Published online: August 31, 2015 Stress-response balance drives the evolution of anetwork module and its host genome Caleb González1,†, Joe Christian J Ray1,2,†, Michael Manhart3,4, Rhys M Adams1, Dmitry Nevozhay1,5, Alexandre V Morozov3,6 & Gábor Balázsi1,7,8,* have expanded quickly, feeding on general biological knowledge.Conversely, synthetic biology has enormous but unexploited poten-
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Indian time winter09.indd
This issue is dedicated to the life and legacy of the late Roscoe Jacobs Sr. This issue is dedicated to the life and legacy of the late Roscoe Jacobs Sr. of Bolton, longtime Chief of the Waccamaw-Siouan.
of Bolton, longtime Chief of the Waccamaw-Siouan.
REMEMBERING A MODERN DAY WARRIOR
It is with deep affection and respect that I refl ect on the life and contributions of Chief Roscoe Jacobs, the fi rst elected and, until his death at age 86 on January 27, the presiding chief of the Waccamaw-Siouan Tribe. He also was a beloved and longstanding member of the N.C. Commission of Indian Affairs, which since 1971 has served to assist the more than 100,000 American Indians who call North Carolina home.
It was a great privilege to deliver Gov. Bev Perdue's message of appreciation at Chief Jacobs' funeral. A personal letter written to his family expressed her deep sympathy and acknowledged the Chief's accomplishments and contributions to the Waccamaw-Siouan, his community and to all of North Carolina tribes. Chief Jacobs was a modern-day warrior who worked hard throughout his life to assure that Indians were treated fairly, not discriminated against, and that they were represented in all aspects of decision making at the local, state and federal level. He was among the few surviving Indian leaders who chose to take up his peoples' cause back in the 1950s and ‘60s, when it was not very popular to be an American Indian. He was very proud of his heritage, always wearing a feather, his signature red suspenders and a traditional American Indian bolo necktie, as a badge of pride.
I am deeply honored to have had the opportunity to know and work with such an honorable leader and will truly miss him. He has certainly earned his rightful place in North Carolina's American Indian history.
Note: This remembrance fi rst ran on Gov. Bev Perdue's eTown Hall website: Gregory A. Richardson FROM THE DESK OF THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
While 2009 has started under a cloud of economic uncertainty, we at the Commission of Indian Affairs are encouraged by the history-making inaugurations of Gov. Bev Perdue and President Barack Obama. Both provide grounds for genuine optimism.
The Commission took an active role in the offi cial debut of North Carolina's fi rst female chief executive, who clearly enjoyed the warm welcome displayed by tribal members who accompanied a fl oat representing all state tribes and organizations in her inaugural parade. Personally, it was a great honor to be invited to introduce her the following week at the 28th annual State Employees Martin Luther King Jr. Day Observance, a remarkable event that truly celebrated diversity.
We are delighted that the Governor asked Britt Cobb to remain our Secretary at the N.C. Department of Administration. While we wish former Deputy Secretary McKinley Wooten well Greg Richardson following his departure from DOA for a new position at the Administrative Offi ce of the Courts, Commission of Indian Affairs we are excited about the opportunity to work with newly appointed Deputy Secretary June Michaux. The former State Property Offi cer has expressed a high interest in our issues and is dedicated to assisting all DOA advocacy agencies.
We anticipate a challenging but rewarding year as we work to enhance the lives of all of North Carolina's American Indian citizens. We support the Governor's efforts to address a serious budget shortfall by making deep cuts in our own budget, which include a hiring freeze and restrictions on purchasing and travel. We hope to offset the state budget cuts with funding from federal grants, which we anticipate to be available through the President's economic recovery plan. Since federal grants will continue to be our main source of operating revenue, we do not anticipate any reduction in services for funded programs at this time. inter 2009
U.S. CENSUS MEETING
The Commission held on a meeting on behalf of the U.S.
Census on Feb. 4 at our Raleigh offi ce. The purpose was to
receive input from North Carolina tribal leaders and staff
regarding the development of census tracking maps for each
Commission Executive Director Greg Richardson has been designated by the Governor's Offi ce to serve as the liaison for the 2010 U.S. Census, Geographic Program for State-Recognized Indian Tribes in North Carolina. His responsibility is to advocate for tribal input regarding the 2010 U.S. Census.
The U.S. Census is conducted every 10 years and is Beverly Perdue was sworn in as North Carolina's 73rd constitutionally required to count every U.S. citizen. Governor on Jan. 12. State Supreme Court Chief Justice All state-recognized tribes have been asked to send a Sarah Parker delivered the oath of offi ce to Perdue during a representative to the meeting. The Census Bureau will work ceremony on the steps of the State Archives building. directly with the federally-recognized Eastern Band of The other nine members of the Council of State were also Cherokee Indians Tribe.
sworn in during the ceremony.
COMMISSION FEATURED AT PARADE
The Commission and the N.C. Native American Youth
Association were represented by a fl oat in the inaugural
parade that followed the swearing in of Governor Perdue.
The entry featured American Indian veterans, tribal
princesses, Indian youth and tribal representatives.
This marked the fi rst time that the Commission had a fl oat
in an Inaugural Parade. Special thanks to Sadie Barbour and
her family for their help in the construction of the fl oat, as
well as to the Coharie Intra-Tribal Council; Cumberland
County Association of Indian People; Lumbee Regional
Association; N.C. Native Youth Organization, Lila
Spaulding and Commission staff members for their support.
INDIAN CHILD WELFARE
The Commission held a N.C. Indian Child Welfare Issues
Roundtable on Jan. 15 at the N.C. Indian Housing Authority
in Fayetteville. The purpose of meeting was to discuss
issues associated with the placement of American Indian
children in non-Indian foster or adoptive care. About 25
tribal representatives and social workers from around the
state attended and voiced their concerns about present child
welfare laws for state recognized tribes.
Public Law 95-608, the Federal Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) of 1978, was passed to remedy the problem of disproportionally large numbers of federally-recognized Indian children being placed in foster care away from the Indian community. NCGS 2001-309 provides some protection for state-recognized Indian children; however, inter 2009
the Commission will study the standards necessary to meet AMERICAN INDIAN NEWS
the needs of vulnerable Indian children and families. NATIVE AMERICAN COIN
YOUTH TOBACCO PREVENTION GRANT
The Secretary of the U.S. Treasury The Commission has received $525,000 from the Health recently announced that the and Wellness Trust Fund Commission for the Teen Tobacco offi cial $1 Native American Use Prevention and Cessation program, which supports coin for 2009 has been selected. community-based efforts to reduce youth smoking. It features a Native American woman planting seeds in a Commission efforts are part of the focus to eliminate health fi eld of corn, beans and squash, disparities in African American, American Indian and representing what's known as the Latino populations. Grantees will also work to increase the "Three Sisters" method of planting.
cultural competency of health care providers so they can offer more culturally-appropriate services to these disparate Public Law 110-82 directed the Secretary of the Treasury to mint and issue the new $1 coin to recognize Native Americans for their contributions to the history and development of the Since 2003, the Commission has supported and assisted United States. It will be minted in gold-colored alloy, like the American Indian communities in receiving more than current Presidential $1 coins.
$2 million in grants. These funds benefi t health education and health preventive programs in American Indian communities. They proactively promote tobacco cessation Barry Richardson became the fi rst American Indian chairman and healthy lifestyle behaviors and make a positive impact of the Warren County Board of Commissioners in December. on the youth and adults in these areas.
He is a member of the Haliwa-Saponi Tribe and was fi rst elected to the commission in 2004.
"I want to thank the Health and Wellness Trust Fund Commission for providing the Commission with an opportunity to address and reduce the incidences of teen tobacco use among American Indian Youth," said Greg Greg Bell has been appointed to fi ll unexpired term created Richardson, Commission Executive Director. by the retirement of Judge Gary Locklear on Dec. 31. Bell, a member of the Lumbee Tribe, received his undergraduate In addition to this grant award, the Commission partners degree from the University of North Carolina at Pembroke with the following tribes and organizations that also and his Juris Doctorate degree from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He was in private practice for 12 years before becoming a District Court judge in 2002. He Phase II Eliminating Health Disparities Initiative
also has served as an appeals referee with the Employment Security Commission, a staff attorney with Lumbee River Haliwa Saponi Indian Tribe Legal Services and worked as a teacher in the Robeson Native American Interfaith Ministry County Public Schools.
Phase IV Teen Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation
The N.C. Humanities Council has awarded the Haliwa-Saponi Haliwa-Saponi Indian Tribe Indian Tribe a $9,693 grant to be used to record the history of the Haliwa Indian School, now the Haliwa-Saponi Tribal N.C. Commission of Indian Affairs The research also will examine the history, values and cultural forces that have shaped tribal experience during the history of the school. The goal is to publish a book on the school and history of the tribe. Local residents with photographs of the Haliwa Indian School or who would like to participate in the project should contact Marty Richardson at the tribal offi ce at 252-586-4017.
MISCLASSIFICATION OF CANCER DATA
Hydrilla is a submersed, rooted aquatic plant that forms The State Center for Health Statistics has conducted a dense mats in a wide variety of freshwater habitats, such as study to: (1) quantify the extent of misclassifi cation of canals, springs, streams, ponds, lakes, rivers and reservoirs. race among non-federally recognized American Indians It often dominates aquatic habitats, causing signifi cant in North Carolina cancer incidence data; (2) correct race economic damage.
among those misclassifi ed; and (3) evaluate the impact of misclassifi cation on American Indian cancer incidence rates. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT NEWS
The study estimated 18 percent under-ascertainment of non-reservation American Indians in cancer registration A groundbreaking ceremony was held on Jan. 9 for a new in North Carolina. The underestimation of cancer burden Holiday Inn Express to be built just off of N.C. 711 on among American Indians in North Carolina may lead to Redmond Road in Pembroke. The three-story, 63-room lower resources for prevention. To view the complete hotel is owned by the First American Hotel Group, LLC, a group composed of mostly local investors will create construction jobs and permanent jobs when fi nished. Construction is expected to be fi nished in late September.
The Commission has been concerned about misclassifi cation of American Indian data for quite Dr. Robin Cummings of Pinehurst, who serves as chair some time, and is working to address this with the N.C. for the Commission of Indian Affairs' Indian Health Department of Health and Human Services and the Offi ce Committee, spoke at the ceremony. "I am proud that the of Minority Health. investors have not waived because they saw the need for a hotel in the community," Cummings said. "The hotel will be fi rst-class with meeting space for groups of more than Then UNC Diabetes Care Center is seeking volunteers to participate in a research study of an investigational once-weekly injection similar to Byetta, which is currently FDA Others involved include the Town of Pembroke, the approved, for the treatment of diabetes. The length of the University of North Carolina at Pembroke, the Lumbee study is 56 weeks or approximately one year. The study Guaranty Bank of Pembroke and attorney Grady Hunt of involves up to 11 visits during study period. Visits will take Locklear, Jacobs & Hunt.
place at the UNC Diabetes Care Center.
Study related benefi ts at no cost to participants include; COMMISSION PROGRAMS AND
study medication, related lab testing, ECGs, physical ACTIVITIES AT A GLANCE
exams, glucose monitoring and compensation for time. COMMUNITY SERVICES PROGRAM
Participants must be 18 years of age or older; have type 2 Diabetes; and are taking the oral anti-Diabetic medication HEALTH AND HEALING QUILT PROJECT
Metformin, Actos, Avandia or a combination of either.
Two years ago, during the 27th annual N.C. Indian Senior For information, contact Stefanie Jeremiah at 919-484- Citizens Coalition Conference, about 96 American Indian 0931, extension 269, or elders from across the state participated in an art therapy online registry, visit workshop conducted by students and faculty from the graduate art therapy program at Eastern Virginia Medical N.C. INDIAN CULTURAL CENTER LAKE
Works to control the spread of a hydrilla infestation at the N.C. Indian Cultural Center Lake in Pembroke is The purpose of the workshop was to give voice to the complete and activities have resumed. Only small amounts elder community through drawing, sculpture and poetry. of the weed remains and any new sprouting will be Participants created a "health and healing" paper quilt closely monitored, according to the N.C. Department of constructed from all of the drawings and incorporated the Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water conference theme of "Looking Forward." The participants were asked to make a word association to their drawing; these words were written down sequentially to construct a collective poem. inter 2009
The activity inspired Carol Brewington, Brenda Moore, SONS PROGRAM
Shirley Freeman and Sadie Barbour to start work on a The Supporting Our Native Students (SONS) Program permanent fabric quilt incorporating all 96 images. This provided $7,000 to students participating in the program. quilt served as a means of socialization in the quilting room More than $4,300 was used to provide book vouchers and at last year's 33rd Annual N.C. Indian Unity Conference, about $2,600 was paid to students in the form of a semester- where approximately 75 participants – some of whom has completion incentive for completing the fall semester with a never quilted before – shared in the stitching of the circles grade-point average of 2.0 or greater. surrounding the images. The goal of the SONS Program is to provide educational "The stitching represented a connection, through needle and opportunities for American Indians whose educational and thread, an aspect of sharing stories from elders to youth," socioeconomic background might otherwise prevent them said Brewington, adding that feelings in the quilt room were from successfully attending and succeeding in college. The focused more on a sense of pride than creating a "pretty" SONS Program provides income-eligible college students with a book voucher for the fall and spring semesters, and semester completion incentive payments. The quilt was shown at the 2008 N.C. Native American Youth Conference and received the honor or "best in All students are required to complete an application show" at the 28th annual N.C. Indian Senior Citizens including supporting documents and meet income Coalition Conference. It also was displayed at the 2008 eligibility requirements. For information, contact Kimberly American Indian Heritage Celebration at the N.C. Natural Hammonds, Economic Development Director, at History Museum, and at the 34th annual N.C. Indian Unity EDUCATIONAL TALENT SEARCH PROGRAM
The project is ongoing, with the remaining 56 images still The Higher Education Opportunity Act (HEOA) became under construction. The remaining panels are being made by law in August. HEOA creates several changes to the tribal members who have lost love ones to cancer as a part of Educational Talent Search Program. Specifi cally, the their healing process.
legislation modifi ed the purpose of the program to include college completion; created an expanded defi nition of prior experience (which had formerly been defi ned by the Department of Education); created a Required Services section that specifi es the types of information and assistance that Talent Search projects must provide for students; and enhanced the Permissible Services section to include a broader range of project formats and participants.
From left, Emily Basto, Carol Brewington and Sadie Barbour. inter 2009
As a result, future Talent Search projects will provide: NCNAYO GRANTS
The N.C. Native American Youth Organization (NCNAYO)
• A Broader Range of Program Offerings. The new
met on Jan. 31 to make grant awards to four projects that Required Services section of the legislation expands the will serve American Indian youth and their communities. types of services to be offered by Talent Search to include The projects are funded by the N.C. American Indian Fund targeted information relating to federal student aid programs, in partnership with N.C. Gives. including Pell Grants and loan forgiveness; assistance with secondary school reentry, alternative education programs, The Waccamaw Drum Circle received a grant to host a and general educational development (GED) programs; and series of seven workshops that will bring youth and elders information about fi nancial literacy and fi nancial planning together to learn about a variety of topics, ranging from for higher education for students and their families.
diet and diabetes to staying active through traditional dance. The Waccamaw Youth Ambassadors received • More Intensive Services. In addition to adding new types
a grant for the development of a curriculum for tribal of services, the legislation also requires the enhancement leadership development which will be shared with other of current counseling services to encourage continued tribal communities. A youth group in the Metrolina Native secondary school enrollment and to prepare students American Association target counties received a grant to for more rigorous coursework, and, ultimately, college learn about graphic arts and screen printing. The Tuscarora Nation Youth received a grant to study the Tuscarora language and make language kits for families to study • Prior experience will now evaluate Talent Search projects
Tuscarora language together.
on the extent to which they provide "high quality services" as manifested, in part, by how projects fare in preparing All of these grant applications were written by tribal youth students to complete rigorous secondary school curricula to serve tribal youth and their communities. that make them eligible for programs such as the Academic Competitiveness Grant Program. The new prior experience HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAM
criteria also require Talent Search projects to report the rates HUD published a fi nal rule on Jan. 27 which amends its at which their students graduate from high school on time rules regarding housing assistance and eligibility. Effective and enroll in and graduate from postsecondary education March 30, all family members must have an Social Security Number (SSN) and produce a Social Security card to be eligible for Public Housing or Section 8 housing assistance, To successfully meet the new prior experience criteria, including both tenant-based and project-based Section 8 Talent Search projects will need to increase the intensity and, quite likely, the frequency of counseling sessions for each participant. For information, contact Mickey Locklear The new rule makes it clear that an SSN is a condition of eligibility for all family members. If an existing family member cannot product a valid Social Security card by the next scheduled re-exam, they will not be eligible for housing assistance. The rule also states that participants must re-verify the SSN of all participants in your programs during the next scheduled Interim or Annual re-exam. The fi nal rule (unlike the proposed rule) does not allow for a "grace period" or specifi c time to allow the household member to obtain an SSN if they are currently assisted.
In the comments that accompany the rule publication, HUD stated that "the intent of the fi nal rule is to notify affected families and require a specifi ed time frame to submit the Social Security Numbers." The notice and time frame are to be "in accordance with the provisions governing the program involved," but the deadline for compliance is no later than the next scheduled re-exam for each family that occurs after the March 30 effective date.
WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
Carolyn Hunt Crocker, American Indian Workforce Specialist,
attended a Jan. 13 economic development roundtable discussion
at Southeastern Community College in Whiteville. The event
featured Congressman Mike McIntyre.
This was the third in a series of events in which McIntyre was scheduled hear concerns and collect feedback on the economy from business people, community leaders and elected offi cials. CALENDAR OF EVENTS
April 2-3 American Indian Southeast Conference, Pembroke
Sponsored by the American Indian Students Department of
UNC-Pembroke, the purpose of the Southeast Indian Studies
Conference is to provide a forum for discussion of the culture,
history, art, health and contemporary issues of American Indians
in the Southeast. The conference serves as a critical venue for
scholars, students and all persons interested in American Indian
Studies in the region.
For information, contact Dr. Mary Ann Jacobs at 910-521-6266 June 15-18
N.C. Native American Youth Organization Youth
Contact: Mickey Locklear 919-789-5900
American Indian Women's Conference, UNC-Pembroke
Contact: Lawrence Locklear at
Indian Time is published by the N.C. Commission of Indian Affairs. The newsletter is designed to highlight activities and issues of importance to the American Indian people of North Carolina. N.C. Commission of Indian Affairs 1317 Mail Service Center Raleigh, N.C. 27699-1317 (919) 789-5900 Photography credit: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's online digital media library Coharie Indian Tribe
Gene Faircloth Isabell Freeman-Elliott
Cumberland County Association for Indian People
N.C. Department of Administration Barbara Melvin Roy Maynor Eastern Band of Cherokee
Patrick H. Lambert
Guilford Native American Association
Frances Stewart Lowry
Haliwa-Saponi Indian Tribe
Barry Richardson Ruth Ealing
Lumbee Indian Tribe
Furnie Lambert Larece Hunt J. Garth Locklear
Metrolina Native American Association
Robin Lynn Strickland
Occaneechi Band of Saponi Nation
Sharn M. Jeffries
Triangle Native American Society
Brett A. Locklear
Waccamaw-Siouan Indian Tride
Elton Ray Jacobs Lila Spaulding
N.C. Department of Administration
Britt Cobb, Secretary • Designee: June Michaux
Employment Security Commission
Moses Carey, Jr., Chairman • Designee: Patrice Fields
N.C. Department of Environment & Natural Resources
Dee Freeman, Secretary • Designee: David Knight Paul Brooks, Chairman Earlene Stacks, Vice Chairman N.C. Department of Health and Human Services
Lila Spaulding, Secretary/Treasurer Lanier M. Cansler, Secretary • Designee: Maria Spaulding N.C. Department of Labor
Cherie Berry, Commissioner • Designee: Tina Morris-Anderson Gregory A. Richardson, Executive Director Pamela DeRensis, Special Assistant (on loan from the U.S. Department of Education) President Pro Tem Appointee
Rebekah Revels-Lowery, Administrative Secretary Speaker of the House Appointee
Sadie Barbour, Director, Community Services Program Missy Brayboy, Director, NOT Program/Indian Health Initiative Kimberly Hammonds, Director, Economic Development/ YOUTH EX OFFICIO
Supporting Our Native Students Program/ N.C. Native American Youth Organization
Community Services Block Grant Program Olivia Richardson Mickey Locklear, Director, Educational Talent Search Program N.C. Native American Council on Higher Education
Elk Richardson, Director, Workforce Investment Act Program W.C. Groves, Director, Section 8 Housing Program
Perceived Risks Incurred Along With Genetic Engineering's Alluring Benefits New approaches to the practice of medicine and to food production have arrived on the technolo-gical scene as a consequence of the knowledge gained through modern genome sequencing. Now Scientists and genetic engineers can modify and manipulate the fundamental genetic code of cer-tain crops and animals to benefit mankind. Although the stated goals of genetic engineering and genetic modification are noble, these activities are not without associated risks and drawbacks, which apparently have received much less attention. The discussion below is an attempt to reme-dy that oversight by discussing both aspects in one gulp in a form that is easy to understand, without hype, with the venom removed and the invective wording toned down (from how it was originally stated elsewhere in many cases). We eschew being extreme in portraying either view; otherwise, adversaries would dismiss it out-of-hand as not being worthy to even consider further. In compiling the list of risks (and benefits) here below, we rely only on information and facts provided by internationally recognized scientific journals, nationally recognized newspapers, and three of the Public Broadcasting System's (PBS) NOVA series -. Each of these particular sources is well known for thoroughly crosschecking its supporting facts and, moreover, is avail-able from most U.S. public libraries for further confirmation. We specifically avoided visiting or viewing Web sites, pro or con (such as those of the USDA, FDA, EPA, The Foundation for Eco-nomic Trends, Friends of the Earth, International Green Peace, or the Earth Liberation Front) because information posted on the Web, in general, is notorious for being self-serving (by dis-seminating biases interspersed with truth), ephemeral (since it can vanish), and time-varying. Our aim here is not to convert or dissuade any existing views away from the current U.S. policy of encouraging progress in genetic engineering/genetic modification because the apparent con-sensus is that it is important for the long-term welfare of the U.S. and the world, both scientific-cally and economically, to continue on this course. The objective here is merely to delineate the benefits (as perceived by its advocates) and the drawbacks (as perceived by its opponents) of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), all in one place. The worries of the GMO critics appear to all pertain, at a high level, to one or more of the following four questions: