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Tetracyclines veterinary—systemic

TETRACYCLINES Veterinary—Systemic

This monograph includes information on the following: Chlortetracycline;
Doxycycline; Oxytetracycline; Tetracycline. Some commonly used brand names are: For veterinary-labeled products— Agrimycin 100 [Oxytetracycline] Oxytet-250 Concentrate Agrimycin 200 [Oxytetracycline] Oxytetra -A [Oxytetracycline] Agrimycin -343 [Oxytetracycline] Oxytetracycline 50 [Oxytetracycline] Alamycin LA [Oxytetracycline] Oxytetracycline 100 AmTech Chlortetracycline HCL Oxytetracycline 200 Soluble Powder [Chlortetracycline] AmTech Maxim-100 Oxytetracycline 100LP [Oxytetracycline] AmTech Maxim-200 Oxy Tetra Forte [Oxytetracycline] [Oxytetracycline] Oxytetramycin 100 [Oxytetracycline] AmTech Oxytetracycline HCL Oxytet-25-S [Oxytetracycline] Soluble Powder [Oxytetracycline] AmTech Oxytetracycline HCL Oxytet Soluble [Oxytetracycline] Soluble Powder-343 [Oxytetracycline] AmTech Tetracycline Hydrochloride Oxytet-SP [Oxytetracycline] Soluble Powder-324 [Tetracycline] Aureomycin 110G Oxytet-343 Water Soluble Powder [Chlortetracycline] Aureomycin 220G Oxyvet 200 LA [Oxytetracycline] Aureomycin 50 Granular Oxyvet 100 LP [Oxytetracycline] [Chlortetracycline] Aureomycin 90 Granular Panmycin Aquadrops [Tetracycline] Aureomycin 100 Granular Pennchlor 50•G [Chlortetracycline] [Chlortetracycline] Aureomycin Soluble Powder Pennchlor 90•G [Chlortetracycline] [Chlortetracycline] Aureomycin Soluble Powder Pennchlor 100 Hi-Flo Meal Concentrate [Chlortetracycline] Aureomycin Uterine Oblets Pennchlor 50 Meal [Chlortetracycline] Biomycin 200 [Oxytetracycline] Pennchlor 70 Meal Calf Scour Bolus Antibiotic Pennchlor 100 MR [Tetracycline] Chlor 50 [Chlortetracycline] Pennchlor 64 Soluble Powder Chlor 100 [Chlortetracycline] Pennox 100 Hi-Flo Meal ChlorMax 50 [Chlortetracycline] Pennox 200 Hi-Flo Meal Chlorosol-50 [Chlortetracycline] Pennox 200 Injectable CLTC 100 MR [Chlortetracycline] Pennox 50 Meal [Oxytetracycline] CTC 50 [Chlortetracycline] Pennox 100-MR [Oxytetracyclin e] CTC Soluble Powder Concentrate Pennox 343 Soluble Powder [Chlortetracycline] Duramycin 10 [Tetracycline] PolyOtic Soluble Powder Duramycin 72-200 [Oxytetracycline] Promycin 100 [Oxytetracycline] Duramycin 100 [Oxytetracycline] Solu -Tet [Tetracycline] Duramycin -324 [Tetracycline] Solu -Tet 324 [Tetracycline] Foul Brood Mix [Oxytetracycline] Terramycin 50 [Oxytetracycline] Geomycin 200 [Oxytetracycline] Terramycin 100 [Oxytetracycline] Kelamycin [Oxytetracycline] Terramycin 200 [Oxytetracycline] Liquamycin LA-200 Terramycin-50 [Oxytetracycline] 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. Maxim-200 [Oxytetracycline] Terramycin-100 [Oxytetracycline] Onycin 62.5 [Tetracycline] Terramycin-200 [Oxytetracycline] Onycin 250 [Tetracycline] Terram ycin-Aqua [Oxytetracycline] Onycin 1000 [Tetracycline] Terramycin 100 For Fish OT 200 [Oxytetracycline] Terramycin Scours Tablets OTC 50 [Oxytetracycline] Terramycin Soluble Powder OXTC 50 [Oxytetracycline] Terramycin-343 Soluble Powder OXTC 100 [Oxytetracycline] Terra-Vet 100 [Oxytetracycline] OXTC 200 [Oxytetracycline] Terra-Vet Soluble Powder [Oxytetracycline] Oxy-110 [Oxytetracycline] Terra-Vet Soluble Powder 343 [Oxytetracycline] Oxy-220 [Oxytetracycline] Tet-324 [Tetracycline] Oxy 250 [Oxytetracycline] Tetra 55 [Tetracycline] Oxy-440 [Oxytetracycline] Tetra 250 [Tetracycline] Oxy 1000 [Oxytetracycline] Tetra 1000 [Tetracycline] Oxybiotic-100 [Oxytetracycline] Tetra 4000 [Tetracycline] Oxybiotic-200 [Oxytetracycline] Tetra Bac 324 [Tetracycline] Oxy 500 Calf Bolus Tetrabol [Tetracycline] Oxy 1000 Calf Bolus Tetracycline 250 [Tetracycline] Oxycure 100 [Oxytetracycline] Tetracycline 1000 [Tetracycline] Oxycure 200 [Oxytetracycline] Tetracycline 250 Concentrate Soluble Powder [Tetracycline] Oxy LA [Oxytetracycline] Tetracycline 62.5 Soluble Powder Oxy LP [Oxytetracycline] Tetradure LA 300 [Oxytetracycline] Oxy-Mycin 100 [Oxytetracycline] Tetraject LA [Oxytetracycline] Oxy-Mycin 200 [Oxytetracycline] Tetraject LP [Oxytetracycline] Oxymycine LA [Oxytetracycline] Tetramed 250 [Tetracycline] Oxymycine LP [Oxytetracycline] Tetramed 1000 [Tetracycline] Oxyshot LA [Oxytet racycline] Tetrasol Soluble Powder Oxysol-62.5 [Oxytetracycline] Tetravet-CA [Oxytetracycline] Oxysol-110 [Oxytetracycline] Tet-Sol 10 [Tetracycline] Oxysol-220 [Oxytetracycline] Tet-Sol 324 [Tetracycline] Oxysol-250 [Oxytetracycline] Tetroxy-100 [Oxytetracycline] Oxysol-440 [Oxytetracycline] Tetroxy HCA Soluble Powder Oxysol-1000 [Oxytetracycline] 5-Way Calf Scour Bolus [Tetracycline] For human-labeled products— Achromycin V [Tetracycline] Novo-Doxylin [Doxycycline] Alti-Doxycycline [Doxycycline] Novo-Tetra [Tetracycline] Apo-Doxy [Doxycycline] Nu-Doxycycline [Doxycycline] Apo-Doxy-Tabs [Doxycycline] Nu-Tetra [Tetracycline] Apo-Tetra [Tetracycline] Vibramycin [Doxycycline] Doryx [Doxycycline] Vibra-Tabs [Doxycycline] Doxycin [Doxycycline] Vibra-Tabs C-Pak [Doxycycline] Doxytec [Doxycycline] Note: For a listing of dosage forms and brand names by country availability, see the Dosage Forms section(s).
Category:
Antibacterial (systemic); antiprotozoal; antirickettsial.

Indications
Note: Bracketed information in the Indications section refers to uses that
either are not included in U.S. product labeling or are for products not commercially available in the U.S.
General considerations

2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. The tetracyclines are broad-spectrum antibiotics with activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including some anaerobes. They are also active against chlamydia, mycoplasmas, some protozoa {R-28; 133}, and several rickettsiae, including Anaplasma, Ehrlichia,
and Haemobartonella. The activity range of the tetracyclines also
includes Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Pasteurella species,
Salmonella species, Staphylococcus species, and Streptococcus
species {R-4}. Susceptibility testing has demonstrated that some
coliforms, mycoplasma, streptococci, and staphylococci have
developed resistance to tetracyclines{R-21; 150}. However, the
breakpoints used to classify these organisms as susceptible or resistant
are not validated for animal indications. Susceptibility testing should
not be the sole basis for selecting tetracyclines for therapy{R-65}.

Accepted
Abortion, vibrionic (prophylaxis)1—Sheep: Chlortetracycline for
medicated feed {R-16; 152} is indicated to aid in reduction of the
incidence of vibrionic abort ion caused by susceptible Campylobacter
fetus
.
Abscesses, cervical (prophylaxis)1—Pigs: Chlortetracycline for medicated feed {R-152} is indicated for reduction of the incidence of cervical
abscesses caused by susceptible organisms.
Abscesses, hepatic (prophylaxis)1—Cattle: Chlortetracycline for medicated feed {R-16; 152} is indicated as an aid in the prevention of
hepatic abscesses in cattle.
Actinobacillosis (treatment)1—Cattle: Oxytetracycline injection {R-10;
45} is indicated in the treatment of actinobacillosis (wooden tongue)
caused by susceptible Actinobacillus lignieresii.
Anaplasmosis (treatment)1—Cattle: Chlortetracycline for medicated feed {R-16; 152} is indicated in the control of active infection caused by
susceptible Anaplasma marginale. Oxytetracycline injection {R-10} is
indicated in the treatment of anaplasmosis caused by susceptible A.
marginale
.
Diphtheria (treatment)1—Cattle: Oxytetracycline injection {R-10; 24; 45}
is indicated in the treatment of diphtheria (necrotic laryngitis, necrotic necrophorus stomatitis) caused by susceptible Fusobacterium necrophorum. Enteritis, bacterial (treatment)—The treatment of enteritis should be dependent on a specific diagnosis and knowledge of pathogen
susceptibility to tetracyclines. Some pathogens associated with
enteritis, such as Escherichia coli, are found to be resistant to the
tetracyclines.
Calves: Chlortetracycline soluble powder1 {R-17}, oxytetracycline
tablets {R-60}, and tetracycline boluses and soluble powder {R-1;
8}
are indicated in the control of bacterial enteritis (scours)
caused by susceptible E. coli. Chlortetracycline for medicated
feed {R-16; 152}and soluble powder {R-17}; oxytetracycline for
medicated feed {R-117}, injection, soluble powder, and tablets1
{R-23; 24; 60; 61}; and tetracycline bolus and soluble powder
{R-1; 18} are indicated in the treatment of bacterial enteritis
caused by susceptible E. coli and Salmonella species.
Cattle: Chlortetracycline for medicated feed1 {R-16; 152} and oxy-
tetracycline for medicated feed1 {R-117}, injection1 {R-10; 45},
and soluble powder {R-61} are indicated in the treatment of
bacterial enteritis caused by susceptible E. coli and Salmonella
{R-11}.
Pigs: Chlortetracycline soluble powder1 {R-17}, oxytetracycline
soluble powder {R-11; 23; 54}, and tetracycline powder for oral
solution {R-18} are indicated in the control and treatment of
bacterial enteritis caused by susceptible E. coli. Chlortetracycline
for medicated feed {R-16; 152} and oxytetracycline injection {R-
24; 45}
and for medicated feed {R-117} are indicated in the
treatment of bacterial enteritis (scours) caused by susceptible E.
coli
and Salmonella.
Sheep: Oxytetracycline for medicated feed1 {R-117} and soluble
powder {R-54; 61} and [tetracycline soluble powder] {R-18} are
indicated in the treatment of enteritis caused by susceptible
organisms.
Sows: Oxytetracycline injection {R-10} is indicated in the control of
enteritis (baby pig scours) in suckling pigs caused by susceptible 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. E. coli and is administered by treatment of sows before and after
farrowing; however, the effect of this treatment on piglets may be
indirect, through the resolution of mastitis and increase in milk
production in sows {R-171}.
Turkeys, growing: Chlortetracycline soluble powder1 {R-17} and
oxytetracycline soluble powder {R-11; 23; 54} are indicated in
the control of susceptible organisms involved in the development
of enteritis (bluecomb).
Turkeys: Chlortetracycline for medicated feed {R-16; 152} and
[powder for oral solution] {R-17} and tetracycline soluble powder
{R-18; 19} are indicated in the control and treatment of enteritis
caused by susceptible organisms. Oxytetracycline for medicated
feed {R-117} is indicated in the treatment of susceptible E. coli
involved in the development of enteritis (bluecomb).
[Chickens]: Oxytetracycline soluble powder{R-54} and
chlortetracycline for medicated feed are indicated in the treatment of susceptible E. coli involved in the development of enteritis. [Lambs]: Oxytetracycline for medicated feed {R-26} is indicated in
the reduction of bacterial enteritis in creep-fed suckling lambs. Escherichia coli infections (treatment)1—Chickens: Chlortetracycline for medicated feed {R-16; 115; 152} is indicated as an aid in reducing
mortality due to E. coli infections.
Feed efficiency, improved; or Weight gain, increased rate—Calves1, cattle1, chickens, pigs, sheep1, and turkeys: Chlortetracycline for medicated feed {R-16; 152} and oxy-
tetracyline for medicated feed1 {R-117} are indicated for growth
promotion and feed efficiency.
Foul brood (treatment)—Bees: Oxytetracycline for medicated feed {R-
117} and soluble powder {R-61; 117} are indicated in the treatment of
American and European foul brood caused by susceptible organisms.
Fowl cholera (prophylaxis)—Chickens: Oxytetracycline for medicat ed feed {R-122} and soluble powder1{R-61; 122} are indicated in the
prevention of fowl cholera caused by susceptible organisms.
Fowl cholera (treatment)— Chickens: Chlortetracycline soluble powder1 {R-17} and oxytet -
racycline for medicated feed1 {R-117} and soluble powder {R-11}
are indicated in the control of mortality from fowl cholera caused
by susceptible Pasteurella multocida {R-80}. [Tetracycline
soluble powder {R-18} is indicated in the treatment of fowl
cholera caused by susceptible organisms.]
Ducks1: Chlortetracycline for medicated feed {R-152} is indicated as
an aid in the control and treatment of fowl cholera caused by susceptible Pasteurella multocida. Furunculosis (treatment)—Salmonids (salmon and trout): Oxytetracycline for medicated feed {R-62; 124} is indicated in the control of
furunculosis caused by susceptible Aeromonas salmonicida.
Gaffkemia (treatment)—Lobsters: Oxytetracycline for medicated feed {R-
27; 124} is indicated in the treatment of gaffkemia caused by
susceptible Aerococcus viridans.
Gastroenteritis (treatment)—Cats and dogs: Tetracycline oral suspension {R-4} is indicated in the treatment of bacterial gastroenteritis, but use
should be reserved for treatment of organisms known to be
susceptible.
Hemorrhagic septicemia, bacterial (treatment)1—Catfish and salmonids: Oxytetracycline for medicated feed {R-62; 124} is indicated in the
control of hemorrhagic septicemia caused by susceptible Aeromonas
hydrophila, A. sobia,
and Pseudomonas species {R-173}.
Hexamitiasis (treatment)—Turkeys: Chlortetracycline for medicated feed1 {R-16; 152} and oxytetracycline for medicated feed1 {R-117} are
indicated in the control of hexamitiasis, and oxytetracycline soluble
powder1 {R-11; 61} and [tetracycline soluble powder] {R-18} are
indicated in the treatment of hexamitiasis caused by susceptible
Hexamita meleagridis.
Keratoconjuntivitis, infectious (treatment)—Cattle: Long-acting oxytetracycline injection {R-45} is indicated in the treatment of
keratoconjunctivitis caused by susceptible Moraxella bovis.
Leptospirosis (treatment)— Pigs: Chlortetracycline for medicated feed1 {R-16; 152} and
oxytetracycline for medicated feed {R-122} are indicated to aid in
reducing the shedding of leptospirosis and the incidence of
2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. abortion. Oxytetracycline for medicated feed is indicated as an
aid in the reduction of abortion and urinary shedding of
leptospirosis, production of healthier newborn pigs, and
maintenance of weight gains in the presense of leptospirosis {R-
122}
. Oxytetracycline injection {R-10; 24; 45} and soluble
powder {R-11} are indicated in the treatment of leptospirosis
caused by susceptible Leptospira pomona. Oxytetracycline can
reduce the incidence of abortions and shedding of leptospira; {R-
11}
however, it can be ineffective in eliminating the organism {R-
113}
.
Cattle: Oxytetracycline injection {R-24; 45} is indicated in the
treatment of leptospirosis caused by susceptible Leptospira pomona. Paratyphoid (treatment)1—Turkeys, less than 4 weeks of age: Chlortetracycline for medicated feed {R-16; 152} is indicated as an
aid in reducing mortality from paratyphoid infection caused by
susceptible Salmonella typhimurium.
Pneumonia, bacterial (prophylaxis) —Cattle: Oxytetracycline for medicated feed1 {R-117; 122} is indicated in the prevention of
pneumonia and as an aid in the reduction of losses due to bovine
respiratory disease complex.
Pneumonia, bacterial (treatment)— Calves: Chlortetracycline soluble powder1 {R-17}, oxytetracycline
tablets1 {R-60}, and tetracycline boluses {R-1} are indicated in
the control of pneumonia and bovine respiratory disease complex
caused by susceptible organisms, including Pasteurella species.
Chlortetracycline soluble powder {R-17}; oxytetracycline
injection, soluble powder, and tablets1 {R-60; 61}; and
tetracycline boluses and soluble powder {R-1; 18} are indicated
in the treatment of pneumonia caused by susceptible organisms,
including Pasteurella species. However, due to resistance {R-51;
171; 180}
by pathogens, the tetracyclines may no longer be
effective in the treatment of some types of bacterial pneumonia.
Cattle: Chlortetracycline for medicated feed {R-152} is indicated in
the control1 and treatment of pneumonia caused by susceptible
organisms. Oxytetracycline {R-10; 24; 45; 61} is indicated in the
treatment of pneumonia and shipping fever complex caused by
susceptible Pasteurella and Haemophilus species. Increasing
resistance to tetracyclines by strains of organisms involved in
bovine pneumonia is reported {R-51; 171; 180}.
Pigs: Chlortetracycline soluble powder1 {R-17} is indicated in the
control of pneumonia caused by susceptible Actinobacillus
pleuropneumoniae
(Haemophilus species), Pasteurella species,
and Klebsiella species. Chlortetracycline for medicated feed1 {R-
152}
and oxytetracycline soluble powder are indicated in the
treatment of pneumonia caused by susceptible Pasteurella
multocida
. Chlortetracycline soluble powder {R-17},
oxytetracycline injection {R-10; 24; 45}, and tetracycline soluble
powder {R-1; 18} are indicated in the treatment of pneumonia
caused by susceptible Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia
(Haemophilus species), Klebsiella, and Pasteurella species.
Increasing resistance to tetracycline by strains of organisms
involved in porcine pneumonia is reported {R-50}.
Sheep: Oxytetracycline for medicated feed1 {R-117}, [injection] {R-
24; 121}, and soluble powder {R-6; 13}, and [tetracycline soluble
powder] {R-18} are indicated in the treatment of pneumonia
caused by susceptible organisms.
Pododermatitis (treatment)—Cattle: Long-acting oxytetracycline injection {R-10; 24; 45} is indicated in the treatment of pododermatitis (‘foot
rot') caused by susceptible Fusobacterium necrophorum. Signs may
not be completely resolved by oxytetracycline alone and other
treatment or surgery may be required .
Pseudomonas disease (treatment)1—Catfish and salmonids: Oxytetracycline for medicated feed {R-62} is indicated in the control
of pseudomonas disease caused by susceptible organisms.
Psittacosis (treatment)1—Cockatoos, macaws, and parrots: Chlortetracycline for medicated feed {R-152} is indicated in the
treatment of psittacosis caused by susceptible Chlamydia psittaci.
Respiratory disease, bacterial, chronic (prophylaxis)—Chickens: Oxytetracycline for medicated feed {R-122} is indicated in the
2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. prevention of chronic respiratory disease caused by susceptible organisms. Respiratory disease, bacterial, chronic (treatment)—Chickens: Chlortetracycline for medicated feed and soluble powder1 {R-16; 17;
152}
, oxytetracycline for medicated feed1 and soluble powder {R-11;
22; 23}
, and tetracycline soluble powder {R-18; 127} are indicated in
the control of respiratory disease, including air sac disease, caused by
susceptible Mycoplasma gallisepticum and E. coli. Chlortetracycline
for medicated feed {R-16; 115} and powder for oral solution {R-17}
are indicated in the treatment of chronic respiratory disease caused by
susceptible organisms.
Skeletal tissue marking1—Salmon, Pacific: Oxytetracycline for medicated feed {R-117} is indicated to mark skeletal tissue in Pacific salmon.
Skin and soft tissue infections (treatment)1—Cattle: {R-10; 45}
Oxytetracycline injection is indicated in the treatment of wounds infected by susceptible Staphylococcus species or Streptococcus species. Synovitis, infectious (treatment)—Chickens and turkeys: Chlortetracycline for medicated feed1 {R-16; 152} and soluble
powder1 {R-17}, oxytetracycline for medicated feed {R-117} and
soluble powder {R-11}, and tetracycline soluble powder {R-3} are
indicated in the control of infectious synovitis caused by susceptible
Mycoplasma synoviae. Chlortetracycline powder for oral solution {R-
17}
is indicated in the treatment of infectious synovitis caused by
susceptible M. synoviae.
Ulcer disease (treatment)—Salmonids (salmon, trout): Oxytetracycline for medicated feed {R-62; 124} is indicated in the control of ulcer disease
caused by susceptible Haemophilus piscium .
Urinary tract infections (treatment)1—Cats and dogs: Tetracycline oral suspension {R-4} is indicated in the treatment of urinary tract
infections caused by susceptible Staphylococcus species and E. coli.
Also, concentrations of tetracycline in urine are high enough to be
effective against Pseudomonas species {R-150}.
Uterine infections, acute (treatment)— Cattle: Oxytetracycline injection {R-24; 45} is indicated in the
treatment of acute metritis caused by susceptible strains of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species. [Pigs]: Oxytetracycline injection {R-24} is indicated in the treatment
of acute metritis caused by susceptible organisms. [Sheep]: Oxytetracycline injection {R-24; 121} is indicated in the
treatment of uterine infections. [Arthritis, bacterial (treatment)]—Cattle and sheep: Oxytetracycline injection {R-24; 25} is indicated in the treatment of septic arthritis
(joint ill) caused by susceptible organisms.
[Atrophic rhinitis (treatment)]—Pigs: Oxytetracycline for medicated feed {R-122} is indicated for use as an aid in maintaining weight gain in
pigs infected with atrophic rhinitis.
[Blackleg (treatment)]; or
[Malignant edema (treatment)]—Cattle: Oxytetracycline injection {R-24;
25; 121} is indicated in the treatment of infections caused by
susceptible Clostridia species.
[Bloat]—Cattle: Oxytetracycline for medicated feed {R-26} is indicated
as an aid in reducing the incidence of bloat in young cattle on pasture and in feedlots. [Cold water disease (treatment)]—Salmonids: {R-124} Oxytetracycline
for medicated feed is indicated in the treatment of cold water disease caused by susceptible Cytophaga psychrophilia. [Columnaris disease (treatment)]—Salmonids: Oxytetracycline for medicated feed {R-124} is indicated in the treatment of columnaris
disease caused by susceptible Chondrococcus (Flexibacter)
columnaris
.
[Egg production, increased]; or [Egg hatchability, increased]—Chickens and turkeys: Chlortetracycline for medicated feed is indicated for use in increasing egg production or egg hatchability. [Ehrlichiosis, equine (treatment)]1—Horses: Oxytetracycline is used in the treatment of ehrlichiosis caused by susceptible Ehrlichia equi {R-
46; 138}
.
[Enteric redmouth disease (treatment)]—Salmonids: Oxytetracycline for medicated feed {R-124} is indicated in the treatment of enteric red-
2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. mouth disease caused by susceptible Yersinis ruckeri. [Enterotoxemia (treatment)]—Lambs: Chlortetracycline for medicated feed and oxytetracycline for medicated feed {R-26} are indicated in
the reduction of losses due to enterotoxemia in feedlot lambs.
[Erysipelas (treatment)]—Pigs: Oxytetracycline injection {R-24; 25; 121}
is indicated in the treatment of erysipelas caused by susceptible organisms. [Mastitis (treatment)]—Cattle, pigs, and sheep: Oxytetracycline injection {R-24; 25} is indicated in the treatment of mastitis caused by
susceptible organisms. Oxytetracycline, administered at the dosage
recommended in product labeling, does not appear to be effective for
the cure of Staphylococcus aureus infections in the dry cow {R-103}.
[Omphalophlebitis (treatment)]—Cattle: Oxytetracycline injection {R-24;
25} is indicated in the treatment of omphalophlebitis (navel ill) caused
by susceptible organisms.
[Peritonitis (treatment)]—Cattle: Oxytetracycline injection {R-25; 121} is
indicated in the treatment of peritonitis caused by susceptible organisms. [Pododermatitis (prophylaxis)]—Cattle: Chlortetracycline for medicated feed is indicated as an aid in the prevention of pododermatitis {R-
116}
.
[Potomac horse fever (treatment)]1—Horses: Oxytetracycline is used in the treatment of Potomac horse fever (equine ehrlichial colitis) caused
by susceptible Ehrlichia risticii {R-47; 48}. Treatment of exposed
animals to prevent development of disease is not recommended; the
incubation period will be increased but the disease is not prevented
{R-48}.
[Rocky Mountain spotted fever (treatment)]1—Dogs: Tetracycline or dox- ycycline {R-151} is used in the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted
fever caused by susceptible Rickettsia rickettsii {R-140; 141}.
[Sinusitis, infectious (prophylaxis)]—Turkeys: Chlortetracycline for medicated feed is indicated in the prevention of sinusitis caused by susceptible organisms. [Sinusitis, infectious (treatment)]—Turkeys: Oxytetracycline for medicated feed {R-26; 122} and tetracycline soluble powder are
indicated in the control of sinusitis caused by susceptible organisms,
such as susceptible Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

Acceptance not established
[Brucellosis (treatment)]1—Dogs: There are insufficient data to establish
the efficacy of tetracycline administered concurrently with
streptomycin in the treatment of brucellosis in dogs; however, studies
suggest that specific dosage regimens may be successful in treating
the infection {R-160}. No controlled studies are available.
[Chlamydial infection (treatment)]1; or [Respiratory tract infections, bacterial (treatment)]1—Cats: There are insufficient data to establish the safety and efficacy of doxycycline in
the treatment of chlamydial infections or bacterial respiratory
infections in cats; however, it is used in the treatment of infections
caused by susceptible organisms {R-151; 177}.
[Ehrlichiosis (treatment)]1—Dogs: There are insufficient data to establish the efficacy of doxycycline in the treatment of ehrlichiosis in dogs.
Clinical signs are often resolved by administration of doxycycline or
tetracycline {R-40; 41; 43; 139}, but it is uncertain whether the
organism is cleared from dogs treated {R-40; 139}. Serum Ehrlichia
canis
antibody titers can remain increased in some dogs for over 2
years after the resolution of clinical signs during treatment with
tetracycline {R-139}; also, in some dogs, blood and tissue cultures
have tested positive for Ehrlichia canis 2 months after treatment with
doxycycline {R-40}.
[Flexural limb deformities (treatment)]1—Foals: There are insufficient data to establish the efficacy of oxytetracycline in the treatment of
flexural limb deformities in foals; however, studies show that
oxytetracycline can cause a short -term moderate improvement in
metacarpophalangeal joint angle and an increase in range of joint
motion in newborn foals as compared to untreated foals {R-157;
158}
. The available studies were performed in healthy foals rather
than foals with deformities and both the ideal dose and actual short -
and long-term benefits and risks of this treatment are unknown.
[Haemobartonella felis infection (treatment)]1—Cats: There are 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. insufficient data to establish the safety and efficacy of doxycycline in
the treatment of feline infectious anemia, caused by susceptible
Haemobartonella felis; however, it is used in the treatment of acute
infections {R-147}. If considered clinically necessary, corticosteroids
{R-149} and blood transfusions are used concurrently with
doxycycline in the treatment of this infection {R-147}. Acutely
infected cats may clinically recover without treatment {R-147; 159},
although it is believed that the organism is not cleared from these
animals; there is also some question about the efficacy of doxycycline
or other tetracyclines in completely clearing the organism from
infected cats {R-148}. Controlled clinical efficacy trials have not been
conducted for any medication; however, a tetracycline is usually
administered when a cat is diagnosed and doxycycline is considered
the tetracycline of choice {R-147} because of an expectation of fewer
side effects. Cats with serious underlying viral infections, such as
feline leukemia virus, are not expected to respond well to therapy.
[Leptospirosis (treatment)]1—Dogs: Although doxycyline is proposed in some veterinary references for use in the clearance of the leptospirosis carrier state in dogs, there are insufficient data showing clearance or prevention of a potential carrier state to support this use as an established indication. [Lyme disease (treatment)]1—Dogs: There are insufficient data to establish the efficacy of tetracyclines in the treatment of Lyme
borreliosis. Doxycycline has been effective in the resolution of early
Borrelia burgdorferi infection in people {R-163}; therefore,
doxycycline and tetracycline are used to treat the infection in dogs
{R-164; 165}; however, it is uncertain whether this is the best
medication to produce long-term resolution of the infection{R-163}.
[Thromboembolic meningoencephalitis (treatment)]1—Cattle: There are insufficient data to establish the efficacy of oxytetracycline in the
treatment of thromboembolic meningoencephalitis; however, if cattle
are diagnosed in the early stages of the disease, before recumbency,
treatment can be effective against susceptible Haemophilus somnus
{R-161; 166}.
[Uterine infections, bacterial (treatment)]—Cattle, horses, pigs, and sheep: Although Canadian product labeling includes the use of
intrauterine chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline in the
treatment of uterine infections, there are insufficient available data
concerning the efficacy and safety of this use. Intrauterine tetracycline
treatment can reduce the incidence of putrefaction of retained fetal
membranes and fever associated with infection in cattle, but because
it is believed to penetrate only into the endometrium from infusion
into the uterus {R-104; 130}, parenteral antibiotics are recommended
for those animals that have evidence of infection or develop signs of
septicemia {R-144}. The intrauterine administration of tetracyclines
for the treatment of uterine infections such as endometritis or
treatment of infection associated with retained placentas in cattle is
not effective in shortening the interval from parturition to conception,
increasing pregnancy rates, or reducing culling rates {R-144-146}.
Considering costs, risks of residues {R-129}, and a lack of significant
change in long-term fertility in cattle, there is no evidence to support
the routine use of intrauterine tetracyclines in cattle, horses, pigs, and
sheep.
1Not included in Canadian product labeling or product not commercially available in Canada.

Regulatory Considerations
U.S.—
Withdrawal times have been established for chlortetracycline for medicated feed and soluble powder; oxytetracycline soluble powder, for medicated feed, tablets, and injection; and tetracycline soluble powder and boluses. See the Dosage Forms section. Withdrawal times have been established for chlortetracycline for medicated feed and uterine tablets; oxytetracycline soluble powder, for medicated feed, uterine infusion, and injection; and tetracycline soluble powder, boluses, and uterine tablets. See the 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. Dosage Forms section.
Chemistry
Source:

Chlortetracycline—Isolated from the fungus Streptomyces aureofaciens {R-22}.
Doxycycline—Produced semisynthetically. {R-22}
Oxytetracycline—Isolated from the fungus Streptomyces rimosus {R-
Tetracycline—Produced by some streptomyces strains; however, it is manufactured by hydrogenolysis of chlortetracycline {R-113}.
Chemical name:
chloro-4-(dimethylamino)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-
3,6,10,12,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-1,11-dioxo-,
monohydrochloride [4S-(4 alpha,4a alpha,5a alpha,6 beta,12a
alpha)]- {R-114}.
Doxycycline—2-Naphthacenecarboxamide, 4-(dimethylamino) - 1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,5,10,12,12a-pentahydroxy-6-
methyl-1,11-dioxo-, [4S-(4 alpha,4a alpha,5 alpha,5a alpha,6
alpha,12a alpha)]-, monohydrate {R-114}.
(dimethylamino)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,5,10,12,12a-
pentahydroxy-6-methyl-1,11-dioxo-, monohydrochloride, compd.
with ethanol (2:1), monohydrate, [4S-(4 alpha, 4a alpha, 5 alpha,
5a alpha, 6 alpha, 12a alpha)]- {R-114}.
1,4,-4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,5,6,10,12,12a-hexahydroxy-6-
methyl-1,11-dioxo-, [4S-(4 alpha,4a alpha,5 alpha,5a alpha,6
beta,12a alpha)]-, dihydrate {R-114}.
(dimethylamino)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,5,6,10,12,12a-
hexahydroxy-6-methyl-1,11-dioxo-, monohydrochloride, [4S-(4
alpha,4a alpha,5 alpha,5a alpha,6 beta,12a alpha)]- {R-114}.
1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,6,10,12,12a-pentahydroxy-6-
methyl-1,11-dioxo-, [4S-(4 alpha,4a alpha,5a alpha,6 beta,12a
alpha)]- {R-114}.
(dimethylamino)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,6,10,12,12a-
pentahydroxy-6-methyl-1,11-dioxo-, monohydrochloride, [4S-(4
alpha,4a alpha,5a alpha,6 beta,12a alpha)]- {R-114}.
Molecular formula:
22H23ClN2O83 HCl {R-114}.
22H24N2O8 H2O {R-114}.
Doxycycline hyclate—(C 22H24N2O8 HCl)2 C2H6O⋅H2O {R-114}.
22H24N2O9 2H2O {R-114}.
22H24N2O9 HCl {R-114}.
22H24N2O8 HCl {R-114}.
Molecular weight:
Chlortetracycline hydrochloride—515.34 {R-114}.
Doxycycline—462.45 {R-114}.
Doxycycline hyclate—1025.87 {R-114}.
Oxytetracycline—496.46 {R-114}.
Oxytetracycline hydrochloride—496.89 {R-114}.
Tetracycline—444.43 {R-114}.
Tetracycline hydrochloride—480.90 {R-114}.
Chlortetracycline Hydrochloride USP —Yellow, crystalline powder. Is odorless. Is stable in air, but is slowly affected by light {R-128}.
Doxycycline USP—Yellow, crystalline powder {R-128}.
Doxycycline Hyclate USP—Yellow, crystalline powder {R-128}.
Oxytetracycline USP —Pale yellow to tan, odorless, crystalline
powder. Is stable in air, but exposure to strong sunlight causes it
to darken. It loses potency in solutions of pH below 2, and is
rapidly destroyed by alkali hydroxide solutions {R-128}.
Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride USP —Yellow, odorless, crystalline powder. Is hygroscopic. Decomposes at a temperature exceeding 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. 180 °C, and exposure to strong sunlight or to temperatures
exceeding 90 °C in moist air causes it to darken. Its potency is
diminished in solutions having a pH below 2, and is rapidly
destroyed by alkali hydroxide solutions {R-128}.
Tetracycline USP—Yellow, odorless, crystalline powder. Is stable in air, but exposure to strong sunlight causes it to darken. It loses
potency in solutions of pH below 2, and is rapidly destroyed by
alkali hydroxide solutions {R-128}.
Tetracycline Hydrochloride USP —Yellow, odorless, crystalline powder. Is moderately hygroscopic. Is stable in air, but exposure
to strong sunlight in moist air causes it to darken. It loses potency
in solution at a pH below 2, and is rapidly destroyed by alkali
hydroxide solutions {R-128}.
Chlortetracycline: 3.3, 7.4, 9.3 {R-133}.
Oxytetracycline: 3.3, 3.7, 9.1 {R-156}.
Tetracycline: 8.3, 10.2 {R-133}.
Solubility:
Chlortetracycline Hydrochloride USP —Sparingly soluble in water; soluble in solutions of alkali hydroxides and carbonates; slightly
soluble in alcohol; practically insoluble in acetone, in chloroform,
in dioxane, and in ether {R-128}.
Doxycycline USP—Very slightly soluble in water; freely soluble in dilute acid and in alkali hydroxide solutions; sparingly soluble in
alcohol; practically insoluble in chloroform and in ether {R-128}.
Doxycycline Hyclate USP—Soluble in water and in solutions of alkali hydroxides and carbonates; slightly soluble in alcohol;
practically insoluble in chloroform and in ether {R-128}.
Oxytetracycline USP —Very slightly soluble in water; freely soluble in 3 N hydrochloric acid and in alkaline solutions; sparingly
soluble in alcohol {R-128}.
Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride USP —Freely soluble in water, but crystals of oxytetracycline base separate as a result of partial
hydrolysis of the hydrochloride. Sparingly soluble in alcohol and
in methanol, and even less soluble in dehydrated alcohol;
insoluble in chloroform and in ether {R-128}.
Tetracycline USP—Very slightly soluble in water; freely soluble in dilute acid and in alkali hydroxide solutions; sparingly soluble in
alcohol; practically insoluble in chloroform and in ether {R-128}.
Tetracycline Hydrochloride USP —Soluble in water and in solutions of alkali hydroxides and carbonates; slightly soluble in alcohol;
practically insoluble in chloroform and in ether {R-128}.

Pharmacology/Pharmacokinetics
Note: Unless otherwise noted, pharmacokinetic values are based on a
single intravenous dose of medication.
Mechanism of action/Effect:

Tetracyclines are broad-spectrum bacteriostatic agents that inhibit protein synthesis by binding reversibly to receptors of the 30 S
ribosomal subunit of susceptible microorganisms. The binding of
a tetracycline to the subunit blocks the binding of the aminoacyl-
tRNA to the acceptor site on the mRNA-ribosomal complex and
prevents the addition of new amino acids to the peptide chain,
inhibiting protein synthesis. {R-22}
Tetracyclines must enter the target cell to be effective. Uptake appears to depend on passive diffusion and active transport, with the
exception of doxycycline, which enters the cell by passive
diffusion {R-28}. Susceptible cells concentrate the antibiotic;
resistant strains appear to carry an R-factor that inhibits uptake of
drug. {R-22}
Absorption:
Oral—Doxycycline: Generally is more completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract than are the tetracyclines developed less
recently {R-40; 64; 74}, which can be poorly and variably
absorbed. Human studies have shown that the absorption of
oxytetracycline or tetracycline is decreased when either is
administered with food; the effect of food on doxycycline
absorption is insignificant. Doxycycline is also less likely than the
2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. older tetracyclines to form chelation complexes with divalent and
trivalent metals and, therefore, there is less interference with oral
absorption by calcium or other substances {R-133}. See the Drug
interactions
section.
Parenteral—Oxytetracycline: As with other parenteral medications, the absorption and bioavailability of intramuscularly administered
oxytetracycline can vary depending on the site of administration.
Oxytetracyclin e is more bioavailable when administered
intramuscularly into the shoulder of calves than when
administered intramuscularly into the neck or particularly into the
buttock. {R-94}
The absorption of the long-acting formulations of oxytetracycline (with 2-pyrrolidone excipient) administered intramuscularly has
been described as having a rapid phase of 48 minutes for 14% of
the dose and a slow phase of 18 hours for 38% of the dose in
cattle administered a 20 mg/kg dose {R-99}. With a 10 mg/kg
dose, the r apid phase is 16 minutes and the slow phase is 11
hours. {R-100}

Bioavailability:

Chlortetracycline: Chickens—1% (25 mg per kg of body weight [mg/kg] dose). {R-78; 79}
Pigs—Fasted or fed: 18 to 19% {R-77}.
Turkeys—6% (15 mg/kg dose). {R-78; 80}
Chickens—41.3% (20 mg/kg dose). {R-64}
Human value—90 to 95% {R-169}.
Oxytetracycline: Pigs—4.8% (50 mg/kg dose). {R-109}
Piglets, weaned, 10 weeks of age—
By drench: 9% (20 mg/kg dose). {R-82}
In medicated feed for 3 days: 3.7% (400 parts per million
[ppm] of feed). {R-82}
Trout, rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss)—5.6% (75 mg/kg dose). {R-89}
Turkeys— Fasted: 47.6% (10 mg/kg dose). {R-85}
Fed: 9.4% (10 mg/kg dose). {R-85}
Tetracycline: Pigs, fasted—23% (22 mg/kg dose). {R-74}
Intramuscular— Oxytetracycline, conventional formulation: Buffalo —63.2% (22 mg/kg dose). {R-87}
Calves, 17 days of age—61% (20 mg/kg dose) {R-99}.
Calves, 3 months of age—76 hours postinjection of 18 mg/kg
dose:
Buttock administration—83.1%. {R-94}
Neck administration—93.3%. {R-94}
Shoulder administration—99.4%. {R-94}
Catfish, African, and trout, rainbow—85% (60 mg/kg Cows—80.8% (8 mg/kg dose) {R-95}; 95% (20 mg/kg
Goats—65.5% (20 mg/kg dose). {R-81}
Oxytetracycline, long-acting formulation: Camels—93.7% (10 mg/kg dose). {R-88}
Cattle—51%; 78.5%; 95% (20 mg/kg dose). {R-98; 99; 174}
Goats—79.4% (20 mg/kg dose). {R-81}

Distribution:
Tetracyclines are lipid soluble and are well distributed to
most tissues. Doxycycline is the most lipid soluble and shows the
greatest degree of tissue penetration. {R-28; 71}
Volume of distribution—
Chlortetracycline: Calves, ruminating—Area volume of distribution: 1.93 ± 0.15 liters per kg (L/kg). {R-76}
Pigs—Steady state volume of distribution: Fasted—0.97 ± 0.21 L/kg. {R-77}
Fed—1.39 ± 0.31 L/kg. {R-77}
2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. Turkeys—Area: 0.23 ± 0.05 L/kg. {R-78}
Calves—Steady state: Preruminating—1.81 ± 0.24 L/kg. {R-68}
Ruminating—1.31 ± 0.11 L/kg. {R-68}
Cats—Steady state: 0.34 ± 0.03 L/kg. {R-70}
Dogs—Steady state: 0.93 ± 0.14 L/kg. {R-70}
Pigs—Steady state: 0.53 ± 0.04 L/kg. {R-69}
Oxytetracycline: Buffalo —Area: 0.28 to 0.45 L/kg. {R-87}
Calves, newborn to 8 months—Area: 1.67 L/kg. {R-93; 100}
Camels—Steady state: 0.71 L/kg. {R-88}
Cows—Area: 0.80 ± 0.03 L/kg. {R-95}
Dogs—Area: 2.10 ± 0.42 L/kg. {R-84}
Donkeys
Area: 0.78 L/kg {R-92}.
Steady state: 0.65 L/kg {R-92}.
Area: 2.19 L/kg. {R-154}
Steady state: 2.17 L/kg. {R-154}
Goats—Area: 1.44 L/kg. {R-81}
Horses
Apparent: 1.35 L/kg. {R-96}
Area: 0.67 L/kg. {R-92}
Steady state: 0.34 L/kg. {R-92}
Pigs—Area: Adult—1.8 L/kg. {R-83}
Adult with pneumonia—1.53 L/kg. {R-83}
Ponies— Area: 1.05 L/kg. {R-92}
Steady state: 0.47 L/kg. {R-92}
Rabbits—0.86 L/kg. {R-86}
Rats—Area: 0.79 L/kg. {R-91}
Chickens—Steady state: 0.17 L/kg. {R-73}
Pigs—Area: 4.5 ± 1.1 L/kg. {R-74}
Rabbits—Area: 1.05 ± .88 L/kg. {R-72}

Protein binding:

Chlortetracycline— Cows: Moderate (47 to 51%). {R-67}
Sheep: Moderate (46 to 50%). {R-67}
Calves: Very high (92%). {R-68}
Cats: Very high (98%); {R-70} albumin binding—76%. {R-70}
Dogs: Very high (91%); {R-70} albumin binding—54%. {R-70}
Pigs: Very high (93%). {R-69}
Sheep: High (84 to 90%). {R-67}
Oxytetracycline— Buffalo: Moderate (42%). {R-87}
Cows: Low (18 to 22%) {R-67}.
Horses and cows: Combined results—Moderate (50%). {R-96}
Pigs, weaned, 10 weeks of age: High (75.5%). {R-82}
Sheep: Low (21 to 25%). {R-67}
Trout, rainbow: Moderate (55%). {R-89}
Cows: Low to moderate (31 to 41%). {R-67}
Sheep: Low (28 to 32%). {R-67}

Bio transformation:
All species—The tetracyclines are not known to be
biotransformed to any significant extent before elimination. {R-28;
68-70}


Half-life:
Elimination—
Chlortetracycline: Calves, ruminant—8.3 hours. {R-76}
Turkeys—0.88 hour. {R-78}
Calves— Preruminant: 9.8 hours. {R-68}
2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. Ruminant: 14.2 hours. {R-68}
Cats—4.6 hours. {R-70}
Chickens—4.8 hours. {R-64}
Dogs—7 to 10.4 hours. {R-63; 70}
Horses—Oral administration (apparent half-life): 8.7 ± 1.6
Pigs—3.9 hours. {R-69}
Oxytet racycline: Buffalo —2.8 to 3.6 hours. {R-87}
Calves
Newborn: 11.2 hours. {R-93}
6 weeks of age: 3.5 to 7.2 hours. {R-93; 100; 106}
6 weeks of age with induced Mannheimia (Pasteurella)
haemolytica pneumonia: 2.5 hours. {R-106}
8 months of age: 6.3 hours. {R-93}
Camels—7.7 hours. {R-88}
Catfish, African—80.3 hours. {R-90}
Cows—10 hours. {R-95}
Dogs—6 hours. {R-84}
Donkeys—6.5 hours. {R-92}
Foals—6.7 to 7.3 hours. {R-154}
Goats—6.5 hours. {R-81}
Horses—13 hours {R-92}; 15.7 hours {R-175}.
Pigs
10 weeks of age, weaned: 11.6 to 17.2 hours. {R-82}
Adult: 3.8 to 6.7 hours. {R-77; 83}
Adult, with pneumonia: 5.1 to 5.2 hours. {R-83}
Ponies—15 hours. {R-92}
Rabbits—1.3 hours. {R-86}
Trout, rainbow
Oncorhynchus mykiss: 60.3 hours. {R-89}
Salmo gairdneri: 89.5 hours. {R-90}
Turkeys—0.73 hour. {R-85}
Cats—2.5 hours. {R-75}
Chickens—2.8 hours. {R-73}
Dogs—1.6 to 2 hours. {R-75}
Pigs—16 hours. {R-74}
Rabbits—2 hours. {R-72}

Time to peak concentation/Peak serum concentration:

Calves (22 mg/kg dose)— Milk fed: 15.7 ± 0.33 hours to a peak serum concentration of 1.86 ± 0.54 mcg per mL (mcg/mL). {R-76}
Ruminant: 13.3 ± 2.67 hours to a peak serum concentration of 0.67 ± 0.24 mcg/mL. {R-76}
Turkeys—2.5 hours to a peak serum concentration of 0.6 mcg/mL (15 mg/kg dose). {R-80}
Doxycycline—Oral: Chickens—0.35 ± 0.02 hour to a peak serum concentration of 54.6 ± 2.4 mcg/mL (20 mg/kg dose). {R-64}
Horses— 1 hour to a peak serum concentration of 0.22 mcg/mL (3 mg/kg dose){R-131}.
1 h our to a peak serum concentration of 0.32 mcg/mL (dose of 10 mg/kg){R-131}.
Multiple dosing: Horses—2 hours postadministration to a serum concentration of 0.42 mcg/mL at 2 hours after the fifth dose
(five intragastric doses of 10 mg/kg administered at twelve
hour intervals ){R-131}.
Note: The MIC90 of doxycycline has been reported as =1
mcg/mL for Streptococcus zooepidemicus and 0.25
mcg/mL for Staphylococcus aureus in horses{R-131}.
Oxytetracycline— Oral: Pigs, weaned, 10 weeks of age— 30 hours after start of administration to a peak serum concentration of 0.2 ± 0.06 mcg/mL (dose of 400 parts
per million in feed for 3 days). {R-82}
2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. 1 to 5 hours to a peak serum concentration of 1.18 to 1.41 mcg/mL (20 mg per kg single dose). Conventional formulation— Calves, 14 weeks of age: 6 hours to a peak serum concentrat ion of 5.5 ± 1.25 mcg/mL (dose of 18
mg/kg in the neck). {R-95}
Catfish, African: 7 hours to a peak serum concentration of 43.4 mcg/mL (60 mg/kg dose). {R-90}
Cows: 6.7 hours to a peak serum concentration of 5.7 ± 2.39 mcg/mL (dose of 8 mg/kg in the neck). {R-95}
Pigs: 1.5 hours to a peak serum concentration of 6.7 ± 3.4 (dose of 20 mg/kg in the hindquarter). {R-107}
Trout, rainbow: 4 hours to a peak serum concentration of 56.9 mcg/mL (60 mg/kg dose). {R-90}
Long-acting formulation— Calves, nonruminating, 5 weeks of age: 1 to 1.5 hours to a peak serum concentration of 4 mcg/mL (dose of 20
mg/kg in the gluteal muscles). {R-99}
Calves, nonruminating, 6 weeks of age: 4.01 ± 2.84 hours to a peak serum concentration of 3.01 ± 0.72
mcg/mL (dose of 10 mg/kg in the hindquarter). {R-
100}

Calves, ruminating: 7.6 ± 4 hours to a peak serum concentration of 9.6 ± 2.6 mcg/mL (dose of 40
mg/kg in the hindquarter). {R-101}
Camels: 7.3 ± 3.5 hours to a peak serum concentration of 3.49 ± 0.44 mcg/mL (10 mg/kg dose). {R-88}
Cows: 5 to 10 hours to a peak serum concentration of 4.5 to 6.8 mcg/mL (dose of 10 mg/kg in the neck). {R-
97}

Pigs: 0.5 hour to a peak serum concentration of 6 ± 2.2 mcg/mL (dose of 20 mg/kg in the hindquarters). {R-
107}

Steers: 8 hours to a peak serum concentration of 3.13 mcg/mL (dose of 20 mg/kg in the hindquarters). {R-
98}

Tetracycline—Oral: Pigs—72 hours to a peak serum concentration of 0.6 mcg/mL (dose of 0.55 gram per kg of feed). {R-74}

Duration of action:
Note: Duration of action may be estimated by the time target serum
concentrations are maintained. Target concentrations are generally based on minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for each organism. While 0.5 mcg/mL has been considered the MIC of oxytetracycline for many pathogens in the past and research studies were based on that target, there are now many pathogens with MICs of 4 to 16 mcg/mL. Duration of action may be minimal or nonexistent for these isolates. Chlortetracycline— Pigs: When administered 110 mg chlortetracycline per kg of feed, fed as the only ration, therapeutic plasma or tissue
concentrations were not produced {R-155}.
Turkeys: A single oral dose of 15 mg/kg produces serum concentrations above 0.4 mcg/mL for 8 to 10 hours. {R-80}
Doxycycline—Dogs: An intravenous dose of 5 mg/kg produces serum concentrations above 2 mcg/mL for 8 hours. {R-63}
Oxytetracycline— Pigs—A single oral 50 mg/kg dose produces >0.5 mcg/mL serum concentrations for at least 8 hours. {R-109}
Pigs, after challenge with Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia — A single oral 50 mg/kg dose produces >0.5 mcg/mL
serum concentrations for at least 24 hours. {R-109}
Pigs—When administered 550 mg of oxytetracycline per kg of feed, fed as the only diet, plasma concentrations
peaked at 0.4 mcg/mL{R-107}.
Note: These results may vary by size of pig and amount of 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. Conventional formulation— Calves: A single dose of 18 mg/kg maintains serum concentrations > 1 mcg/mL for at least 32 hours. {R-
94}

Cows: A single dose of 20 mg/kg in the hindquarters maintains serum concentrations of > 0.5 mcg/mL for
52 hours {R-98}.
Pigs: A single dose of 20 mg/kg maintains serum concentrations > 0.5 mcg/mL for 28 to 36 hours. {R-
107; 174}

Long-acting formulation— Calves, milk fed: A single dose of 10 mg/kg maintains serum concentrations > 0.5 mcg/mL for 12 to 24
hours. {R-100}
Calves, ruminating: A single dose of 40 mg/kg maintains serum concentrations > 2 mcg/mL for 48 hours; {R-
101}
also lung concentrations produced are 2
mcg/mL at 48 hours. {R-101}
Camels: A single dose of 10 mg/kg maintains serum concentrations > 0.5 mcg/mL for 72 hours. {R-88}
A single dose of 10 mg/kg in the neck maintains > 0.5 mcg/mL serum concentrations for 48 to 70
hours and milk concentrations for 33 to 49
hours. {R-97}
A single dose of 20 mg/kg in the hindquarters maintains serum concentrations of > 0.5
mcg/mL for 86 hours.{R-98}
A single dose of 20 mg/kg in the gluteal muscles maintains serum concentrations > 4 mcg/mL for
12 hours; also lung concentrations are > 0.5
mcg/mL for 65 hours. {R-99}
Pigs: A single dose of 20 mg/kg produces serum concentrations > 0.5 mcg/mL for 35 to 48 hours {R-
107; 174}
; however, the use of the long-acting
formulation does not produce significantly different
plasma oxytetracycline concentrations from those
produced by the conventional formulation {R-107}.
Tetracycline—Pigs: A ration containing 0.55 gram of tetracycline hydrochloride per kg of feed, fed as the only ration, produces 0.3
to 0.4 mcg/mL serum concentrations for the 96 hours that it is
fed.{R-74}
Note: These results may vary by size of pig and amount of feed
Chlortetracycline—Total clearance: Calves, ruminating—2.70 ± 0.17 mL per minute per kg (mL/min/ kg). {R-76}
Pigs, fasted—2.75 ± 0.92 mL/min/kg. {R-77}
Pigs, fed—5.12 ± 0.88 mL/m in/kg. {R-77}
Turkeys—3.77 ± 0.77 mL/min/kg. {R-78}
Doxycycline—Doxycycline differs from the other tetracyclines in that a large percentage is excreted into the intestines and is inactive
there. {R-133}
Dogs: 90% of a single intravenous dose is eliminated within 48
hours in nonmetabolized form. Of the 90%, 16% is
eliminated in urine, <5% in the bile, and the remainder in the
intestines.{R-63}
Total clearance: Calves— Preruminant: 2.20 mL/min/kg. {R-68}
Ruminant: 1.07 mL/min/kg. {R-68}
Cats—1.09 ± 0.21 mL/min/kg. {R-70}
Dogs—1.7 mL/min/kg {R-63; 70}.
Pigs—1.67 ± 0.18 mL/min/kg. {R-69}
Oxytetracycline—Calves, cows, dogs, pigs, and turkeys: The conventional formulation of oxytetracycline is eliminated
primarily by glomerular filtration; only a small amount (1 to 2%
in pigs and turkeys) is eliminated in the bile. {R-63; 82; 85; 93;
2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. 97}
Total clearance:
Oxytetracycline— Buffalo: 1.02 to 1.45 mL/min/kg. {R-87}
Calves, 6 to 8 weeks of age: 1.66 to 1.88 {R-93}; 2.67 to
4.67 mL/min/kg. {R-100}
Camels: 1.26 mL/min/kg {R-88}.
Dogs: 4.23 ± 1.29 mL/min/kg. {R-84}
Donkeys: 1.52 mL/min/kg. {R-92}
Foals, 4 to 5 days of age: 3.17 mL/min/kg {R-154}.
Goats: 2.67 mL/min/kg. {R-81}
Horses: 0.66 mL/min/kg. {R-92}
Pigs, 10 weeks of age: 4.17 mL/min/kg. {R-82}
Pigs, adult: 3.5 mL/min/kg. {R-83}
Ponies: 1.01 mL/min/kg. {R-92}
Rabbits: 7.23 mL/min/kg. {R-86}
Rats: 2.79 mL/min/kg. {R-91}
Tetracycline—Total clearance: Chickens—1.63 ± 0.18 mL/min/kg. {R-73}
Pigs—3.08 ± 0.4 mL/min/kg. {R-74}
Rabbits—6.1 ± 0.6 mL/min/kg. {R-72}

Precautions to Consider
Species sensitivity
All species: Rapid intravenous administration of tetracyclines can result in
cardiovascular dysfunction and collapse in any species {R-33-35;
169}
. Some studies have linked the cardiovascular effects of
intravenous administ ration in calves to the propylene glycol vehicle in
some preparations {R-33; 170}; however, adverse cardiovascular
effects and collapse have been shown to occur after intravenous
administration of tetracycline without propylene glycol vehicle {R-
34}
; the electrocardiographic abnormalities may be due to chelation of
free calcium ions {R-34}. Tetracyclines ideally should be diluted in
fluids and administered slowly if given by the intravenous route {R-
176}
. If this is not possible, intravenous injections should be made as
a slow push, with the dose administered over 1 to 2 minutes.
Horses: While rapid intravenous administration of tetracyclines causes reactions in many species, doxycycline in particular can lead to severe
cardiovascular dysfunction and death when administered
intravenously at any rate to horses. {R-35}
Administration of tetracyclines can also lead to severe diarrhea in some horses. However, oral, multiple-dose administration of
doxycycline to horses without observed side effects has been
reported{R-131}.

Pregnancy/Reproduction
Tetracyclines have been shown to cross the placenta {R-22} and may
affect fetal bone formation. {R-135}

Lactation
Tetracyclines are distributed into milk.

Pediatrics
Use of tetracyclines during tooth development (the last 2 to 3 weeks of
pregnancy to 1 month of age) {R-22} may cause discoloration of the
bones and teeth{R-4}. In neonates that have not yet developed full
renal function, excretion of chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and
tetracycline may occur more slowly than in a mature animal. One
exception is that 4-day-old foals have a faster elimination half-life and
more rapid clearance of oxytetracycline compared to adults {R-154}.

Drug interactions and/or related problems
The following drug interactions and/or related problems have been
selected on the basis of their potential clinical significance (possible mechanism in parentheses where appropriate)—not necessarily inclusive (» = major clinical significance): Note: Although methoxyflurane has been suspected of increasing the potential for tetracycline-induced nephrotoxicity in people, this has
not been shown to be true in dogs. {R-137}
2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. Combinations containing any of the following medications, depending on the amount present, may also interact wit h this medication. » Antacids or » Calcium supplements, such as calcium carbonate, or » Iron supplements or » Magnesium-containing laxatives or Sodium bicarbonate (concurrent use with tetracyclines may result in formation of non-absorbable complexes; also, concurrent use within 1 to 3 hours of antacid or sodium bicarbonate administration may result in decreased absorption of oral tetracyclines because of increased intragastric pH) Phenobarbital or Microsomal enzyme inducers, other (concurrent use with doxycycline may result in decreased doxycycline serum concentrations due to induction of microsomal enzyme activity; adjustment of doxycycline dosage or substitution of another tetracycline may be necessary) (blood concentrations of chlortetracycline are increased when it is
administered concurrently with tereftalic acid {R-156})

Human drug interactions and/or related problems{R-132}
In addition to the above drug interactions reported in animals, the
following drug interactions have been reported in humans, and are included in the human monograph Tetracyclines (Systemic) in USP DI Volume I; these drug interactions are intended for informational purposes only and may or may not be applicable to the use of tetracyclines in the treatment of animals: Cholestyramine (concurrent use with cholestyramine may result in binding of oral tetracyclines, thus impairing their absorption; an interval of several hours between administration of cholestyramine and oral tetracyclines is recommended) (concurrent use with tetracycline has been reported to cause benign intracranial hypertension)
Laboratory value alterations
The following have been selected on the basis of their potential clinical
significance (possible effect in parentheses where appropriate)—not necessarily inclusive (» = major clinical significance): With physiology/laboratory test values (transient hemoglobinuria has been reported in cattle given
parenteral oxytetracycline) {R-38; 45; 56}

Human laboratory value alterations {R-132}
The following laboratory value alterations have been reported in humans,
and are included in the human monograph Tetracyclines (Systemic) in USP DI Volume I; these laboratory value alterations are intended for informational purposes only and may or may not be applicable to the use of tetracyclines in the treatment of animals: With diagnostic test results Catecholamine determinations, urine (may produce false elevations of urinary catecholamines because of interfering fluorescence) With physiology/laboratory test values Alanine aminotransferase (ALT [SGPT]) and Alkaline phosphatase and Amylase and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST [SGOT]) and Bilirubin (serum concentrations may be increased) Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (antianabolic effect of tetracyclines [except doxycycline] may increase BUN concentrations; in patients with significantly impaired renal function, increased serum concentrations of tetracyclines may lead to azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, and 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. Medical considerations/Contraindications
The medical considerations/contraindications included have been selected
on the basis of their potential clinical significance (reasons given in parentheses where appropriate)—not necessarily inclusive (» = major clinical significance).
Risk-benefit should be considered when the following medical problem
exists:
Renal function impairment, severe
(chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline are
eliminated primarily by the kidney and can accumulate in animals
with severe renal dysfunct ion; doxycycline is only partially
eliminated renally and is much less likely to accumulate {R-71})

Patient monitoring
The following may be especially important in patient monitoring (other
tests may be warranted in some patients, depending on condition; » = major clinical significance): Culture and susceptibility, in vitro , and Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (in vitro cultures and MIC test should be done on samples collected prior to administration of tetracyclines to determine pathogen susceptibility)
Side/Adverse Effects
The following side/adverse effects have been selected on the basis of their
potential clinical significance (possible signs and, for humans, symptoms in parentheses where appropriate)—not necessarily inclusive: Those indicating need for medical attention
Incidence rare
All species
Hypersensitivity reactions, specifically anaphylaxis {R-32; 45}
(defecation; eruption of skin plaques; frothing from the mouth;
glassy-eyed appearance; labored breathing; muscle trembling;
piloerection; prostration; restlessness; swelling of eyelids, ears,
muzzle, anus, vulva or scrotum and sheath) {R-45};
photosensitization {R-39}
Cattle, dogs, and horses Nephrotoxicosis {R-29-31; 112; 168}—with high doses, concurrent
debilitating conditions, or use of outdated tetracyclines
Incidence unknown All species Overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms
Cats, cattle, dogs, horses, monkeys, rabbits, rats, and sheep {R-33-35}
Cardiovascular dysfunction, including atrioventricular block, atrial
tachycardia, ventricula r bradycardia, hypotension
(in order of
appearance—agitation or nervousness, dyspnea, muscle
fasciculations, urination, defecation, collapse, death)—a dose-
dependent effect {R-34} with rapid intravenous administration;
cardiovascular dysfunction, including hypertension, arterial
{R-
35}—
in horses given doxycycline
Note: Although the propylene glycol vehicle of some oxytetracycline
preparations has been shown to have some cardiovascular
effects when administered intravenously {R-33}, the calcium-
binding nature of the tetracyclines has been implicated in
cardiovascular dysfunction and sudden collapse in cattle and
sheep after intravenous administration of tetracyclines. {R-34;
35}
Although pretreatment with calcium borogluconate has been
considered before intravenous administration {R-34}, specific
postreaction therapy for possible hypocalcemia has not been
recommended.
In horses, doses of doxycycline as low as 0.2 to 0.4 mg per kg of body weight administered intravenously have caused cardiovascular dysfunction, collapse, and death. Instead of hypotension, hypertension is reported in horses given intravenous doxycycline and is associated with the other signs 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. of cardiovascular dysfunction seen with rapid intravenous tetracycline administration in other species. Fever (anorexia, sometimes diarrhea)—usually resolves within 48
hours of discontinuing oxytetracycline or tetracycline {R-39}
Hemoglobinuria, transient {R-38; 45; 56} (brownish -red urine)—
with parenteral administration of oxytetracycline; hepatitis with fatty
degeneration and/or bile stasis
{R-168}with repeated high doses or
concurrent debilitating conditions
Colitis; diarrhea, severe
Psittacine birds (cockatoos, macaws, and parrots) Aspergillosis, increased risk of—may occur with prolonged
chlortetracycline treatment {R-152}
Anorexia; diarrhea—with doses administered that are two times the
recommended dose {R-86}

Those indicating need for medical attention only if they continue or

are bothersome
Incidence more frequent All species Discoloration of teeth in young animals (yellow, brown, or grey
discoloration)—when administered during late pregnancy or during
period of tooth development {R-39}; local tissue irritation at site of
injection—
with intramuscular administration {R-37; 101}
Cats and dogs Nausea or vomiting—with oral administration {R-39}, in particular,
with doxycycline on an empty stomach {R-156}

Human side/adverse effects {R-132}
In addition to the above side/adverse effects reported in animals, the
following side/adverse effects have been reported in humans, and are included in the human monograph Tetracyclines (Systemic) in USP DI Volume I; these side/adverse effects are intended for informational purposes only and may or may not be applicable to the use of tetracyclines in the treatment of animals: Incidence more frequent Central nervous system toxicity; staining of infants' or
children's teeth; gastrointestinal disturbances; photosensitivity

Incidence less frequent Fungal overgrowth; hypertrophy of the papillae; nephrogenic
diabetes insipidus; pigmentation of skin and mucous
membranes

Benign intracranial hypertension; hepatotoxicity; pancreatitis
Note: Tetracycline-induced hepatotoxicity is usually seen as a
fatty degeneration of the liver. It is more likely to occur in pregnant women, in patients receiving high-dose intravenous therapy, and in patients with renal function impairment. However, hepatotoxicity has also occurred in patients without these predisposing conditions. Tetracycline-induced pancreatitis has also been described in association with hepatotoxicity, and without associated liver disease.
Overdose
For more information in cases of overdose or unintentional ingestion,
contact the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to
Animals (ASPCA) National Animal Poison Control Center
(888-
426-4435 or 900-443-0000; a fee may be required for consultation)
and/or the drug manufacturer.
Overdose of tetracyclines in animals is unusual because very high doses are often tolerated; however, effects that have been associated with overdose in animals include nephrotoxicosis and possible hepatotoxicity. Acute toxicity of intravenously-administered tetracyclines {R-33; 34} in
many species is most often seen with rapid administration; however, 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. intravenous doxycycline administration in horses has caused collapse even when administered over a 3- to 7-minute period. This reaction to intravenous tetracyclines is dose-dependent, but is not only associated with high doses. Administration of repeated high doses of intravenous or intramuscular oxytetracycline to calves or cattle can result in renal cortical tubular
nephrosis. While a single intramuscular dose of 40 mg of an
oxytetracycline per kg (in a 2-pyrrolidine formulation) administered
to healthy calves produced no significant toxicity {R-101}, studies
have shown that 33 to 44 mg of oxytetracycline per kg of body weight
a day administered intravenously or intramuscularly for 2 or more
days can produce renal protein casts, tubular necrosis, and death in
calves with respiratory disease {R-30; 168}. A similar dose of 33 mg
oxytetracycline per kg of body weight administered intravenously for
3 days produces a rise in blood urea nitrogen and the appearance of
renal casts in the urine of normal heifers {R-167}. The vehicles used
in formulations, such as propylene glycol, have been linked to
reduced renal blood flow and have been suspected of exacerbating
adverse effects {R-29; 33}. Tetracycline and its degradation products
have been reported to also cause nephrotoxicity in cattle and foals {R-
29; 112}
. Serious toxicity can be expected to be more likely in
animals that are already compromised by disease or dehydration.
Hepatotoxicity has been reported as a human side effect of tetracyclines and may be more common in pregnant women {R-167}. Hepatic fatty
degeneration has been observed in people and has been induced in
mice and rats given extremely high doses (100 to 300 mg of
tetracycline per kg of body weight); however, fatty infiltration of the
liver was also observed in calves that had respiratory disease and that
developed renal tubular necrosis after administration of two doses of
33 mg of oxytetracycline per kg of body weight 24 hours apart {R-
168}
.

Veterinary Dosing Information
For oral dosage forms only
For some tetracyclines, serum concentrations from animal to animal vary
more widely when administered in drinking water than when
administered in feed. {R-59}
Unlike other tetracyclines, doxycycline can be used without dosage adjustment in animals with renal function impairment.
For parenteral dosage forms only
Care should be taken to administer intravenous tetracyclines slowly and/
or dilute them in fluids to avoid cardiovascular side effects. {R-33-
35}

Intramuscular injection of oxytetracycline will affect the quality of meat for a prolonged period. Whenever possible, subcutaneous
administration should be chosen{R-65}.

Diet/Nutrition
Oral tetracyclines are absorbed more efficiently when administered
without food, particularly without foods containing divalent or trivalent metals, such as milk or milk replacer. Doxycycline absorption appears to be less affected than other tetracyclines.
For treatment of adverse effects
Recommended treatment consists of the following:
For anaphylaxis
• Parenteral epinephrine. • Oxygen administration and respiratory support.
For treatment of acute reactions to intravenous administration
Recommended treatment consists of the following:
• Intravenous fluids. • Oxygen administration and respiratory support. Note: Because the specific causes of acute reactions may be difficult to immediately determine, an electrocardiogram should be monitored when possible to identify cardiac arrythmias and direct the course of therapy. 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved.
Additional Dosing Information
When possible, oral chlortetracycline should be administered 1 hour
before or 2 hours after milk replacer. {R-1}

Mucosal Dosage Forms
Note: Bracketed information in the Dosage Forms section refers to uses
that either are not included in U.S. product labeling or are for products not commercially available in the U.S.
CHLORTETRACYCLINE UTERINE TABLETS
Usual dose:
Note: [Cattle]—Although the efficacy and safety are not currently
established, an intrauterine dose of 500 to 1000 mg administered as
a single dose after parturition {R-118} for the treatment of acute
uterine infections
is included in Canadian product labeling.
[Ewes] and [sows]—Although the efficacy and safety are not currently established, an intrauterine dose of 250 to 500 mg
administered as a single dose after parturition {R-118} for the
treatment of acute uterine infections is included in Canadian product
labeling.

Strength(s) usually available {R-58}:

Veterinary-labeled products: Not commercially available. Veterinary-labeled products: 500 mg (OTC) [Aureomycin Uterine Oblets].
Withdrawal times:
Cattle, pigs, sheep
Packaging and storage: Store below 40 °C (104 °F), preferably
between 15 and 30 °C (59 and 86 °F), unless otherwise specified by manufacturer.
USP requirements:
Not in USP.

Oral Dosage Forms
Note: Bracketed information in the Dosage Forms section refers to uses
that either are not included in U.S. product labeling or are for products not commercially available in the U.S.
CHLORTETRACYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE SOLUBLE

POWDER USP
Usual dose:
Calves1 and pigs1— Bacterial enteritis; or Bacterial pneumonia: Oral, 22 mg per kg of body weight a day, administered in the only source of drinking water. {R-17}
Chronic respiratory disease: Oral, 400 to 800 mg per gallon of water {R-17} (approximately 22 to 59 mg per kg of body
weight a day {R-143}), administered in the only source of
drinking water. {R-17}
Fowl cholera: Oral, 1000 mg (1 gram) per gallon of water, administered in the only source of drinking water. {R-17}
Synovitis: Oral, 200 to 400 mg per gallon of water (approximately 11 to 29.5 mg per kg of body weight a day), 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. administered in the only source of drinking water. {R-17;
143}

Turkeys, growing1— Enteritis: Oral, 55 mg per kg of body weight a day, administered in the only source of drinking water. {R-17}
Infectious synovitis: Oral, 400 mg per gallon of water (approximately 7 to 37 mg per kg of body weight a day),
administered in the only source of drinking water. {R-143}
Note: Environmental and health conditions may affect the intake of water and the amount of medication consumed. {R-17}
Administration of medication in food or water to animals with pneumonia or other infections can be affected by reduced feed and
water intake {R-109}.

Strength(s) usually available {R-58}:

U.S.— {R-17}
Veterinary-labeled products: 25 grams per pound of powder (OTC) [Aureomycin Soluble 64 grams per pound of powder (OTC) [AmTech Chlortetracycline HCL Soluble Powder; Aureomycin Soluble Powder Concentrate; CTC Soluble Powder Concentrate; Pennchlor 64 Soluble Powder]. Veterinary-labeled products: Not commercially available.
Withdrawal times:
Note: With chlortetracycline soluble powder, withdrawal times vary
greatly from product to product and may differ from those listed below. See also individual manufacturer's labeling. U.S.— {R-17; 58}
Calves, chickens, and 1 or 5, depending on Note: Product labeling with the above withdrawal time listed for poultry states that it applies when the medication is mixed at 1000 mg of chlortetracycline per gallon of drinking water. Product labeling with the above withdrawal times states that they apply when cattle and pigs are treated for a maximum of five days and chickens and turkeys are treated for a maximum of fourteen days. Not labeled for use in laying hens, preruminating calves, or lactating dairy cattle. Packaging and storage: Store below 40 °C (104 °F), preferably
between 15 and 30 °C (59 and 86 °F), in a tight container, unless otherwise specified by manufacturer. Protect from light.
Preparation of dosage form:
Fresh solutions should be prepared every
24 hours. When administered in a galvanized waterer, fresh solutions should be prepared every 12 hours.
Incompatibilities:
Administration 1 hour before or 2 hours after giving
milk or milk replacers is recommended. Chlortetracycline hydrochloride soluble powder should not be mixed with milk replacers.
USP requirements:
Preserve in tight containers, protected from light.
Label it to indicate that it is intended for oral veterinary use only.
Contains the labeled amount, within –10% to +25%. Meets the
requirement for Loss on drying (not more than 2.0%). {R-128}

CHLORTETRACYCLINE FOR MEDICATED FEED

2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. Usual dose:
Calves— Improved feed efficiency and increased weight gain for calves weighing up to 250 pounds1: Oral, 0.22 mg per kg of body
weight a day administered in the feed, fed as the only
ration.{R-16; 152}
Improved feed efficiency and increased weight gain for calves weighing 250 to 400 pounds1: Oral, 25 to 70 mg per animal a
day administered in the feed, fed as the only ration. {R-16;
152}

Enteritis: Oral, 22 mg per kg of body weight a day, administered in the feed and fed as the only ration {R-152}.
Note: Products made to add to calf milk replacer are indicated for treatment of bacterial enteritis and for improved feed efficiency and increased weight gain only. Cattle— Anaplasmosis (treatment)1: Cattle weighing < 700 pounds—Oral, 350 mg per animal a day, administered in the feed and fed as the only ration
{R-16; 152}.
Cattle weighing = 700 pounds—Oral 1.1 mg per kg of body weight a day, administered in the feed and fed as the only
ration{R-152}.
Bacterial enteritis1; or bacterial pneumonia (treatment)1: Oral, 22 mg per kg of body weight a day, administered in the feed and
fed as the only ration {R-152}.
Bacterial pneumonia (control)1: Oral, 350 mg per animal a day administered in the feed, fed as the only ration. {R-16; 152}
Improved feed efficiency and increased rate of weight gain1; or hepatic abscesses (prophylaxis)1: Oral, 70 mg a day per
animal administered in the feed, fed as the only ration. {R-
16; 152}

[Pododermatitis (prophylaxis)]: Oral, 0.22 mg per kg of body weight a day or 70 mg per animal a day, administered in the
feed and fed as the only ration {R-116}.
Chickens— Chronic respiratory disease: Oral, 200 to 400 grams per ton of feed, fed as the only ration. {R-16; 152}
Escherichia coli infections1: Oral, 500 grams per ton of feed, fed as the only ration. {R-16; 115}
Improved feed efficiency and increased rate of weight gain: Oral, 10 to 50 grams per ton of feed, fed as the only ration. {R-
152}

Synovitis1: Oral, 100 to 200 grams per ton of feed, fed as the only ration {R-152}.
[Enteritis; or increased egg production or hatchability]: Oral, 100 to 200 grams per ton of feed (110 to 220 grams per metric ton [1000 kg] of feed), fed as the only ration. Note: Canadian product labeling also lists the above dose for feed efficiency. Cockatoos, macaws, and parrots—Psittacosis1: Oral, 10 mg per gram of mash or feed, administered continuously for 45 days as the
only ration {R-152}.
Ducks1—Fowl cholera: Oral, 200 to 400 grams per ton of feed (approximately 17.6 to 61.6 mg per kg of body weight a day)
administered in the feed, fed as the only ration. {R-16; 152}
Cervical abscesses (prophylaxis)1: Oral, 50 to 100 grams per ton of feed, fed as the only ration. {R-115}
Bacterial enteritis; or bacterial pneumonia1: Oral, 22 mg per kg of body weight a day, administered in the only ration {R-152}.
Improved feed efficiency and increased rate of weight gain: Oral, 10 to 50 grams per ton of feed, fed as the only ration. {R-
152}

For reducing the shedding of leptospirosis and the incidence of associated abortion1: Oral, 400 grams per ton of feed, fed as
the only ration for fourteen days. {R-152}
Note: Canadian product labeling lists a dose in the treatment of enteritis and for increasing feed efficiency and improving weight gain of 50 to 100 grams per ton of feed (55 to 110 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. grams per metric ton [1000 kg] of feed), fed as the only
ration {R-116}.
Sheep—Vibrionic abortion (prophylaxis) 1: Oral, 80 mg per animal a day administered in the feed, fed as the only ration continuously
during pregnancy. {R-16; 152}
Sheep, growing1—Improved feed efficiency and increased rate of weight gain1: Oral, 20 to 50 grams per ton of feed, fed as the only
ration. {R-16}
Turkeys— Bacterial enteritis: Oral, 55 mg per kg of body weight a day, administered in the only ration {R-16; 152}.
Note: Canadian product labeling lists a dose in the treatment
of enteritis of 100 to 200 grams per ton of feed (110 to
220 grams per metric ton [1000 kg] of feed), fed as the
only ration {R-116}.
Hexamitiasis1: Oral, 400 grams per ton of feed, fed as the only ration {R-16; 152}.
Synovitis1: Oral, 200 grams per ton of feed, fed as the only ration{R-16; 152}.
[Increased egg production; or sinusitis (prophylaxis)]: Oral, 100 to 200 grams per ton of feed (110 to 220 grams per metric ton [1000 kg] of feed), fed as the only ration. Turkeys, growing, less than 4 weeks of age—Paratyphoid1: Oral, 400 grams per ton of feed, fed as the only ration. {R-115}
Turkeys, growing—Improved efficiency or; increased rate of weight gain: Oral 10 to 50 grams per ton of feed, fed as the only ration
{R-16; 152}.
[Lambs]—Enterotoxemia: Oral, 20 grams per ton of feed (22 grams per metric ton [1000 kg] of feed), fed as the only ration. Note: Environmental and health conditions may affect the intake of water and the amount of medication consumed. {R-17}
Administration of medication in food or water to animals with pneumonia or other infections can be affected by reduced feed and
water intake {R-109}.

Strength(s) usually available {R-58}:

Veterinary-labeled products: 110 grams per kg of premix (OTC) [Aureomycin 50 Granular; ChlorMax 50; CTC 50; Pennchlor 50•G; Pennchlor 50 Meal]. 154 grams per kg of premix (OTC) [Pennchlor 70 Meal]. 198 grams per kg of premix (OTC) [Aureomycin 90 Granular; Pennchlor 90•G]. 220 grams per kg of premix (OTC) [Aureomycin 100 Granular; CLTC 100 MR; Pennchlor 100 Hi-Flo Meal; Pennchlor 100MR]. Veterinary-labeled products: 110 grams per kg of premix (OTC) [Aureomycin 110G; Chlor 50; Chlorosol-50]. 220 grams per kg of premix (OTC) [Aureomycin 220G; Chlor 100].
Withdrawal times {R-58}:
Note: With chlortetracycline oral premix, withdrawal times vary greatly
from product to product and may differ from those listed below. See also individual manufacturer's labeling. U.S.— {R-123}
Calves, cattle 0, 1, or 2, depending on product and dose 0 or 1, depending on product and dose Pigs, sheep, turkeys Note: Product labeling listing the above withdrawal times states that 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. they apply when product is fed to calves at a dose of up to 70
mg per animal a day, and to cattle at a dose of 350 mg per
animal a day or 1.1 mg per kg of body weight a day in feed, to
chickens at 500 grams or more per ton of feed for a maximum
of five days, to pigs at 400 grams or less per ton of feed or 22
mg per kg of body weight a day for up to fourteen days, and to
sheep when fed 80 mg per animal a day or 20 to 50 grams per
ton of feed.
Not labeled for use in preruminating calves, lactating dairy
cows, or horses to be used for food. {R-16}
Some products are not labeled for use in chickens, ducks, or
turkeys producing eggs for human consumption. {R-152}
When fed at 22 mg per kg of body weight a day: Calves, cattle 0 or 10, depending on Note: Not labeled for use in lactating dairy cows. {R-16}
Calves, cattle Chickens, pigs, turkeys Note: Product labeling listing the above withdrawal times states that they apply when the product is fed to chickens and turkeys at 55 to 220 mg per kg of feed, to pigs at 55 to 110 mg per kg of feed, to calves at 55 mg per kg of feed, to lambs at 22 mg per kg of feed, and to cattle at 0.22 mg per kg of body weight or 70 mg per animal. Not labeled for use in lactating diary cows.
Packaging and storage:
Store below 40 °C (104 °F), preferably
between 15 and 30 °C (59 and 86 °F), unless otherwise specified by manufacturer.
USP requirements:
Not in USP.
1Not included in Canadian product labeling or product not commercially available in Canada.
Summary of Differences
Pharmacology/pharmacokinetics: More completely absorbed from the
gastrointestinal tract than the tetracyclines developed earlier and
absorption is less likely to be affected by food or calcium or other
divalent or trivalent metals. Doxycycline is also more lipid-soluble
than other tetracyclines. In dogs, doxycycline is eliminated primarily
through intestinal excretion. {R-63}
Precautions: Medical considerations—Doxycycline is only partially eliminat ed renally and is less likely to accumulate in animals with renal function impairment; it can be used without dosage adjustment. Side/adverse effects: Horses—Intravenous administration can lead to cardiovascular dysfunction and death. {R-34}

Oral Dosage Forms
Note: Bracketed information in the Dosage Forms section refers to uses
that either are not included in U.S. product labeling or are for products not commercially available in the U.S. The dosing and strengths of the dosage forms available are 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. expressed in terms of doxycycline base.
DOXYCYCLINE FOR ORAL SUSPENSION USP
Usual dose:
[Rocky Mountain spotted fever]1—Dogs: Oral, 5 mg per kg
of body weight every twelve hours {R-151} for fourteen days.
Note: [Cats]1—Although the efficacy has not been established, an oral
dose of 5 mg per kg of body weight every twelve hours for
twenty-one days has been used in the treatment of feline
infectious anemia
{R-147; 151}. For chlamydial infections or
respiratory infections in cats, a dose of 5 mg per kg of body
weight every twelve hours or 10 mg per kg of body weight
every twenty-four hours has been used {R-151}.
[Dogs]1—Although the efficacy has not been established, an
oral dose of 10 mg per kg of body weight every twelve hours for
two to three weeks has been used for the treatment of
ehrlichiosis; this regimen is based on a clinical trial that found,
however, that only two out of five dogs treated with the above
dose and a twenty-four-hour dosing interval for one week were
cleared of Ehrlichia canis, as shown by negative blood and
tissue cultures {R-40}. A dose of 5 mg per kg of body weight
every twelve hours for six to eight weeks has been used in the
treatment of ehrlichiosis to decrease the risk of side effects {R-
176}
; however, the efficacy of this regimen has not been
confirmed. Retesting serum immunoflourescent antibody for E.
canis
two months posttreatment is recommended, and
retreatment should be started if values have not dropped
significantly. {R-40}

Strength(s) usually available:

Veterinary-labeled products: Not commercially available. Human-labeled products: 5 mg (base) per mL, when reconstituted according to manufacturer's instructions (Rx) [Vibramycin ]. Veterinary-labeled products: Not commercially available. Human-labeled product s: Not commercially available.
Packaging and storage:
Prior to reconstitution, store below 40 °C (104
°F), preferably between 15 and 30 °C (59 and 86 °F), unless otherwise specified by manufacturer. Store in a tight, light-resistant container.
Stability:
After reconstitution, suspensions retain their potency for 14
days at room temperature.
Auxiliary labeling:
• Shake well.

USP requirements:
Preserve in tight, light-resistant containers.
Contains one or more suitable buffers, colors, diluents, flavors, and
preservatives. Contains the labeled amount, within –10% to +25%
when constituted as directed. Meets the requirements for
Identification, Uniformity of dosage units (single-unit containers),
Deliverable volume, pH (5.0–6.5, in the suspension constituted as
directed in the labeling), and Water (not more than 3.0%). {R-128}

DOXYCYCLINE CALCIUM ORAL SUSPENSION USP
Usual dose:
See Doxycycline for Oral Suspension USP.

Strength(s) usually available:

Veterinary-labeled products: Not commercially available. Human-labeled products: 10 mg (base) per mL (Rx) [Vibramycin]. 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. Veterinary-labeled products: Not commercially available. Human-labeled products: Not commercially available.
Packaging and storage:
Store below 40 °C (104 °F), preferably
between 15 and 30 °C (59 and 86 °F), unless otherwise specified by manufacturer. Store in a tight, light-resistant container. Protect from freezing.
Auxiliary labeling:
• Shake well.

USP requirements:
Preserve in tight, light-resistant containers.
Prepared from Doxycycline Hyclate, and contains one or more
suitable buffers, colors, diluents, flavors, and preservatives. Contains
an amount of doxycycline calcium equivalent to the labeled amount
of doxycycline, within –10% to +25%. Meets the requirements for
Identification, Uniformity of dosage units (single-unit containers),
Deliverable volume, and pH (6.5–8.0). {R-128}

DOXYCYCLINE HYCLATE CAPSULES USP
Usual dose:
See Doxycycline for Oral Suspension USP.

Strength(s) usually available:

U.S.— {R-135}
Veterinary-labeled products: Not commercially available. Human-labeled products: 50 mg (base) (Rx) [Vibramycin; GENERIC]. 100 mg (base) (Rx) [Vibramycin; GENERIC]. Veterinary-labeled products: Not commercially available. Human-labeled products: 100 mg (base) (Rx) [Alti-Doxycycline; Apo-Doxy; Doxycin; Doxytec (lactose); Novo-Doxylin; Nu -Doxycycline; Vibramycin].
Packaging and storage:
Store below 40 °C (104 °F), preferably
between 15 and 30 °C (59 and 86 °F), unless otherwise specified by manufacturer. Store in a t ight, light-resistant container.
USP requirements:
Preserve in tight, light-resistant containers. Contain
an amount of doxycycline hyclate equivalent to the labeled amount of
doxycycline, within –10% to +20%. Meet the requirements for
Identification, Dissolution (80% in 30 minutes in water in Apparatus
2 at 75 rpm), Uniformity of dosage units, and Water (not more than
8.5%).{R-128}

DOXYCYCLINE HYCLATE DELAYED-RELEASE

CAPSULES USP
Note: Delayed-release capsules must be swallowed whole and, in general, absorption of delayed-release dosage forms is unpredictable in animals. Doxycycline Hyclate Delayed-release Capsules USP are not recommended for use in animals.
Strength(s) usually available:

Veterinary-labeled products: Not commercially available. Human-labeled products: 100 mg (base) (Rx) [Doryx (lactose)]. Veterinary-labeled products: Not commercially available. Human-labeled products: Not commercially available. 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. Packaging and storage: Store below 40 °C (104 °F), preferably
between 15 and 30 °C (59 and 86 °F), unless otherwise specified by manufacturer. Store in a tight, light-resistant container.
USP requirements:
Preserve in tight, light-resistant containers. The
label indicates that the contents of the Capsules are enteric-coated.
Contain an amount of doxycycline hyclate equivalent to the labeled
amount of doxycycline, within –10% to +20%. Meet the requirements
for Identification, Drug release (Acid stage: 50% [Level 1 and Level
2] in 20 minutes in 0.06 N hydrochloric acid in Apparatus 1 at 50
rpm; Buffer stage: 85% in 30 minutes in neutralized phthalate buffer
[pH 5.5] in Apparatus 1 at 50 rpm), Uniformity of dosage units, and
Water (not more than 5.0%). {R-128}

DOXYCYCLINE HYCLATE TABLETS USP
Usual dose:
See Doxycycline for Oral Suspension USP.

Strength(s) usually available:

U.S.— {R-135}
Veterinary-labeled products: Not commercially available. Human-labeled products: 100 mg (base) (Rx) [Vibra-Tabs; GENERIC]. Veterinary-labeled products: Not commercially available. Human-labeled products: 100 mg (base) (Rx) [Alti-Doxycycline; Apo-Doxy-Tabs; Doxycin; Novo-Doxylin; Nu -Doxycycline; Vibra -Tabs; Vibra-Tabs C-Pak].
Packaging and storage:
Store below 40 °C (104 °F), preferably
between 15 and 30 °C (59 and 86 °F), unless otherwise specified by manufacturer. Store in a tight, light-resistant container.
USP requirements:
Preserve in tight, light-resistant containers. Contain
an amount of doxycycline hyclate equivalent to the labeled amount of
doxycycline, within –10% to +20%. Meet the requirements for
Identification, Dissolution (85% in 90 minutes in water in Apparatus
2 at 75 rpm), Uniformity of dosage units, and Water (not more than
5.0%).{R-128}
1Not included in Canadian product labeling or product not commercially available in Canada.

Parenteral Dosage Forms
Note: Bracketed information in the Dosage Forms section refers to uses
that either are not included in U.S. product labeling or are for products not commercially available in the U.S. The dosing and strengths of the dosage forms available are expressed in terms of doxycycline base (not the hyclate salt).
DOXYCYCLINE FOR INJECTION USP
Usual dose:

Note: [Dogs]1Although the efficacy has not been established, an intravenous dose of 3 to 5 mg (base) per kg of body weight
every twelve hours has been used in the treatment of susceptible
bacterial infections. {R-70}
This dose is based on pharmacokinetic studies.
Size(s) usually available:

Veterinary-labeled products: Not commercially available. Human-labeled products: 100 mg (base) (Rx) [Vibramycin ]. 200 mg (base) (Rx) [Vibramycin ]. 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. Veterinary-labeled products: Not commercially available. Human-labeled products: Not commercially available.
Packaging and storage:
Prior to reconstitution, store below 40 °C (104
°F), preferably between 15 and 30 °C (59 and 86 °F), unless otherwise specified by manufacturer. Protect from light.
Preparation of dosage form:
To prepare initial dilution for intravenous
use, 10 mL of sterile water for injection or other suitable diluent (see manufacturer's package insert) should be added to each 100-mg vial or 20 mL of diluent should be added to each 200-mg vial. The resulting solution containing the equivalent of 100 to 200 mg of doxycycline may be further diluted in 100 to 1000 mL or in 200 to 2000 mL of suitable diluent, respectively.
Stability:

After reconstitution, intravenous infusions of doxycycline hyclate retain their potency for twelve hours at room temperature or for seventy-two hours if refrigerated at concentrations of 100 mcg (0.1 mg) to 1 mg per mL in suitable fluids (see manufacturer's package insert). Intravenous infusions of doxycycline hyclate retain their potency for six hours at room temperature at concentrations of 100 mcg (0.1 mg) to 1 mg per mL in lactated Ringer's injection or 5% dextrose and lactated Ringer's injection. Infusions must be protected from direct sunlight during administration. If frozen immediately after reconstitution with sterile water for injection, solutions at concentrations of 10 mg per mL retain their potency for up to eight weeks at –20 °C (–4 °F). Once thawed, solutions should not be refrozen.
Additional information:

Concentrations of less than 100 mcg (0.1 mg) per mL or greater than 1 mg per mL are not recommended. Infusions may be administered over a one- to four-hour period. Rapid administration should be avoided. Intramuscular or subcutaneous administration is not recommended.
USP requirements:
Preserve in Containers for Sterile Solids, protected
from light. Contains an amount of doxycycline hyclate equivalent to
the labeled amount of doxycycline, within –10% to +20%. Meets the
requirements for Constituted solution, Identification, Bacterial
endotoxins, Sterility, pH (1.8–3.3, in the solution constituted as
directed in the labeling), Loss on drying (not more than 4.0%), and
Particulate matter. {R-128}
1Not included in Canadian product labeling or product not commercially available in Canada.
Additional Dosing Information
When possible, oral oxytetracycline should be administered 1 hour before
or 2 hours after milk replacer. {R-1}

Mucosal Dosage Forms
Note: Bracketed information in the Dosage Forms section refers to uses
that either are not included in U.S. product labeling or are for products not commercially available in the U.S.
OXYTETRACYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE UTERINE

SUSPENSION
Usual dose:
2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. Note: [Cows]—Although the efficacy and safety are not currently established, an intrauterine dose of 3.9 to 4.4 mg per kg of body
weight, administered as a single dose {R-12}, is included in
Canadian product labeling for the treatment of uterine
infections
.

Strength(s) usually available {R-58}:

Veterinary-labeled products: Not commercially available. Canada— {R-12}
Veterinary-labeled products: 50 mg per mL (Rx) [Kelamycin].
Withdrawal times:

Packaging and storage: Store below 40 °C (104 °F), preferably
between 15 and 30 °C (59 and 86 °F), unless otherwise specified by manufacturer.
Preparation of dosage form:
Warm to body temperature to ease
administration. {R-12}

Stability:
Preparation may darken on standing, but the potency remains
unaffected. {R-12}

USP requirements:
Not in USP.

Oral Dosage Forms
Note: Bracketed information in the Dosage Forms section refers to uses
that either are not included in U.S. product labeling or are for products not commercially available in the U.S.
OXYTETRACYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE SOLUBLE

POWDER USP
Usual dose:
Bees—American and European foul brood: Oral, 200 mg per colony once every four to five days for three treatments in the spring and/
or fall. Powder is dusted on the outer parts of the frames or mixed
as a syrup and fed in feeder pails or in the combs. {R-6; 61; 134}
Note: Honey from infected colonies should not be used for the
preparation of medicated syrup. Calves and cattle— Bacterial enteritis: Oral, 22 mg per kg of body weight every twenty-four hours, administered in the only source of
drinking water or as a drench. {R-61}
Bacterial pneumonia1: Oral, 22 mg per kg of body weight every twenty-four hours, administered in the only source of
drinking water or as a drench. {R-61}
Chickens— Chronic respiratory disease; or fowl cholera: Oral, 400 to 800 mg per gallon of water (approximately 22 to 59 mg per kg of
body weight a day), administered as the only source of
drinking water. {R-11; 121}
Synovitis1: Oral, 200 to 400 mg per gallon of water, administered as the only source of drinking water. {R-11; 13; 61; 121}
[Bacterial enteritis]: Oral, 200 to 400 mg per gallon of water, administered as the only source of drinking water. {R-61}
Bacterial enteritis: Oral, 22 mg per kg of body weight, administered in the only source of drinking water. {R-11; 13;
61}

2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. Bacterial pneumonia: Oral, 22 mg per kg of body weight, administered in the only source of drinking water {R-6; 13}.
Leptospirosis1: Oral, 22 mg per kg of body weight, administered in the only source of drinking water {R-6; 13}].
Bacterial enteritis: Oral, 22 mg per kg of body weight every twenty-four hours, administered in the only source of
drinking water. {R-61}
Bacterial pneumonia1: Oral, 22 mg per kg of body weight every twenty-four hours, administered in the only source of
drinking water {R-13}.
Turkeys, growing—Bacterial enteritis: Oral, 55 mg per kg of body weight a day for seven to fourteen days. {R-7; 11; 13}
Turkeys— Hexamitiasis1: Oral, 200 to 400 mg per gallon of water (approximately 3.5 to 37 mg per kg of body weight a day),
administered as the only source of drinking water. {R-11}
Synovitis1: Oral, 400 mg per gallon of water (7 to 37 mg per kg of body weight a day), administered as the only source of
drinking water. {R-7; 11; 13}
Note: Environmental and health conditions may affect the intake of water and the amount of medication consumed. {R-17} Administration of
medication by food or water to animals with pneumonia or other
infections can be affected by reduced feed and water intake {R-109}.

Strength(s) usually available {R-58}:

Veterinary-labeled products: 25 grams per pound of powder (OTC) [AmTech Oxytetracycline HCL Soluble Powder; Terramycin Soluble Powder; Terra -Vet Soluble Powder]. 166 grams per pound of powder (OTC) [Oxytet Soluble; Tetravet-CA; Tetroxy HCA Soluble Powder]. 343 grams per pound of powder (OTC) [Agrimycin -343; AmTech Oxytetracycline HCL Soluble Powder-343; Oxytet-343 Water Soluble Powder; Pennox 343 Soluble Powder; Terramycin -343 Soluble Powder; Terra-Vet Soluble Powder 343; GENERIC]. Veterinary-labeled products: 11 mg per gram of powder (OTC) [Foul Brood Mix]. 55 mg per gram of powder (OTC) [Oxytetra-A; Oxytet-25-S]. 62.5 mg per gram of powder (OTC) [Oxysol-62.5; Oxytet- 220 mg per gram of powder (OTC) [Oxy Tetra Forte]. 250 mg per gram of powder (OTC) [Oxy 250; Oxysol-250; Oxytet-250 Concentrate]. 1 gram per gram of powder (OTC) [Oxy 1000; Oxysol-1000].
Withdrawal times {R-58}:
Note: With oxytetracycline soluble powder, withdrawal times vary greatly
from product to product and may differ from those listed below. See also individual manufacturer labeling. Bees: To avoid contamination of honey, oxytetracycline
hydrochloride soluble powder should be fed early in the spring or
fall before the main honey flow begins. Honey stored during
medication should be removed following last medication and cannot
be used for human food. {R-61}
Calves, cattle, sheep 0, 5, or 13, depending on 0 or 5, depending on Note: Product labeling listing the above withdrawal times states 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. that treatment of calves, cattle, pigs, and sheep should be for a maximum of five days and chickens and turkeys for a maximum of fourteen days. Not labeled for use in lactating dairy cattle, preruminating calves, or birds producing eggs for human consumption.
Canada— {R-54}
Calves, pigs, sheep Chickens, turkeys Note: Product labeling listing the above withdrawal times states that they apply to doses of 5 to 10 mg per kg of body weight
every twelve hours for three to five days for calves, 10 mg
per kg of body weight every twelve hours for three or four
days for pigs, 50 mg per L of drinking water for three or
four days for chickens and turkeys, and 5 mg per kg of body
weight every twelve hours for three or four days for sheep.
These products are not labeled for use in lactating dairy
cattle or birds producing eggs for human consumption{R-
54}

Chickens, turkeys Pigs, sheep Note: Some products are not labeled for use in lactating cattle and some are not labeled for use in poultry laying eggs for human consumption. Product labeling listing the above withdrawal times states that they apply to doses of 22 mg per kg of body weight a day for five days for calves and cattle, 33 mg per kg of body weight a day for pigs, and 111 mg per L of water for chickens and turkeys. Packaging and storage: Store below 40 °C (104 °F), preferably
between 15 and 30 °C (59 and 86 °F), unless otherwise specified by manufacturer.
Preparation of dosage form:

Oxytetracycline soluble powder can be mixed with water and administered as a drench. Fresh drinking water and drench
solutions should be prepared daily as recommended by the
manufacturer. {R-11; 23}
For bees, medication is mixed with powdered sugar and dusted on the frames or mixed with sugar and water to form a paste or syrup
and applied as recommended by manufacturer. {R-54}

Stability:
Stable for twenty-four hours. {R-11}
Incompatibilities:
Milk replacer—Oxytetracycline is bound to milk
replacer at a rate of 63%; this is a binding that is not readily
reversible.{R-111} Administration of oral oxytetracycline in milk
replacer will result in lower bioavailability. {R-111}

USP requirements:
Preserve in well-closed containers. A mixture of
Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride and one or more suitable excipients.
Label it to indicate that it is for oral veterinary use only. Contains the
labeled amount, within ±10%. Meets the requirements for
Identification, pH (1.5–3.0, in the solution obtained as directed in the
labeling), Loss on drying (not more than 3.0%, and Minimum fill.{R-
128}

2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved.
OXYTETRACYCLINE FOR MEDICATED FEED
Usual dose:

Bees, honey—Foul brood: Oral, 200 mg per colony of bees every four to five days in the spring and/or fall {R-117}. Powder is dusted on
the outer parts of the frames or mixed as a syrup and fed in feeder
pails or in the combs {R-117}.
Note: Honey from infected colonies should not be used for the
preparation of medicated syrup {R-117}.
Calves— Bacterial enteritis: Oral, 22 mg per kg of body weight a day {R-
117}.
Note: Canadian labeling lists a dose of 50 grams per ton (55
grams per metric ton [1000 kg]) in the treatment of
bacterial enteritis {R-26}.
Improved feed efficiency1; or increased weight gain 1 in calves weighing less than 113.6 kg (250 pounds): Oral 0.11 to 0.22
mg per kg of body weight a day, administered in the feed and
fed as the only ration {R-117}.
Improved feed efficiency1; or increased weight gain 1 in calves weighing 113 to 181 kg (250 to 400 pounds): Oral, 25 mg per
animal a day, administered in the feed and fed as the only
ration{R-117}.
Note: According to product labeling, when administered in milk replacer, the 22 mg per kg of body weight dose is indicated in
the treatment of bacterial enteritis only {R-117}.
Catfish1—Hemorrhagic septicemia; or pseudomonas disease: Oral 55 to 82.5 mg per kg of body weight a day for a maximum of ten
days, administered in the feed and fed as the only ration {R-27}.
Cattle— Bacterial enteritis1: Oral, 22 mg per kg of body weight a day {R-
Bacterial pneumonia, acute (prophylaxis and treatment)1: Oral, 500 to 2000 mg (2 grams) per animal a day, administered in
the feed and fed as the only ration for three to five days prior
to shipping and three to five days after shipping {R-122;
117}
.
Bacterial pneumonia (treatment)1: Oral, 22 mg per kg of body weight a day, administered in feed and fed as the only ration
for seven to fourteen days {R-117}.
Improved feed efficiency1; or increased weight gain 1, in growing cattle weighing over 400 pounds: Oral, 75 mg per animal a
day, administered in the feed and fed as the only ration {R-
117}
.
[Bloat]—Oral, 75 mg per animal a day, administered in the feed and fed as the only ration {R-26}.
Chickens— Chronic respiratory disease, specifically air sacculitis, reduction in associated mortality1: Oral, 500 grams per ton of feed, fed
as the only ration {R-117}.
Chronic respiratory disease (control): Oral, 400 grams per ton of feed, fed as the only ration {R-117}.
Note: Canadian labeling lists a dose of 100 grams per ton
(110 grams per metric ton [1000 kg]) in the treatment of
chronic respiratory disease {R-26}.
Fowl cholera1; or synovitis: Oral, 100 to 200 grams per ton of feed, fed as the only ration {R-117}.
Improved feed efficiency1 and increased weight gain1: Oral, 10 to 50 grams per ton of feed, fed as the only ration {R-117}.
Lobsters—Gaffkemia: Oral, 2.2 grams per kg of feed, fed as the only ration {R-27; 124}.
Bacterial enteritis: Oral, 22 mg per kg of body weight a day, administered in the feed and fed as the only ration {R-117}.
Note: Canadian labeling lists a dose of 100 grams per ton
(110 grams per metric ton [1000 kg]) in the treatment of
bacterial enteritis {R-26}.
For reducing the shedding of leptospirosis and reducing the incidence of associated abortions: Oral, 22 mg per kg of body weight per animal a day, administered in the feed and fed as 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. the only ration {R-117}.
Note: Canadian labeling lists a dose of 500 grams per ton
(550 grams per metric ton [1000 kg]) in the treatment of
leptospirosis {R-26}.
Improved feed efficiency and increased weight gain1: Oral, 10 to 50 grams per ton of feed, fed as the only ration {R-117}.
[Atrophic rhinitis]: Oral, 50 grams per ton (55 grams per metric ton [1000 kg]) of feed, fed as the only ration {R-26}.
Note: Different feeding regimens will result in differences in actual mg of oxytetracycline per kg of body weight consumed by
individual pigs {R-110}.
Therapeutic serum concentrations of > 0.5 mcg/mL were not produced when 550 mg of oxytetracycline per kg of feed was
administered to 30-kg pigs in one study {R-107}.
An oral dose of 54 to 108 mg per kg of body weight a day (concentrations of 1600 and 2400 mg of oxytetracycline per kg
of feed) was reported to be required to produce 1 mcg per mL
serum concentrations in pigs {R-110}.
Salmon, Pacific1—Marking of skeletal tissue: Oral, 250 mg per kg of body weight a day {R-27}.
Salmonids—[Cold water disease]; [columnaris disease]; [enteric red- mouth disease]; furunculosis; hemorrhagic septicemia1; pseudo-
monas disease1; or ulcer disease: Oral, 55 to 82.5 mg per kg of
body weight a day, administered in the feed and fed as the only
ration {R-27; 124}.
Sheep1— Bacterial enteritis; or bacterial pneumonia: Oral 22 mg per kg of body weight per animal a day, administered in the feed and
fed as the only ration {R-117}.
Improved feed efficacy and increased weight gain: Oral, 10 to 20 grams per ton of feed, fed as the only ration {R-117}.
Turkeys— Bacterial enteritis (bluecomb): Oral, 55 mg per kg of body weight a day, administered in the feed and fed as the only ration {R-
117}
.
Note: Canadian labeling lists a dose of 100 grams per ton
(110 grams per metric ton [1000 kg]) of feed, fed as the
only ration {R-26}.
Hexamitiasis1: Oral, 100 grams per ton of feed, fed as the only ration {R-117}.
Improved feed efficiency1 and increased weight gain1: Oral, 10 to 50 grams per ton of feed, fed as the only ration {R-117}.
Synovitis: Oral, 200 grams per ton of feed, fed as the only [Sinusitis]: Oral, 100 grams per ton (110 grams per metric ton [1000 kg]) of feed, fed as the only ration {R-26}.
[Lambs]— Bacterial enteritis: Oral, 100 grams per ton (110 grams per metric ton [1000 kg]) of feed, fed as the only ration {R-26}.
Enterotoxemia: Oral, 20 grams per ton (22 grams per metric ton [1000 kg]) of feed, fed as the only ration {R-26}.
Note: Environmental and health conditions may affect the intake of water and the amount of medication consumed. {R-17} Administration of
medication by food or water to animals with pneumonia or other
infections can be affected by reduced feed and water intake {R-09}.

Strength(s) usually available {R-58}:

U.S.— {R-62; 122}
Veterinary-labeled products: 110 grams per kg of premix (OTC) [OTC 50; OXTC 50; Pennox 50 Meal; Terramycin 50]. 220 grams per kg of premix (OTC) [OXTC 100; Pennox 100 Hi-Flo Meal; Pennox 100-MR; Terramycin 100; Terramycin 100 For Fish]. 440 grams per kg of premix (OTC) [OXTC 200; Pennox 200 Hi-Flo Meal; Terramycin 200]. Canada— {R-26; 55}
Veterinary-labeled products: 110 grams per kg of premix (OTC) [Oxy-110; Oxysol-110; Oxytetracycline 50; Terramycin-50]. 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. 220 grams per kg of premix (OTC) [Oxy-220; Oxysol-220; Oxytetracycline 100; Terramycin -100]. 440 grams per kg of premix (OTC) [Oxy-440; Oxysol-440; Oxytetracycline 200; Terramycin -200; Terramycin-Aqua].
Withdrawal times {R-58}:
Note: Bees—To avoid contamination of honey, oxytetracycline
hydrochloride soluble powder should be fed early in the spring or
fall before the main honey flow begins. Honey stored during therapy
should be removed following the last medication and should not be
used for human food {R-117}.
U.S.— {R-27; 186}
When fed 500 grams per ton of feed: If fed low-calcium feed Note: Not labeled for chickens producing eggs for human consumption {R-117}.
When fed up to 400 grams per ton of feed: If fed low-calcium feed Note: Not labeled for chickens producing eggs for human consumption {R-117}.
When fed up to 200 grams per ton of feed: Note: Not labeled for turkeys producing eggs for human consumption {R-117}.
When fed to turkeys at 200 grams or more per ton of feed, and to cattle, pigs, and sheep at 22 mg/kg: Calves (some products), cattle, sheep, turkeys Pacific salmon 0 or 5, depending on Salmonids Note: Not labeled for poultry producing eggs for human consumption {R-117}. A withdrawal time has not been
established for preruminating calves for some products{R-
117}
.
Canada {R-26; 55}
Note: Bees—Withdraw medication 4 weeks prior to honey flow.
Calves, cattle Chickens, pigs, turkeys 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. Salmonids, 10 °C or Salmonids, below 10 °C Note: Not labeled for chickens producing eggs for human consumption {R-117}. Withdrawal time has not been
established for preruminating calves {R-117}.

Packaging and storage:
Store below 40 °C (104 °F), preferably
between 15 and 30 °C (59 and 86 °F), unless otherwise specified by manufacturer.
Preparation of dosage form:
For use in dry feeds only, as indicated on
manufacturer's labeling. Should not be used without diluting. {R-122}

Incompatibilities:
Salmonid and lobster feeds having a high ash content
(calcium, copper, iron, or zinc) may bind oxytetracycline and prevent
absorption. Oxytetracycline also should not be administered with
feeds containing bentonite. {R-124}

Additional information:
U.S.—For fish, this medication should not be
used when water temperature is below 16.7 °C (62 °F) for catfish or
below 9 °C (48.2 °F) for salmonids. {R-62}

USP requirements:
Not in USP.

OXYTETRACYCLINE TABLETS USP
Usual dose:

Bacterial enteritis1; or Bacterial pneumonia1—Calves: Control—Oral, 5.5 mg per kg of body weight every twelve hours. {R-2; 60}
Treatment—Oral, 11 mg per kg of body weight every twelve hours for up to four days. {R-2; 60}

Strength(s) usually available {R-58}:

U.S.— {R-2; 60}
Veterinary-labeled products: 250 mg (OTC) [Terramycin Scours Tablets]. 500 mg (OTC) [Oxy 500 Calf Bolus]. 1000 mg (OTC) [Oxy 1000 Calf Bolus]. Veterinary-labeled products: Not commercially available.
Withdrawal times:

U.S.— {R-60}
0 or 7, depending Note: Product labeling with the above withdrawal time states that it applies when calves are treated for up to four days. Products are not labeled for use in preruminating calves{R-

USP requirements:
Preserve in tight, light-resistant containers. Contain
the labeled amount, within –10% to +20%. Meet the requirements for
Identification, Dissolution (75% in 45 minutes in 0.1 N hydrochloric
acid in Apparatus 1 at 100 rpm), Uniformity of dosage units, and
Water (not more than 7.5%). {R-128}
1Not included in Canadian product labeling or product not commercially available in Canada.

Parenteral Dosage Forms

2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. Note: Bracketed information in the Dosage Forms section refers to uses that either are not included in U.S. product labeling or are for products not commercially available in the U.S.
OXYTETRACYCLINE INJECTION USP
Usual dose:

Cattle—Actinobacillosis1; anaplasmosis1; [bacterial arthritis]; bacterial enteritis; [blackleg/malignant edema]; diphtheria1;
[leptospirosis]; [mastitis]; [omphalophlebitis]; [peritonitis];
pneumonia and bovine respiratory disease complex;
pododermatitis; skin and soft tissue infections1; or uterine
infections: Intramuscular or intravenous, 6.6 to 11 mg per kg of
body weight every twenty-four hours. {R-10; 24; 25; 121}
Note: For uterine infections in cattle, an [intravenous dose of 11
mg per kg of body weight every eight to twelve hours]1 has
been recommended, based on distribution studies {R-104}.
The shortened dosing interval will require an extended
withdrawal time {R-14}.
For pneumonia caused by Pasteurella , an [intravenous dose of 11 mg per kg of body weight every twelve hours]1 has
been recommended, based on pharmacokinetic changes in
calves with induced pneumonia {R-106}; however, this
regimen is usually reserved for serious cases. The short ened
dosing interval will require an extended withdrawal time{R-
14}
.
For [thromboembolic meningoencephalitis]1, a dose of 11 mg per kg of body weight every twenty-four hours has been
recommended; however, there are no specific research data
to support the efficacy of this use {R-178; 179}.
[Pigs]—Bacterial enteritis; bacterial pneumonia; erysipelas; leptospirosis; mastitis; or uterine infections: Intramuscular or
intravenous, 6.6 to 11 mg per kg of body weight every twenty-
four hours.{R-10}
Note: No more than 10 mL should be injected per site in adult cattle and no more than 5 mL per site in pigs. Less mature animals
should have decreasing volumes injected per site (but not total
mg per kg of body weight) so that small animals receive 0.5 to 2
mL per injection site. Intravenously administered
oxytetracycline should be injected slowly. {R-21}
Intramuscularly administered oxytetracycline causes a notable
tissue reaction (see note on slaughter trim below under
Withdrawal times).
[Horses]1—Ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichiosis equi); or Potomac horse fever (Ehrlichiosis risticii): Intravenous, 10 mg per kg of body weight
every twenty-four hours. {R-46-48; 92; 138}
Note: Gastrointestinal side effects are possible following
oxytetracycline administration to horses. The above dose is based on clinical trials and retrospective dose-response studies. [Foals]1—Although the efficacy and safety have not been established, a single intravenous dose of 44 mg of
oxytetracycline per kg of body weight has been used in the
treatment of flexural limb deformities in newborn foals,
based on controlled studies in healthy foals {R-157; 158}.
The dose is most often administered as a single intravenous
dose of 2 to 3 grams per foal {R-158} or as an intravenous
dose of 1.5 grams per foal, repeated in twenty-four hours. In
some cases, clinicians have repeated an initial 2- to 3-gram
dose twenty-four hours following the initial dose {R-20;
157}
.
Studies have demonstrated the safety, including lack of renal toxicity, of doses of up to 54.5 to 75 mg per kg of
body weight, administered two times, twenty-four hours
apart, to twenty newborn foals {R-20; 158}; however,
because high doses of oxytetracyclines have been associated
with renal toxicity in many species {R-15}, some clinicians
prefer to test renal function before treatment. It is
recommended that this high dose of oxytetracycline not be
administered to foals with any systemic illness or disorder
2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. predisposing to renal compromise, including dehydration or endotoxemia. [Sheep]—Bacterial arthritis; bacterial pneumonia; mastitis; or uterine infections: Intramuscular or intravenous, 6.6 mg per kg of body
weight every twenty-four hours {R-24; 121}.

Strength(s) usually available {R-58}:

Veterinary-labeled products: 100 mg per mL (OTC) [Agrimycin 100; AmTech Maxim -100; Duramycin 100; Oxybiotic-100; Oxycure 100; Oxy-Mycin 100; Promycin 100; Terra -Vet 100; Tetroxy-100]. Veterinary-labeled products: 100 mg per mL (OTC) [Oxy LP; Oxymycine LP; Oxytetracycline 100LP; Oxytetramycin 100; Oxyvet 100 LP; Tetraject LP].
Withdrawal times {R-58}:

U.S.— {R-21; 56}
18, 19, 20, or 22, depending on product Note: Product labeling listing the above withdrawal times states that they apply to a dose of 6.6 to 11 mg per kg of body weight a day in cattle and pigs for a maximum of four days. Not labeled for use in lactating cattle or preruminating Cattle slaughtered within 20 days of intramuscular administration of oxytetracycline may require trimming of the injection sites and surrounding tissues during dressing procedure. Canada— {R-24}
Pigs, sheep Note: The above withdrawal times are based on Canadian labeling that lists a dose of 6.6 mg per kg of body weight a
day for a maximum of two to three days. {R-24}

Packaging and storage:
Store below 40 °C (104 °F), preferably
between 15 and 30 °C (59 and 86 °F), unless otherwise specified by manufacturer. Protect from light. Protect from freezing.
Preparation of dosage form:
For intravenous administration, dilution
in water for injection or physiological saline is recommended. Doses of up to 2500 mg (50 mL) can be diluted in 250 mL of diluent, and larger doses in 500 mL of diluent.
Stability:
Diluted medication should be used or discarded immediately
after mixing. {R-21} Solution may darken on standing but this color
change does not affect the potency of the medication.

USP requirements:
Preserve in single-dose or in multiple-dose
containers, protected from light. A sterile solution of Oxytetracycline
with or without one or more suitable anesthetics, antioxidants,
buffers, complexing agents, preservatives, and solvents. Contains the
labeled amount, within –10% to +20%. Meets the requirements for
Identification, Bacterial endotoxins, Sterility, and pH (8.0–9.0). {R-
128}

2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved.
OXYTETRACYCLINE INJECTION USP (LONG-ACTING)
Note: The formulations listed below have a viscosity excipient intended to
prolong therapeutic serum antibiotic concentrations. These products
are believed to differ from other oxytetracycline injection products
only in the rate of absorption from intramuscular injection;
moreover, some studies using oxytetracycline products with 2-
pyrrolidone viscosity excipient have failed to show that the duration
of action is significantly prolonged over that of the conventional
formulation after intramuscular injection, when they are
administered at the same dose. {R-107; 162}. As such, use of the
long-acting formulations at standard doses of 6 to 11 mg per kg of
body weight may not result in a prolonged duration of action. Also,
there is no difference in duration of action between conventional and
long-acting formulat ions when they are administered intravenously
{R-99; 151}.
Usual dose:
Cattle—Actinobacillosis1; bacterial enteritis1; bacterial pneumonia and bovine respiratory disease complex; diphtheria1;
keratoconjunctivitis; leptospirosis; metritis, acute1;
pododermatitis; or skin and soft tissue infections1: Intramuscular,
intravenous, or, when labeled, subcutaneous, 6.6 to 11 mg per kg
of body weight every twenty-four hours for four days {R-3; 45}.
Note: When it is impractical to give cattle more than a single dose
for the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis or pneumonia, an
intramuscular or, when labeled, subcutaneous dose of 20 mg
per kg of body weight administered as a single dose is
recommended. {R-45}
In calves, [40 mg per kg of body weight as a single do se]1 has been used in the treatment of bacterial pneumonia that
is unresponsive to 20 mg per kg of body weight, based on
pharmacokinetic and toxicity data {R-95; 101}; however,
the clinical efficacy was not established in this study. This
higher dose should not be repeated because of the risk of
adverse effects {R-30; 167; 168}.
For [thromboembolic meningoencephalitis]1 in cattle, a dose of 11 mg per kg of body weight every twenty-four hours has
been recommended; however, there are no specific research
data to support the efficacy of this use {R-178; 179}.
Pigs—Bacterial enteritis1; bacterial pneumonia; or leptospirosis: Intramuscular, 6.6 to 11 mg per kg of body weight every twenty-
four hours for four days. {R-45}
Note: When it is impractical to give pigs more than a single dose
for the treatment of pneumonia, an intramuscular dose of 20
mg per kg of body weight administered as a single dose is
recommended. {R-45}
Sows—Bacterial enteritis in suckling pigs: Intramuscular, 6.6 mg per kg of body weight, administered once eight hours before
farrowing or immediately after farrowing. {R-45}
Note: No more than 10 mL should be administered intramuscularly at any one site in adult cattle. No more than 5 mL should be injected
intramuscularly at any one site in adult pigs. {R-45} Injections
should be administered deep into the fleshy part of the muscle. {R-
25}
Less mature animals should have size-dependent decreasing
volumes injected per site so that small calves receive only 1 to 2 mL
per injection site.

Stren gth(s) usually available {R-58}:

U.S.— {R-3; 45}
Veterinary-labeled products: 200 mg per mL (OTC) [Agrimycin 200; AmTech Maxim -200; Biomycin 200; Duramycin 72-200; Geomycin 200; Liquamycin LA-200; Maxim-200; OT 200; OxyBiotic-200; Oxycure 200; Oxy-Mycin 200; Oxyshot LA; Pennox 200 Injectable]. Note: The above products contain the following viscosity excipi- ents: Biomycin 200 contains polyethylene glycol; Duramycin 72-200, Liquamycin LA-200, Maxim-200; and Pennox 200 contain 2-pyrrolidone; and Oxyshot LA contains N-methylpyrrolidone. 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. Canada— {R-25; 120}
Veterinary-labeled products: 200 mg per mL (OTC) [Alamycin LA; Biomycin 200; Liqua- mycin LA-200; Oxy LA; Oxymycine LA; Oxyvet 200 LA; Tetraject LA]. 300 mg per mL (OTC) [Tetradure LA 300].
Withdrawal times {R-58}:

U.S.— {R-3; 5; 45; 153}
Note: If oxytetracycline injection is administered to calves as a single
intramusuclar dose of 40 mg per kg of body weight, there is
some evidence to suggest that a withdrawal time of 49 days
would be sufficient to avoid residues, based on tissue depletion
studies of the parent drug {R-101}.
depending on product Note: Some products are not labeled for use in lactating dairy cattle and list the above withdrawal t imes. Product labeling listing the above withdrawal times states that they apply to a dose of 6.6 to 11 mg per kg of body weight a day for a maximum of four days or 20 mg per kg of body weight administered as a single dose. Pigs Note: Product labeling listing the above withdrawal times states that they apply to a dose of 6.6 to 11 mg per kg of body weight a day for a maximum of four days or 20 mg per kg of body weight administered as a single dose. Canada— {R-25; 120}
Cattle and pigs Intramuscular injection 21 or 28, depending on Subcutaneous injection Note: Product labeling listing the above withdrawal times states that they apply to a dose of 20 mg per kg of body weight administered once. Not labeled for use in lactating dairy cattle. One product recommends a 42-day withdrawal to avoid excess trim at the injection site{R-58}.

Packaging and storage :
Store between 15 and 30° C (59 and 86 °F),
unless otherwise specified by manufacturer. Protect from light.
Protect from freezing. {R-45}

Preparation of dosage form:
Warm to room temperature before

USP requirements:
Preserve in single-dose or in multiple-dose
containers, protected from light. A sterile solution of Oxytetracycline
with or without one or more suitable anesthetics, antioxidants,
buffers, complexing agents, preservatives, and solvents. Contains the
labeled amount, within –10% to +20%. Meets the requirements for
Identification, Bacterial endotoxins, Sterility, and pH (8.0–9.0). {R-
128}

2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. 1Not included in Canadian product labeling or product not commercially available in Canada.
Additional Dosing Information
When possible, oral tetracycline should be administered 1 hour before or 2
hours after milk replacer. {R-1}

Mucosal Dosage Forms
Note: Bracketed information in the Dosage Forms section refers to uses
that either are not included in U.S. product labeling or are for products not commercially available in the U.S.
TETRACYCLINE UTERINE TABLETS
Usual dose:

Note: [Cows] and [mares]—Although the efficacy and safety are not currently established, the use of a 4-gram bolus administered as
a single intrauterine dose is included in Canadian product
labeling {R-9} for the treatment of uterine infections. The dose
may be repeated in two days if necessary. {R-9}

Strength(s) usually available:

Veterinary-labeled products: Not commercially available. Canada— {R-9}
Veterinary-labeled products: 4 grams (OTC) [Tetra 4000; Tetrabol].
Withdrawal times:

Canada— {R-9}

Packaging and storage:
Store below 40 °C (104 °F), preferably
between 15 and 30 °C (59 and 86 °F), in a tight container, unless otherwise specified by manufacturer.
Auxiliary labeling:
• Protect from excessive moisture. {R-9}
USP requirements:
Not in USP.

Oral Dosage Forms
Note: Bracketed information in the Dosage Forms section refers to uses
that either are not included in U.S. product labeling or are for products not commercially available in the U.S.
TETRACYCLINE BOLUSES USP
Usual dose:
Bacterial enteritis; or bacterial pneumonia—Calves: Oral,
11 mg per kg of body weight every twelve hours for five days. {R-1}

Strength(s) usually available {R-58}:

U.S.— {R-1}
Veterinary-labeled products: 500 mg (OTC) [Calf Scour Bolus Antibiotic; 5-Way Calf Scour Bolus]. Canada— {R-9}
Veterinary-labeled products: 4 grams (OTC) [Tetra 4000; Tetrabol].
Withdrawal times {R-58}:

2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. U.S.— {R-1}
12, 14 or 24, depending on Canada— {R-9}
Note: Product labeling with the above withdrawal times state that they apply to a dose of 20 mg per kg of body weight a day for three to five days.
Packaging and storage:
Store below 40 °C (104 °F), preferably
between 15 and 30 °C (59 and 86 °F), unless otherwise specified by manufacturer. Store in a tight container.
Auxiliary labeling:
• Protect from excessive moisture. {R-9}
USP requirements:
Preserve in tight containers. Label Boluses to
indicate that they are intended for veterinary use only. Contain the
equivalent of the labeled amount of tetracycline hydrochloride, within
–10% to +20%. Meet the requirements for Identification, Uniformity
of dosage units, and Loss on drying (not more than 3.0%; or for
Boluses greater than 15 mm in diameter, not more than 6.0%). {R-
128}


TETRACYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE CAPSULES USP
Usual dose:
[Rocky Mountain spotted fever]1—Dogs: Oral, 22 mg per
kg of body weight every eight hours for fourteen days. {R-140; 141}
Note: [Dogs]1—The above dose is based on clinical trials and retrospective dose-response studies. The same dosage regimen
has also been used in the treatment of ehrlichiosis in dogs {R-
43; 139}
, although the efficacy of this treatment has not been
confirmed.
A dose of 22 mg per kg of body weight every six to eight hours has also been used in the treatment of other susceptible bacterial infections in dogs. Dosing trials suggest that 30 mg of oral tetracycline per kg of body weight every twelve hours for twenty-eight days,
administered in conjunction with 20 mg of intramuscular
streptomycin every twenty-four hours for the first fourteen days,
may be successful in resolving brucellosis in dogs. It has been
recommended that all dogs be treated in a population in which
some have tested positive for brucellosis; good management
practices are recommended and repeated follow-up testing is
needed for several months to confirm that all dogs remain
seronegative {R-160}.
See also Tetracycline Oral Suspension USP.

Strength(s) usually available:

Veterinary-labeled products: Not commercially available. Human-labeled products: 250 mg (Rx) [Achromycin V; GENERIC]. 500 mg (Rx) [Achromycin V; GENERIC]. Veterinary-labeled products: Not commercially available. Human-labeled products: 250 mg (Rx) [Apo-Tetra; Novo-Tetra; Nu-Tetra ]. 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. Packaging and storage: Store below 40 °C (104 °F), preferably
between 15 and 30 °C (59 and 86 °F), unless otherwise specified by manufacturer. Store in a tight, light-resistant container.
USP requirements:
Preserve in tight, light-resistant containers. Contain
the labeled amount, within -10% to +25%. Meet the requirements for
Identification, Dissolution (80% in 60 minutes, 90 minutes for 500-
mg capsules, in water in Apparatus 2 at 75 rpm), Uniformity of
dosage units, Loss on drying (not more than 4.0%), and Limit of 4-
epianhydrotetracycline (not more than 3.0%). {R-128}

TETRACYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE SOLUBLE

POWDER USP
Usual dose:
Calves and pigs—Bacterial enteritis; or bacterial pneumonia: Oral, 11 mg per kg of body weight every twelve hours, administered in the
only source of drinking water for three to five days. {R-19}
Chickens—Chronic respiratory disease; or infectious synovitis: Oral, 27.5 mg per kg of body weight every twelve hours, administered
in the only source of drinking water for seven to fourteen
days.{R-19}
Turkeys—Infectious synovitis; or bacterial enteritis: Oral, 27.5 mg per kg of body weight every twelve hours, administered in the only
source of drinking water for seven to fourteen days. {R-19}
[Sheep]—Bacterial enteritis; or respiratory tract diseases: Oral, 40 mg per kg of body weight every twelve hours for four to five days
{R-18}.
Note: Environmental and health conditions may affect the intake of water and the amount of medication consumed. {R-17} Administration of
medication by food or water to animals with pneumonia or other
infect ions can be affected by reduced feed and water intake {R-109}.

Strength(s) usually available {R-58}:

U.S.—{R-8; 19}
Veterinary-labeled products: 25 grams per pound of powder (OTC) [Duramycin 10; PolyOtic Soluble Powder; Solu-Tet; Tet-Sol 10]. 324 grams per pound of powder (OTC) [AmTech Tetracycline Hydrochloride Soluble Powder-324; Duramycin -324; Solu-Tet 324; Tet-324; Tetra Bac 324; Tetrasol Soluble Powder; Tet-Sol 324; GENERIC]. Veterinary-labeled products: 55 mg per gram of powder (OTC) [Tetra 55; GENERIC]. 62.5 mg per gram of powder (OTC) [Onycin 62.5; Tetracycline 62.5 Soluble Powder]. 250 mg per gram of powder (OTC) [Onycin 250; Tetra 250; Tetracycline 250; Tetracycline 250 Concentrate Soluble Powder; Tetramed 250]. 1000 mg per gram of powder (OTC) [Onycin 1000; Tetra 1000; Tetracycline 1000; Tetramed 1000].
Withdrawal times:

U.S.— {R-8; 19}
4 or 5, depending on Chickens, pigs, turkeys 4 or 7, depending on Note: Products are not labeled for use in preruminating calves or poultry producing eggs for human consumption{R-58}.
Canada— {R-18}
Calves, chickens, pigs, sheep, turkeys 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. Note: Product labeling with the above withdrawal time states that it applies to a dose of 20 to 40 mg per kg of body weight every twelve hours for a maximum of five days for calves, pigs, and sheep and a dose of 200 mg per liter of water for three to five days for chickens and turkeys. Although a milk withdrawal time is included on one product label, these products are not specifically labeled for use in
lactating dairy cows in Canada. Products are not labeled for
use in laying hens{R-18; 58}.

Packaging and storage:
Store below 40 °C (104 °F), preferably
between 15 and 30 °C (59 and 86 °F), in a tight container, unless otherwise specified by manufacturer.
Preparation of dosage form:
Fresh solutions should be prepared every
24 hours when administered in plastic or stainless steel waterers and every 12 hours when administered in galvanized waterers.
Stability:
Solutions are stable for 24 hours. {R-8}
USP requirements:
Preserve in tight containers. Label it to indicate that
it is intended for veterinary use only. Contains the labeled amount,
within –10% to +25%. Meets the requirements for Identification and
Loss on drying (not more than 2.0%). {R- 128}

TETRACYCLINE ORAL SUSPENSION USP
Usual dose:
Bacterial gastroenteritis1; or urinary tract infections1—Cats
and dogs: Oral, 14 to 22 mg per kg of body weight every six to eight
hours. {R-177}
See also Tetracycline Hydrochloride Capsules USP.

Strength(s) usually available:

U.S.— {R-4}
Veterinary-labeled products: 100 mg per mL (Rx) [Panmycin Aquadrops]. Canada— {R-126}
Veterinary-labeled products: Not commercially available.
Packaging and storage:
Store between 15 and 30 °C (59 and 86 °F), in
a tight container, unless otherwise specified by manufacturer. Protect from light.
Auxiliary labeling:
• Shake well before each dose {R-4}.

USP requirements:
Preserve in tight, light-resistant containers. It is
Tetracycline with or without one or more suitable buffers,
preservatives, stabilizers, and suspending agents. Contains the
equivalent of the labeled amount of tetracycline hydrochloride, within
–10% to +25%. Meet s the requirements for Identification, Uniformity
of dosage units (single-unit containers), Deliverable volume, pH (3.5–
6.0), and Limit of 4-epianhydrotetracycline (not more than 5.0%). {R-
128}

1Not included in Canadian product labeling or product not commercially available in Canada. Developed: 07/17/96 Revised: 7/14/98; 10/12/99; 6/30/02; 04/05/03
References
1. Tetracycline package insert (5-Way Calf Scour Bolus, Agrilabs—US),
Rev 91, Rec 4/4/95. 2. Oxytetracycline package insert (Oxy 500 Calf Bolus, Boehringer Ingelheim —US). Downloaded 2/26/03 from www.bi-vetmedica.com. 3. Oxytetracycline package insert (Biomycin 200, Boehringer Ingelheim —US). Downloaded 2/26/03 from www.bi-vetmedica.com. 4. Tetracycline package insert (Panmycin Aquadrops, Pharmacia—US), 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. 5. Liquamycin LA-200 Freedom of Information Summary. NADA 113- 232 (Supplement). Sponsor: Pfizer, Inc. July 21, 1998. 6. Terramycin Soluble Powder Freedom of Information Summary. NADA 008-622 (Supplement). Sponsor: Pfizer Inc. July 7, 1993. 7. Oxytetracycline Freedom of Information Summary. NADA number 200-247. Sponsor: Phoenix Scientific Inc. 2/10/99. 8. Tetracycline package label (Solu-Tet 324, Alpharma—US). 9. Tetracycline package insert (Tetrabol, Vetoquinol—Canada). 10. Oxytetracycline package label (Oxybiotic-P, Vedco—US), discontinued product. 11. Oxytetracycline package label (Oxytet Soluble, Alpharma—US). 12. Oxytetracycline package label (Kelamycin, PVL—Canada). 13. Oxytetracycline product labeling (Pennox 343, Pennfield—US), Rec 14. Panel consensus, on monograph revision of 3/97. 15. Vivrette S, Cowgill LD, Pascoe J, et al. Hemodialysis for treatment of oxytetracycline-induced acute renal failure in a neonatal foal. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1993 Jul 1: 203(1): 105-7. 16. Ch lortetracycline package insert (Pennchlor 50, Pennfield—US), Rev 4/97, Rec 6/18/98. 17. Chlortetracycline package insert (CTC Soluble Powder, Agri Labs— 18. Tetracycline package insert (Onycin 250, Vetoquinol—Canada). 19. Tetracycline package insert (Duramycin-324, Durvet —US). 20. Wright AK, Petrie L, Papich MG, et al. Effect of high dose oxytetracycline on renal parameters in neonatal foals. In: Caddel LB, editor. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners. Orlando, FL; 1993. p. 297-8. 21. Oxytetracycline package insert (Oxytetracycline hydrochloride injection, Vedco—US), Rec 8/1/95. 22. Barragry TB. Veterinary drug therapy. Baltimore: Lea & Febiger, 23. Oxytetracycline package insert (Oxysol-220, A.P.A.—Canada). 24. Oxytetracycline package insert (Oxyvet 100 LP, Vetoquinol— 25. Oxytetracycline package insert (Oxyvet 200 LA, Vetoquinol— 26. Oxytetracycline package insert (Oxysol-110, A.P.A.—Canada). 27. Oxytetracycline supplemental approval (Terramycin Type A Medicated Article Pfizer—US). NADA 008-804. Approved Animal Drug Products (Green Book). Virginia Tech: Blacksburg, VA. 1996 Nov 15: 8.43. 28. Aronson AL. Pharmacotherapeutics of the newer tetracyclines. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1980 May 15; 176(10): 1061-8. 29. Vaala WE, Ehren SJ, Divers TJ. Acute renal failure associated with administration of excessive amounts of tetracycline in a cow. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1987 Dec 15; 191(12): 1601-3. 30. Lairmore MD, Alexander AF, Powers DE, et al. Oxytetracycline- associated nephrotoxicosis in feedlot calves. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1984; 185(7): 793-5. 31. Riond J, Riviere JE. Effects of tetracyclines on the kidney in cattle and dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1989 Oct 1; 195(7): 995-7. 32. Ward GS, Guiry CC, Alexander LL. Tetracycline-induced anaphylactic shock in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1982 Apr 1; 180(7): 770-1. 33. Gross DR, Dodd KT, Williams JD, et al. Adverse cardiovascular effects of oxytetracycline preparations and vehicles in intact awake calves. Am J Vet Res 1981 Aug; 42(8): 1371-7. 34. Gyrd-Hansen N, Rasmussen F, Smith M. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous administration of tetracycline in cattle. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1981; 4: 15-25. 35. Riond JL, Riviere JE, Duckett WM, et al. Cardiovascular effects and fatalities associated with intravenous administration of doxycycline to horses and ponies. Equine Vet J 1992; 24(1): 41-5. 36. Kaufman AG, Greene CE. Increased alanine transaminase activity associated with tetracycline administration in a cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1993 Feb 15; 202(4): 628-30. 37. Immelman A, Botha WS, Grib D. Muscle irritation caused by different products containing oxytetracycline. J S Afr Vet Assoc 1978; 49(2): 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. 38. Anderson WI, Wilson RC, Goetsch DD. Hemoglobinuria in cattle given long-acting oxytetracycline. Mod Vet Pract 1983 Dec; 64(12): 997-8. 39. Longhofer SL. Chemotherapy of rickettsial, protozoal, and chlamydial diseases. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1988 Nov; 18(6): 1183-96. 40. Iqbal Z, Rikihisa Y. Reisolation of Ehrlichia canis from blood and tissues of dogs after doxycycline treatment. J Clin Microbiol 1994; 32(7): 1644-9. 41. Waddle JR, Littman MP. A retrospective study of 27 cases of naturally occurring canine ehrlichiosis. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1988 Nov/Dec; 24(6): 615-20. 42. Ogunkoya AB, Adeyanju JB, Abduhllahi R. Experimental and clinical trials of long acting oxytetracycline in the treatment of canine erhlichiosis. Vet Q 1985 Apr; 7(2): 158-61. 43. Magnorelli LA, Litwin HJ, Holland CJ, et al. Canine ehrlichiosis in Connecticut. J Clin Microbiol 1990 Feb; 28(2): 366-7. 44. George LW. Antibiotic treatment of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. Cornell Vet 1990 Jul; 80(3): 229-34. 45. Oxytetracycline package insert (Duramycin 72-200, Durvet —US), Rev 2/95, Rec 8/11/95. 46. Madigan JE, Gribble D. Equine ehrlichiosis in northern California: 49 cases (1968-81). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1987 Feb 15; 190(4): 445-8. 47. Palmer JE, Benson CE, Whitlock RH. Effect of treatment with oxytetracycline during the acute stages of experimentally induced equine ehrlichial colitis in ponies. Am J Vet Res 1992 Dec; 53(12): 2300-4. 48. Palmer JE, Whitlock RH, Benson CE. Equine ehrlichial colitis: effect of oxytetracycline treatment during the incubation period of Ehrlichia risticii infection in ponies. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1988; 192: 343-5. 49. Eidson M, Thistead JP, Rollag OJ. Clinical, clinicopathologic and pathologic features of plague in cats: 119 cases (1977-1988). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1991 Nov 1; 199(9): 1191-7. 50. Gutierrez CB, Piriz S, Vadillo S, et al. In vitro susceptibility of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains to 42 antimicrobial agents. Am J Vet Res 1993 Apr; 54(4): 546-50. 51. Watts JL, Yancey RJ, Salmon SA, et al. A 4-year survey of antimicrobial susceptibility trends for isolates from cattle with bovine respiratory disease in North America. J Clin Microbiol 1994 Mar; 32(3): 725-31. 52. Cairoli F, Ferrario L, Carli S, et al. Efficiency of oxytetracycline and tetracycline-benzydamine in the prevention of infection after placental retention in cattle. Vet Rec 1993; 133: 394-5. 53. Timms LM, Marshall RN, Breslin MF. Evaluation of the efficacy of chlortetracycline for the control of chronic respiratory disease caused by Escherichia coli and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Res Vet Sci 1989; 47: 377-82. 54. Oxytetracycline package insert (Oxysol-62.5, A.P.A.—Canada). 55. Oxytetracycline package insert (Oxysol-220, Sanofi—Canada), Rec 56. Oxytetracycline package insert (Oxy-Tet 100, Vedco—US), discontinued product. 57. Chlortetracycline package insert (Calf Scour Bolus, Durvet—US), Rec 58. Arrioja-Dechert A, editor. Compendium of veterinary products, CD ed. Port Huron, MI: North American Compendiums, Inc. 2002. 59. Kung K, Wanner M. Pharmacokinetics of doxycycline in turkey and comparison between feed and water medication. Archiv Fur Geflugelkunde 1994 Apr; 58(2): 84-8. 60. Oxytetracycline product information (Terramycin Scours Tablets, Pfizer—US), Rev 3/98. 61. Oxytetracycline product information (Terramycin Soluble Powder, Pfizer—US), Rec 12/14/95. 62. Oxytetracycline product information (TM 100F, Pfizer—US), Rec 63. Wilson RC, Kemp DT, Kutzman JV, et al. Pharmacokinetics of doxycycline in dogs. Can J Vet Res 1988; 52: 12-4. 64. Anadon A, Martinez Larranga MR, Diaz MJ, et al. Pharmacokinetics of doxycycline in broiler chickens. Avian Pathol 1994; 23(1): 79-90. 2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX All rights reserved. 65. Committee comment, Rec 2/14/02. 66. Riond JL, Riviere JE. Doxycycline binding to plasma albumin of several species. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1989; 12: 253-60. 67. Ziv G, Sulman G. Binding of antibiotics to bovine and ovine serum. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 1972 Sep; 2(3): 206-13. 68. Riond J, Tyczkowska K. Riviere J. Pharmacokinetics and metabolic inertness of doxycycline in calves with mature or immature rumen function. Am J Vet Res 1989 Aug; 50(8); 1329-33. 69. Riond J. Riviere JE. Pharmacokinetics and metabolic inertness of doxycycline in young pigs. Am J Vet Res 1990 Aug; 51(8): 1271-5. 70. Riond JL, Vaden SL, Riviere JE. Comparative pharmacokinetics of doxycycline in cats and dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1990; 13: 415-24. 71. Shaw DH, Rubin SI. Pharmacologic activity of doxycline. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1986; 189(7): 808-10. 72. Percy DH, Black W. Pharmacokinetics of tetracycline in the domestic rabbit following intravenous or oral administration. Can J Vet Res 1988; 52: 5-11. 73. Anadon A. Pharmacokinetics of tetracycline in chickens after intravenous administration. Poult Sci 1985; 64: 2273-9. 74. Kniffen TS, Bane DP, Hall WF, et al. Bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and plasma concentration of tetracycline fed to swine. Am J Vet Res 1989 Apr; 50(4): 518-21. 75. Kietzman M, Nolte I, Mischke R. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of orally-administered tetracycline in dogs and cats. Kleintierpraxis 1995 Apr; 40(4): 253. 76. Bradley BD, Allen EH, Showalter DH, et al. Comparative pharmacokinetics of chlortetracycline in milk fed versus conventionally fed calves. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1982; 5: 267-78. 77. Kilroy CR, Hall WF, Bane DP, et al. Chlortetracycline in swine- bioavailability and pharmacokinetics in fasted and fed pigs. 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de Diagnóstico y TratamientoPSIQUIATRÍA La calidad requiere guías que orienten y normas que regulen el proceso La salud. Un derecho para vivir bien Esta publicación es propiedad del Instituto Nacional de Seguros de Salud INASES, siendo autorizada su reproducción total o parcial a condición de citar fuente y propiedad.Departamento Técnico de SaludDeposito Legal: 4 - 1 - 449 - 12 - P.O.

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inter 2009 This issue is dedicated to the life and legacy of the late Roscoe Jacobs Sr. This issue is dedicated to the life and legacy of the late Roscoe Jacobs Sr. of Bolton, longtime Chief of the Waccamaw-Siouan. of Bolton, longtime Chief of the Waccamaw-Siouan. REMEMBERING A MODERN DAY WARRIOR It is with deep affection and respect that I refl ect on the life and contributions of Chief Roscoe Jacobs, the fi rst elected and, until his death at age 86 on January 27, the presiding chief of the Waccamaw-Siouan Tribe. He also was a beloved and longstanding member of the N.C. Commission of Indian Affairs, which since 1971 has served to assist the more than 100,000 American Indians who call North Carolina home.