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ISSN: 2231-6078
5(1): Jan-March.: (2015), 826-835 The Curative Effect of Water Extracted From Pumpkin Seeds (Cucurbita
Moschata) on Blood Lipid Level in Male Albino Mice Fed High Fat Diet
Maraia, F. Elmhdwi1, Muftah A. Nasib2 and Idress Hamad Attitalla2
rti 1.Department of Chemistry , Faculty of Science, Benghazi
University., Libya
2.Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Omar Al -Mukhtar University, Box 919, Al-Bayda, Libya
heredofamilial hypercholesterolemia up to the widespread adult condition. Hypercholesterolemia arteriopathies whether This work has been carried out to investigate the coronary or cerebral take the biggest tool of middle aged and Hyperlipidemia mirrors the onset of abnormalities in lipid elderly deaths. The progress of civilization, intake of fatty metabolism secondary manifestation and diets, lack of exercise, smoking habits and mental stress progression of the atherosclerotic disease in the patient. hypercholesterolemia In addition to diet, use of medicinal plant as a pharmacologic modality in preventing alteration in lipid metabolism has received wide attention from several Although these prementioned exogenous factors play an works. In the present study, we have therefore investigate important role in increasing the incidence of these biochemical the effect of either 8 and 15 mg/ml doses of cucurbita phenomena, yet other significant endogenous conditions moschata seeds extract (water extract) on the levels of participate in its etiology. Idiopathic hypercholesterolemia is a lipid parameters. The curative effect of the cucurbita
term employed to signify the increase in blood cholesterol moschata seeds for 4 weeks, after induction of
levels without pinpointing its actual pathogenesis. This hyperlipemia. The data revealed that, there were increase syndrome of micro and macro vital chemical processes remains in total lipids, total cholesterol,VLDL-Cholesterol, aminotransferase, Antioxidants had important role in decreasing serum lipids and aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate retarding atherosclerosis. The observational epidemiological dehydrogenase level, while HDL-C levels were decreased studies have suggested that individuals with high dietary after the indication of hyperlipidemia. The experiment of antioxidant intake have lower risks of CHD which remains the curative effect of the two doses of the cucurbita moschata leading cause of death in most countries (Sun et al., 2010).
seeds extract where marked improvements in the level of Diet rich in fruits and vegetables are associated with decreased all the test parameters were indicated. The results were compared with LOPID, a standard orally effective hypolipidemic drug. The pumpkin plant, along with its seeds, has been used in the traditional medicine of many countries, including India and Key words:- Hyperlipidemia, cucurbita moschata seeds, Mexico for many years, principally to eliminate tapeworms. Lipid profile, Liver enzymes. Although the pulp is employed as food, the principal medicinal properties of the plant are in the seeds (Sicilia et al., 2013).
Many of the chronic diseases that affect human have an Pumpkin seed are at the top of Japanese table of food products. uneven geographic distribution. Although the general Seeds of oil pumpkins are a good raw material for the perception that several diseases, specially the various production of oil used in food preparation and in medicine types of cancer, kidney and liver diseases as well as CHD (David et al.,2007).Fluted pumpkin seed flour has been used as
often result from an exposure to pollutants and toxic protein supplements in variety of local foods (Murkovic et al.,
environmental such as agricultural chemicals, pesticides, 2014), reported that in vitro protein digestibility of bread was
herbicides, fungicides or even some food additives. The improved with addition of pumpkin seed protins. The aim of high incidence of CHD is often correlated with high fat, this study was to investigate the curative effect of Cucurbita high cholesterol and low fiber diets and also the Moschata seeds (water extract) against hyperlipidemia in consumption of fried foods (Lamiaa et al., 2011). The
environmental and genetic factors play the most critical Material and Methods
role in the biological alteration. Cholesterol presents a great health hazard when its The Cucurbita Moschata was purchased from the market,
consumption is unduly increased. Hyperlipidemia is a Ajdabia, Libya. LOPID (Gemfibrozil Tablets, U.S.P) is one
gross derangement in metabolism starting from the rare of the yield product which considered as a standard hypolipidemic agent. It is obtained from Egyptian Int. Pharm * Corresponding Author
Company. All chemicals used in these experiments were provided from Sigma and Merck Co. of high quality and (C)Int. J. of Drug Discovery & Herbal Research 826
ISSN: 2231-6078
5(1): Jan-March.: (2015), 826-835 Elmhdwi et al. Experimental animals: A total of 56 male albino mice
Tabacco et al. (1979). Creatinine reacts with picric acid
weighting 20-30 g were used in this study. its remained in alkaline medium to form a red-orange color which for two week in the animal house under normal conditions. measured at 620nm according to the method of Henery et
Animals allowed free access of water and fed on a standard al. (1974). Serum total lipids were reacted with vanillin in
synthetic diet (S.d) according to A.O.A.C, 2000 .
the presence of sulphuric and phosphoric acids. The produced colored complex was measured at 525nm 2. Methods:
according to the method described by Knight et al.
Preparation of seeds: Separate seed from Cucurbita
(1972). Serum total cholesterol was determined using the
Moschata. Washed and clean place under room enzymatic method of Finely (1978). Assay of HDL-
temperature with good airing for 7 days. Drying seed cholesterol was carried out according to the method without heat or sun ray (spontaneous dry in open air). described by Lopes-Virella et al. (1977). After
Stored in polyethylene bags. Far of moisture or heat, And precipitating of all lipoproteins in serum, except the HDL keep them until time of mice feeding when the seed will be fraction by using sodium phosphotungestic acid in the crushed and mixed with experiment diet. presence of magnesium ions as a precipitating agent and centrifugation, the HDL fraction remains in the Seed extract: Ten gram of powdered sample extracted by
supernatant was determined by the same method used for percolation with 100ml boiling water. Extracts were total cholesterol. VLDL and chylomicron fractions are filtered concentrated under vacuum and stored at 40C until phosphotungestic acid in presence or magnesium ions Induction of hyperlipidemia: Hyperlipidemia was
after centrifugation the cholesterol concentration in the attained to mice using cholesterol/cholic acid mixture (3:1) high density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction by Friedewald et
and mixed with the synthetic diet in a dose calculated in al. (1972). The method of Fossati and Precipe., (1982)
the basis that each mice was received 0.5g of this was used for the determination of serum triglycerides mixture/kg b.w daily for 8 weeks. 10% saturated fat was Two transaminases namely alanine transaminase (ALT) and used in the diet instead of the corn oil. Also, 50% of aspartate transaminase (AST) are presence in most sucrose (as source of carbohydrate) was used in the mammalian tissues and catalyzed the transfer of amino composition of the diet in order to accelerate the incidence groups from amino acid to form alanine or glutamate. These of hyperlipidemia . enzymes increase in serum after liver tissue destruction. The curative effect of different treatments on
Transaminases are of clinical interest in diagnostic of liver hyperlipidemic mice: In this experiment, a total of 56
dysfunction. The keto-acids produced will form, by reaction mice were used. Eight mice were fed on the standard with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, the corresponding coloured synthetic diet and served as negative control (-ve) hydrazones which measured at 505nm (Reitman and
"group1". The other mice were subjected to the induction Frankel., 1957). The activity of serum alkaline phosphatase
of experimental hyperlipidemia for 8 weeks as described before. The hyperlipidemic mice (48 mice) were divided monophosphate as substrate according to the method of Roy
randomly into equal 4 sub-groups (12 mice each) as (1970). The activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase was
follows: Group 2: mice were served as hyperlipidemic
measured according to the kinetic method described by animals (+ve). Group 3: mice were daily received
Bergmayer and Brent (1974). Serum total protein was
Cucurbita Moschata seeds(water extract) at a dose of determined using Biuret method performed by Doumas
8mg/ml. (oral+ S.d). Group 4: mice were daily received
(1975). Albumin was determined in serum according to the
Cucurbita Moschata seeds(water extract) at a dose of method described by Doumas et al.,(1971).
15mg/ml (oral + S.d). Group 5: mice were daily
Statistical analysis of the data: The results obtained were
received 18mg/kg b.w. of Lopid as a standard statistically analysed according to the methods described by hypolipidemic agent (oral + S.d). blood samples were Chase (1967).
collected before and after induction of hyperlipidemia and then after 2 and 4 weeks from the administration of the different treatments. Blood samples were collected from retro-orbital plexus veins according to the procedure Curative effect of different treatments on BL.Urea and S.
described by Schermer (1967) by means of fine capillary
Creatinine: The does (8 mg/kg b.w) did not affect the level
heparinized tubes. Plasma samples were carefully of bl.urea compared with the (-ve) control group. while separated and stored frozen till using in the different Cucurbita moschata seed (15mg/kg b.w) which significantly biochemical analysis. decreased bl.urea level by 25.7% as shown in Table (2). Data in Table (2) reveled the effect of different treatment after 4 Biochemical analysis:
weeks on serum creatinine level. No any effect of (8 mg/kg The enzymatic colourimetric method for urea in blood b.w) treatment on serum creatinine level during 4 weeks of was measured according to the method described by treatment, while Cucurbita moschata seed(15mg/kg b.w) (C)Int. J. of Drug Discovery & Herbal Research 827
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5(1): Jan-March.: (2015), 826-835 Elmhdwi et al. which significantly decreased S. Creatinine level by 24.5% as disease and atherosclerosis is considered the most shown in Table (2). frequent cause of CHD (Yokozawa et al., 2006). It is
Curative effect of different treatments on lipid profile:
well known fact that one of the major risk factors of The effect of Cucurbita moschata seed (8,15 mg/kg.b.w.) atherosclerosis is hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidemia and as well as LOPID on serum total lipids, total cholesterol, HDL- cholesterol, risk ratio and triglycerides in high cholesterol diet increase serum TC and LDL-c hyperlipidemic mice is present in Table (2). The reference levels, resulting in an increase risk for the development of standard hypolipaemic agent (LOPID) revealed an atherosclerosis. Thus regulating the serum cholesterol appreciated effects on the different lipid parameters of level is an important aspect in atherosclerosis prevention, hyperlipidemic mice after treatment for 4 weeks. All as it has been shown that atherosclerosis could be parameters were decreased except HDL- cholesterol was suppressed by controlling the level of serum cholesterol. increased by 64.1%, 68.9% and 77.3% for Cucurbita The cholesterol is an essential component of the cell moschata seed (8,15 mg/kg b.w) and LOPID, respectively. All groups of different treatments were membrane and starting material for the biosynthesis of significant decreased the level of serum total lipids by bile acid, steroid hormone and vitamin D (Dhaval et al.,
39.7%, 39.7% and 40.6%, respectively (Table 2). Serum 2011). In addition to this, TG is a major component of
VLDL- cholesterol was significant decreased by 24.3%, chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), 38.3% and 43.9% for Cucurbita moschata seed (8,15 both of which are energy substrate for the liver and mg/kg b.w) and LOPID, respectively. Table (2) indicated peripheral tissues particularly, muscle. High level of TG that serum total cholesterol was significantly decreased in is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Elevated LDL-c levels all treated groups by 47.2%, 52.9% and52.9%, respectively. Serum triglycerides in the all groups of play a crucial role in the development of atherosclerosis different treatments were significant decreased by 24.1%, lesions that progress from fatty steaks to ulcerated plaque. 38.3% and 43.7% ,respectively. Curative effect of different treatments on serum ALT,
triglycerides as well as TC and LDL-c levels reduces the AST, ALP and LDH: Table(3) revealed the effect of
incidence of atherosclerosis. HDL-c exerts an anti- different treatments on liver function. This effect was atherogenic effected by counteracting LDL-c oxidation highly appreciated after 4 weeks of treatment. LOPID reduced ALT by 32.3%, AST by 50.6% ALP by 44.8% and facilitating the translocation of cholesterol from and LDH by 32.1%. Cucurbita moschata seed (8,15 peripheral tissues such as arterial walls to the liver for mg/kg b.w) were significantly decrease the activity of catabolism. Besides, the atherogenic index, a ratio of S.ALT by (25.2%, 36.7%), S. AST by (46.7%, 47.0%), LDL-C to HDL-c is commonly used as index to evaluate S.ALP by (20.7%, 31.6%) and S.LDH by (30.7%, the risk for the atherosclerosis as a result of increased 29.3%), respectively. HDL-c levels (Fki et al., 2005). Therefore, elevating the
Curative effect of different treatments on Serum
level of HDL-c and lowering the atherogenic design are protein: Serum total protein concentration
significantly decreased by 14.8%, 18.5% and 25.0% in important measure in reducing the risk of atherosclerosis. the groups of Cucurbita moschata seed (8,15 mg/kg b.w) Consumption of fat-rich diet directly affects the serum and LOPID, respectively as shown in Table (3) . The lipid profile and the fatty acids composition, which is an values of serum albumin were also decreased by 31.0%, important factor in the modulation of lipid metabolism. 28.6% and 31.7% in the groups of Cucurbita moschata The high saturated fatty acids intake increases the low- seed (8,15mg/kg.b.w.) and LOPID, respectively(Table 3). density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and reduces the Discussion
high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in the bloodstream. This is a known condition for the The results obtaind will be discussed under the following development of coronary artery disease because the HDL- headings: 1- Induction of hyperlipaemia: Induction of
c is inversely related to risk of atherosclerosis, while hyperlipidemia was performed using cholesterol: cholic LDL-c is an important risk factor to cardiovascular events acid mixture at a ratio (3: 1). In addition, saturated fats since, when present in elevated levels in the blood (10%) and sucrose (50%) were added to the diet. Bile (Aguilar et al., 2011). The increased serum cholesterol
acid (cholic acid) was used to overcome the difficulty of level due to increase in VLDL-C concentration. The cholesterol absorption (Ola et al., 2011). As can be seen
result of the present study match well with reported value from the data shown in table (1) very highly significant of Ahmad et al., (2012) which demonstrated that
elevations were indicated in the level of total cholesterol, hyperlipidemia induced by high fat diet (HFD) is VLDL- cholesterol and triglycerides . Coronary heart attributed to disruption of LDL-receptor pathways which disease (CHD) is the most common cardiovascular (C)Int. J. of Drug Discovery & Herbal Research 828
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5(1): Jan-March.: (2015), 826-835 Elmhdwi et al. are necessary for cholesterol synthesis and excretion The previous results concerning the effect of Cucurbita pathways in the liver. This highlighted the molecular Moschata Seeds on hyperlipaemia in the two doses. targets for regulating serum cholesterol levels. Matos et
Cucurbita hypolipaemic effect compared with the standard al., (2005) indicated that the uptake of VLDL-cholesterol
hypolipaemic agent ˝ LOPID ˝.
is dependent on receptors in plasmatic membrane and these are in a reduced number when the cell has enough A study by Hyounjeong et al. (2007) screened various
cholesterol. This may have happened in hepatic cells of plant sources for their anti obesity activity and demonstrated that pumpkin has strong anti obesity effects the animal fed cholesterol-supplemented diets, justifying in a high fat diet-induced obesity animal model. This their higher LDL-cholesterol concentration. Increase in mainly due to its effect on synthesis and degradation of VLDL-C has been pointed out as one of the risk factors lipid products in the body , also it was considered as for the development of atherosclerosis and related metabolic regulator of lipogenic and lipolytic pathways cardiovascular diseases (Getz and Reardon, 2006). The
and altimately as antiobesity agent. This significant effect overproduction of ROS leads to oxidation of LDL (ox- of Seed is due to its content of fiber present in the seed could play major roles in reducing serum cholesterol in LDL), which is known to promote atherogenesis through animal models. Lignans, fibre and vegetable proteins
foam cell formation due to the uptake of modified form of present in the flaxseed could play major roles in reducing LDL via the scavenger receptor class A (Boullier et al.,
serum cholesterol in animal models and/or in humans 2005). Cholesterol- rich diets increase both LDL-C levels
(Wiesenfeld et al., 2003 and Salwa, 2000). Therefore,
and oxidative stress and result in increased oxidized LDL the effect of seed in decreasing serum cholesterol does levels which are responsible for atherosclerotic plaque not seem to be due only to its C18:3 content, but rather to formation (Bhosale et al., 2012). The reduced HDL-C
the synergistic action of its constituents. This was
reported by Cintra et al. (2006) who found lower serum
level due to utilizing in reducing cholesterol levels in the normocholesterolemic blood and peripheral tissues, because the HDL-chol hypercholesterolemic subjects who were fed Pumpkin carries cholesterol and cholesterol esters from the seed oil. Fiber are reported to decrease plasma LDL-C peripheral tissues and cells to the liver, where cholesterol levels by interrupting the cholesterol and bile acid is metabolized into bile acids (Kim et al., 2008). The
absorption and increasing LDL receptor activity. The oxidative stress increase the LFT enzymes, this could be decline in hepatic cholesterol levels in pumpkin seed as a result of leakage of the enzymes into the serum as a hypercholesterolemic groups indicated the possible influence of relatively higher fiber content of seed. In result of damage to the integrity of the heart and liver. fact, dietary fiber are known to interfere with cholesterol Elevated serum activity of these enzymes has been absorption and enterohepatic bile circulation and resulted reported to be indicators of calculated risk of in depletion of hepatic cholesterol pools (Romero et
cardiovascular disease according to Kyung et al. (2009).
al.,2002). In addition, diets rich in fibers are known to
Elevated serum ALT levels in the absence of viral reduce triacylglycerol levels by inhibition of hepatic hepatitis and alcoholism has been reported to lead to a lipogenesis (Venkateson et al., 2003). Moreover,
numerous studies have demonstrated that high levels of
higher risk of cardiovascular disease with the risk greater HDL-C are associated with a lower incidence of in women (Ioannou et al., 2006). The heart also has a
cardiovascular diseases. The increase in HDL-C observed high AST content which becomes elevated in myocardial in our study, might be due to stimulation of pre-β HDL-C infarction (Otunola et al., 2010). These reports agree
and reverse cholesterol transport as demonstrated by with the present study which showed injury caused to previous study (Daniel, 2006). High HDL-C levels could
tissues in the mice fed with H. L. D. Also the potential contribute to its anti-atherogenic properties, hyperlipidemic diet leads to significant reduction the including its capacity to inhibit LDL oxidation and protect endothelial cells from the cytotoxic effects of serum total protein and significant elevation in the serum oxidized LDL (Assmann and Nofer, 2003). The anti-
total Bilirubin this may be due to that the hyperlipidemia atherogenic effect of pumpkin seed found in the study induced liver damage, Consistent with our results might be due to the presence of polyunsaturated fatty Olorunnisola et al. (2012) showed that high cholesterol
diet lead to reduced serum total protein and elevation in (ElAdawy and Taha, 2001). The major total fatty acids
serum total Bilirubin. present in seed are unsaturated fatty acids such as Is flavones may act by making the liver more efficient to 2- Evaluation of Cucurbita Moschata Seeds
remove the bad cholesterol from the body by increasing LDL- receptor densities in the liver. It was also proposed that the cholesterol lowering effect of flavones are in (C)Int. J. of Drug Discovery & Herbal Research 829
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5(1): Jan-March.: (2015), 826-835 Elmhdwi et al. some way because of the up- regulation of LDL receptors Hyounjeong et al. (2007) noticed that feeding Cucurbita
(Lecumberri et al., 2007). Recently, Dkhil et al. (2011)
Moschata Seed extract along with cholesterol (for 70 reported that isoflavones decreased LDL- Cholesterol and days) resulted in less marked hyperlipidaemia and increased HDL-Cholesterol. High density lipoprotein may comparatively lower grades of atherosclerosis in the aorta hasten the removal of cholesterol from peripheral tissue as compared to the pathogenic control group, i.e the to the liver for catabolism and excretion. Also, high group maintained on cholesterol diet alone. They levels of HDL may complete with LDL receptor sites on suggested that fiber in the seed stimulate the conversion arterial smooth muscle cells and thus partially inhibit of cholesterol to bile acids, an important pathway of uptake and degradation of LDL. The increase of HDL elimination of cholesterol from the body. concentration could protect LDL against oxidation in – The anti-atherogenicity of Pumpkin seeds extract could vivo because the lipids in HDL are preferentially oxidized also be attributed to its direct antioxidative effects on before those in LDL. macrophages as wall as on plasma LDL. Arterial wall oleic acid,linolenic acid and linolenic acid , which play a crucial role in reducing blood cholesterol in human and atherogenesis. Oxidative stress induces macrophage rats Movahedian et al. (2007). Olorunnisola et al.
responses such as increased capacity to oxidize LDL, increased oxidative LDL cellular uptake, as well as (2012) reported that naturally occurring phenolics have
macrophage lipid peroxidation (Lecumberri et al.,
shown antioxidant activity in different model systems. 2007). These lipids – peroxidized cells were shown to
Possible mechanisms of isoflavones that have been oxidize LDL even in the absence of transition metal ions studied in animals and human include enhancement of and this process depends on the oxidative state of the bile acid excretion, reduced cholesterol metabolism, LDL and that of the macrophage. increased thyroid hormones and reduced insulin / Conclusion
glucagon ratio. The physiological effects of isoflavones include antioxidant activity, therefore suggesting a role In conclusion we found that the water water extracted for isoflavones in the prevention of hyperlipaemea, from Pumpkin Seeds (Cucurbita Moschata) could coronary heart disease, endocrine – responsive cancers and male infertility. Also, Otunola et al.(2010) reported
hyperlipidemic conditions which were produced by administration of high lipideamic diet. Based on the that high isoflavone intakes may decrease the risk of evidences from biochemical result, our results suggested CVD by reducing oxidized LDL in human. that the hypolipidemic activity of these oils can be Dkhil et al. (2011) reported that potential mechanism by
attributed to presence of several chemical (antioxidant) which isoflavones might prevent atherosclerosis include a constituents-suppressing. In general, beneficial effect on plasma lipid concentrations, to use this plant extract as safe prophylactic agent, more antioxidant effects, antiproliferative and antimigratory studies should be carried out to know all the active / effects on smooth muscle cells, effects on thrombus inactive components and their mechanism of actions, formation and maintenance of normal vascular reactivity. another types of experimental animals for a long period in order to assessment the biological activity of these herbs as well as their side effects. (C)Int. J. of Drug Discovery & Herbal Research 830
ISSN: 2231-6078
5(1): Jan-March.: (2015), 826-835 Elmhdwi et al. Table (1): Arithmetic mean values ± S.D and % changes from the corresponding control of different
biochemical parameters before and after induction of hyperlipaemia in male albino mice.
induction of
induction of
Bl. urea (mg /dl) S. Creatinine (Mg/Dl) S. T. Lipids (Mg/Dl) S. T. Cholesterol (Mg/Dl) S. VLDL.C (Mg/Dl) 74.4  6.39*** S.T. Proteins (G/Dl) 6.40  0.29† S. Albumin (G/D l) 4.37  0.45† S. Globulin (G/Dl) 4.37  0.45† † Insignificant difference from the corresponding control at P > 0.1,* Significant difference from the corresponding control at P < 0.05,* * Highly sig. difference from the corresponding control at P < 0.01, *** Very highly sig. difference from the corresponding control at P < 0.001,↓ Decrease,↑ Increase (C)Int. J. of Drug Discovery & Herbal Research 831
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5(1): Jan-March.: (2015), 826-835 Elmhdwi et al. Table (2): Effect of different treatments on lipid profile (Mg/dl ± S.D) and % variation from the corresponding control in
normal male albino mice
Animal groups
Time in tervals (Wk's)
Bl. Urea((Mg/Dl) S.T. Lipids (Mg/Dl) 299±28.5† Bl. Urea((Mg/Dl) Water extract of (Mg/Dl) S.T. Lipids (Mg/Dl) 516±52.6*** 148.6±17.8*** 21.8↓ 100.4±9.48*** 47.2↓ Bl. Urea((Mg/Dl) Creatinine 0.40±0.03** Water extract of S.T. Lipids (Mg/Dl) Bl. Urea((Mg/Dl) Creatinine 0.46±0.02† S.T. Lipids (Mg/Dl) 132.0±11.9*** 26.5↓ † Insignificant difference from the corresponding control at P > 0.1: * Significant difference from the corresponding control at P < 0.05: * * Highly sig. difference from the corresponding control at P < 0.01: *** Very highly sig. difference from the corresponding control at P < 0.001:↑ Increase:↓ Decrease. (C)Int. J. of Drug Discovery & Herbal Research 832
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5(1): Jan-March.: (2015), 826-835 Elmhdwi et al. Table (3): Effect of different treatments on serum ALT,
AST, ALP, LDH, T. proteins, Albumin, Globulin and LDH
and % variation from the corresponding control in norma
l male albino mice
Animal groups
Time intervals (Wk's)
34.0  1.76† 674  16.6 † 6.48 0.51 † S. Albumin (G/Dl) 3.91 0.42 † S. Globulin (G/Dl) 3.91 0.42 † 761  61.0 *** 23.6 Proteins 6.53  0.52† seed (8mg/kg b.w) S. Albumin (G/Dl) S. Globulin (G/Dl) 6.44 0.33 † seed (15mg/kg b.w) S. Albumin (G/Dl) S. Globulin (G/Dl) LOPID( 18 mg/kg b.w) 6.13 1.00 † S. Albumin (G/Dl) 3.86 0.57 † S. Globulin (G/Dl) 3.86 0.57 † nsignificant difference from the corresponding control at P > 0.1: * Significant difference from the corresponding control P < 0.05: * * Highly sig. difference from the correspondi ng control at P < 0.01: *** Very highly sig. difference from the corresponding control at P < 0.001:↑ Increase:↓ Decrease. (C)Int. J. of Drug Discovery & Herbal Research 833
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Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Winter 2016 HOT TOPICS FROM THE 5th ANNUAL CEDARS/ASPENS met at the iconic Fontainebleau Hotel in Miami Beach, Florida, during the Society's 5th Annual I•C•E Conference. The 4-day event, which spanned from December 10 to 13, 2015, was attended by CEDARS/ASPENS members and ophthalmic industry exhibitors and attendees.

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