 International Journal of Information Technology & Computer Science ( www.ijitcs.com ) Volume 14 Issue No 2, May 2014 ISSN ( online ) : 2091-1610 addition, there is significant signal attenuation at specific frequency bands due to wave reflection at the terminal points .Therefore, there is loss in signal due to high signal attenuation and distortion. Security: There are some security concerns for BPL arising from the nature of power lines. Power cables are not
twisted and use no shielding which means power lines produce a fair amount of Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI). Such EMI can be received via radio receivers easily. Lack of regulations for Broadband Power line Communication: In addition to technical challenges, fundamental
regulation issues of BPL should be addressed for substantial progress to be made. The limits of transmitted energy and frequencies employed for PLC should be determined in order to both provide broadband PLC and prevent the interference with already established radio signals such as mobile communications, broadcasting channels and military communications. In this respect, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has developed a standard to support broadband communications over power lines. IX. CONCLUSION:
BPL is one of the most exciting areas of innovation. It is a technology which needs further research and developments to be completely practical in a wide range. The major advantage of this technology is the already existing infrastructure for BPL even in rural areas which makes its deployment economically justified and also increases the potential coverage of the technology. On the other hand, the main issue with this technology is its interference with other radio systems. This issue has limited the deployment of BPL and to some extent has increased the cost of its deployment. However some companies claim that they have overcome the problem. The future still holds the widespread deployment of BPL. REFERENCES
1. "Power line communication." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_line_communication. Retrieved 2014-02-01. 2. "Broadband over power line" http://itlaw.wikia.com/wiki/Broadband_over_power_line retrieved 2012-02-01. 3. "An Overview of Broadband communication over Power Lines" Adekunle, Oluwadara Victoria Electrical and Information Engineering Department, Covenant University, Ota. 4. "Broadband Powerline Communications Systems A Background brief" Spectrum Planning Team Document SP 11/03 Radiofrequency Planning Group Date: September 2003 Australian Communications Authority . This paper was presented @ 3rd International Conference on Information Technology, System & Management ( ICITSM 2014 ) (http://www.icitsm.com ) – Abu Dhabi, UAE on May 8-9, 2014 : Copyright International Journal of Information Technology & Computer Science ( IJITCS ) ……. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42

Source: http://ijitcs.com/volume%2014_No_2/Manizheh.pdf

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