HM Medical Clinic

Pre-purchase Examinations - Common Terminology
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This document is for guidance purposes only and is a client reference to common terminology that may be
used by our Vets when carrying out a Pre-purchase Examination.
FIVESTAGEVETTING.COM Vetting Guidelines - common terminology
You may find it useful to consult this document whilst speaking with our veterinary surgeons and reviewing
the five stage pre-purchase examination.
Pre-purchase Examinations - Common Terminology
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FIVESTAGEVETTING.COM Vetting Guidelines - common terminology
Please remember, a Pre-purchase Examination is for your guidance purposes based on the Vet's clinical examination on the day of the vetting and is not a matter of pass or fail. Please read the full details about what the examination involves and Ace or ACP
Slang for the drug acepromazine or acetyl promazine (trade names Atravet or Acezine), which is a sedative commonly used on horses during veterinary treatment, but also illegal in the show ring.
The way a horse elevates its legs, knees, hocks, and feet. Also includes how the horse uses its shoulder, humerus, elbow, and stifle; most often used to describe motion at the trot, but sometimes applied to the canter or gallop. High action is a breed characteristic of Saddlebreds and other breeds used in Saddle seat or certain harness disciplines.
Aged horse
An older horse. Originally referred to a horse with a "smooth mouth," generally eight years old or older, but modern use varies. Term may refer to an animal seven years old or older, eight or older, nine or older, or ten or older. In horse racing and in some horse shows, an aged horse is one over 4 years. In some contexts, an aged horse is older than 16 to 20 years The process of estimating a horse's age by inspecting its teeth.
A general term for a range of four beat intermediate speed horse gaits that are approximately the speed of a trot or pace but far smoother to ride. Various terms for lateral ambling gaits, based on style, speed or rhythm of gait and breed of horse, include the slow gait, single foot, running walk, stepping pace, sobreandando, paso corto, paso llano, rack, tölt, and paso largo. The term usually refers to lateral gaits, but may be applied to all four beat intermediate speed gaits, including the diagonal four-beat gait referred to be terms such as fox trot, pasitrote, and trocha.
The stepping pace. A specific intermediate speed horse gait, a slowed down pace. It is a four beat lateral gait, where the legs on one side of the horse move one immediately following the other, then the legs on the other side. It is a very smooth gait, and is natural to some breeds.
Balk, balking (US, UK) or baulking (UK)
When a horse refuses to move. Multiple causes, including disobedience, fright, and pain or injury. See also napping and "jib" A sound made by a horse by sharply exhaling through flared nostrils. The blowing sound is not as long or loud as a snort, and may be produced with the head lowered. Most of a sound energy is below 3 kHz and most are audible within 30 metres. Horses may blow when curious, meeting another horse, shying or working. The term is also used when a working horse allowed to pause and catch its breath, or "let him (or her) blow." A term of art in equine conformation to describe the quality of certain skeletal structures.
"Good" or "Poor" bone: Technical terminology referencing the size and density of bone of the lower leg, which helps determine the weight carrying ability of a horse.
The characteristics of the lower leg as a whole, including the cannon bone as well as associated tendons and ligaments. "Flat" bone describes a positive feature where the tendons of the leg stand well away from the cannon bone, "Tied-in" bone describes the negative characteristic of the tendon placed too close to the bone.
Bowed tendon
An enlarged tendon along the cannon bones, often resulting from heavy work.
A stable vice exhibited in horses left in a stable, where they repetitively walk around the confines of the stable. See also Pre-purchase Examinations - Common Terminology
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Common term for Phenylbutazone, a non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to control pain and swelling in horses. Some racing commissions and showing authorities restrict its use prior to competition in order to reduce the risk of injury to horses. It is banned in most endurance riding competition.
Any of a number of painful digestive disorders, usually characterized by intestinal displacement or blockage. A leading cause of death among domesticated horses.
The shape and proportion of a horse's body.
Coronary band, or coronet
The area directly above the horse's hoof: a ring of soft tissue just above the horny hoof that blends into the skin of the leg. Includes the bottom of the middle phalanx bone.
Crib biting
A stable vice where the horse grabs the edge of an object such as a stable door with its incisor teeth and arches its neck. More severe cases also suck air in simultaneously, and this is termed ‘windsucking'.
The topline and immediate underlying musculature of the hindquarters. Runs from the tail to the loin, and from the point of the hip to the point of the buttock.
Daisy cutter
A horse that moves with long but low movement. Considered highly desirable in hunter-type horses.
Dope, doping
To use a medication that is illegal or used in an illegal manner in order to improve a horse's performance in either racing or showing, or, by an opponent, to harm an animal and cause it to perform poorly.
A small callosity on the back of the fetlocks of equines, often concealed by feathering (hair). Thought to be a vestigial remnant of the pad of the toe.
A fungus of the genus Claviceps growing parasitically on the seed-heads of grasses, and so sometimes occurring in fodder eaten by horses. Contains large amounts of alkaloids, including ergotamine. These can cause ergotism, a serious condition affecting the nervous and circulatory systems, sometimes leading to permanent injury or death.
The joint above the pastern. Anatomically, the metacarpophalangeal (front) and metatarsophalangeal (rear) joints of the horse, formed by the junction of the third metacarpal (forelimb) or metatarsal (hindlimb) bones (also known as the cannon bones) and the proximal phalanx distad (the pastern bone). Anatomically equivalent to the basal joint of a human finger The side of a horse.
The way a horse moves its legs is a gait. They are divided into natural gaits, which are those performed by most horses, and those that are either trained by humans or that are specific to a few breeds. The natural gaits are walk, trot, canter/ lope, and gallop. Other gaits include the pace and ambling gaits such as the rack and single-foot.
Glass eye, wall eye
A blue eye on a horse. There is no difference in vision between a blue-eyed horse and a horse with the more common The tarsal joint of the equine hind leg, located midway between the horse's body and the ground. Anatomically corresponds to the ankle and heel of the human, but in horses is located much farther from the ground.
The joint of a horse's front leg between the cannon and the forearm. Anatomically equivalent to the human wrist.
Pre-purchase Examinations - Common Terminology
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Inflammation of the sensitive laminae of the hoof. Possibly linked to metabolic disturbances, often associated with obesity or ingestion of excess starches or sugars. Causes lameness and severe pain. Treatable if caught early, but in its most severe form, known as "Founder," may require euthanasia of the affected animal.
On the bridle
Of a horse in a race, when it is being kept at a steady speed on a tight rein to avoid tiring it early in the race. When sprinting for the finish, the horse will usually be allowed to run off the bridle, with the reins quite loose.
Parrot mouth
A congenital malformation of the upper jaw where the incisor teeth protrude beyond the lower jaw. Sometimes known as The segment of the leg between the fetlock and the coronary band. Anatomically, two short bones, the proximal phalanx and the middle phalanx.
The outward appearance of an animal, in contrast to genotype, the genetic inheritance of an animal.
Pigroot or pigjump
A milder form of bucking.
Point coloration or points
The tail, edges of the ears, mane, and lower legs of a horse. Used in determining the color of a horse.
Points of a horse
Collective term in horse anatomy for the external parts of a horse, such as crest, withers, shoulder, cannon, etc.
Resting a foreleg; indicating soreness in that leg or foot.
Equine Sarcoids can be the most mis-managed problem for horses and their owners. Sarcoids can render an otherwise sound horse unusable. It is the most frequently diagnosed tumor in horses. Surveys have estimated the predominance of sarcoids at 20% of all equine neoplasms and 36% of all skin tumors. They occur at any age but are more common in young adult horses. These tumors may be single or multiple and, although they occur most frequently on the head, limbs and abdomen, they can occur anywhere on the body including sites of trauma and healed wounds.
Sarcoid Identification - Sacoids come in all shapes and sizes. We have listed the six different "types" of sarcoids below along with their description. Occult sarcoids - These are flat, hairless, lichen-like, slightly crusting, dark patches. They often have a smooth, dark hairless area around them. Verrucose sarcoids - These are raised, nobbly, dark areas that often spread into poorly defined margins. They can also be ulcerated on occasions. Nodular sarcoids - These are firm and nodular skin lumps which may have normal skin over them. Fibroblastic sarcoids - These are often ulcerated, weeping, raised sore lesions that may become pedunculated and Mixed sarcoids - Sarcoids are commonly a mixture of two or more of the forms described above. Malevolent sarcoids - These are rare, invasive sarcoids that invade deeper tissues beneath the skin. What can a horse owner do when confronted with a Sarcoid? Typically they ask two questions. How did they get it and how do I get rid of it? The answer to the first question is the underlying cause of Sarcoid tumors is the Bovine Papilloma virus. Technical terminology used to describe a healthy horse.
A horse that is grumpy and unhappy when being ridden. Usually happens through too much work.
Ossification of the second and fourth metacarpal or metatarsal bones, which often form after trauma to the area. Often an unsoundness when newly injured, may ossify into blemishes with no effect on soundness, depending on location.
Splint bones, the second and fourth metacarpal or metatarsal bones, thought to be vestiges of the toes possessed by prehistoric equines. Pre-purchase Examinations - Common Terminology
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Stable vices
Any of a number of repetitive or nervous behaviors seen most often in horses kept in confinement. Usually attributed to boredom and insufficient exercise, though temperament may also play a role. Stable vices include cribbing, weaving, wood chewing, wall-kicking and similar behaviors.
A nervous disorder in horses, causing a jerking movement, higher than the natural gait, of one or both hind legs, as if stepping over an invisible object.
Assessment of the overall muscularity of a horse, width and depth of body and quality of bone.
The area on a horse that runs from the poll to the dock. On a pedigree chart, the paternal side of the ancestry, which is given on the top of the chart.
The change from one gait to another.
Slang for a horse that conforms to its breed standards, or type.
A horse with significant lameness or other health problems. A habit making the horse difficult to work or keep, such as biting, kicking or bucking. Includes (but is not limited to) stable A habit, considered a stable vice, developed by some horses (and other animals) kept for long periods in a stable, in which the horse repetitively sways side to side, shifting weight and moving its head and neck back and forth. See also Boxwalking.
A circular arrangement of hairs, usually on a horse's neck. Their location is one means of horse identification.
A horse that is between 12 and 24 months of age.


Imaging an adapted dento-alveolar complex

Imaging an adapted dento-alveolar complex Ralf-Peter Herber1 , Justine Fong2, Seth A. Lucas1, Sunita P. Ho2* 1 Division of Orthodontics, Department of Orofacial Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA 2 Division of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA

r ers une politique médicaments au Canada Marc-André Gagnon, Ph. D. Publié par :La Fédération canadienne des syndicats d'infirmières et infirmierswww.fcsii.ca2841, promenade RiversideOttawa (Ontario) K1V 8X7613-526-4661 © La Fédération canadienne des syndicats d'infirmières et infirmiers 2014 Tous droits réservés. Aucune partie de cet ouvrage ne peut pas être reproduite ou transmise par quelque procédé que ce soit, tant électronique que mécanique, en particulier par photocopie, enregistrement ou par tout système de recherché ou d'entreposage documentaire sans l'autorisation de l'éditeur.