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This article was first published inWise Traditions, the quarterly magazine of The Weston A. Price Foundation,Washington, DC,, (202) 333-HEAL.
By Eric Davis, DDS In Greek mythology, Mercury is the Although a natural component of lower-order organisms are eaten by higher- fleet-footed messenger of the Gods. He the earth's crust, mercury does not have a order organisms, the mercury concentration was the cleverest of the Olympians, patron role in the human body. Yet humans are is increased along the food chain.7 This of translators and interpreters. He ruled constantly exposed to mercury, primarily process of accumulation at each trophic over wealth, good fortune, commerce, through large fish (terrestial animals are level is called biological magnification. As fertility. . and thievery. He brought the negligible sources),2 thimerosol (a humans are at the highest trophic levels, souls of the dead to the underworld, and preservative added to vaccinations and mercury can have a very destructive effect was honoured as a god of sleep. As a many other pharmaceuticals) and "amal- on individuals and on the entire gene pool.8 physical substance in the living organism, gam" or mercury-based dental fillings.
Most poison molecules that enter the however, mercury is the antithesis of the Adverse health effects, particularly of a body are processed by the liver or kidney fleet-footed messenger's finer qualities. In neurological nature, have resulted from and broken down into smaller components, the body, mercury disrupts cellular low exposure levels, especially to the then excreted in relatively less toxic forms function at all levels, robbing the body of foetus in pregnant women.
than they were originally. Heavy metals are health and escorting the victim to the Mercury vapor released from different. They cannot be broken down, so underworld of neurological dysfunction.
mercury dental fillings is absorbed very unless they are excreted immediately after Mercury is a powerful poison. Pub- rapidly and thoroughly by your body, they are ingested, these absolutely inde- lished research has shown that mercury, primarily by inhalation and swallowing.3 structible elements accumulate and continue even in small amounts, is more toxic than This elemental mercury also adds to the as a source of potential damage.
lead, cadmium and even arsenic. Some of environment in significant amounts when The toxicity of mercury came into the most common signs and symptoms of dental wastes are not disposed of prop- world prominence in the 1950s as a result mercury exposure include irritability, fits erly,4 and through cremation, which of mercury dumping in the Minamata Bay of anger, lack of energy, fatigue, low self- vaporizes the mercury in the amalgams.
in Japan. Consumption of seafood from esteem, drowsiness, decline of intellect, Although crematoriums now often use the bay led to widespread neurological low self-control, nervousness, memory mercury vapor collectors to prevent this, damage and teratogenic effects. After all loss, depression, anxiety, shyness/timidity they are not mandatory. Mercury vapor the cats in the neighbourhood died—some and insomnia.
collectors are also used in some dental found committing suicide—and birds surgeries but a better solution is the began falling from the sky, the govern- MERCURY, THE ELEMENT
immediate cessation of the use of amal- ment began an investigation. They brought Mercury is a dense liquid metal gam fillings.
in new cats and followed them around to that gives off a colorless, odorless, Mercury released into the atmos- see what was killing them. Even when the tasteless vapor at relatively low tempera- phere is indestructible; it merely hides or source was known—the bay and subse- tures. The three most commonly encoun- changes its form, being truly fleet-footed.
quently the wildlife there—the chemical tered forms are the vapor form (Hg), the Mercury is incorporated into the food plant continued to pollute and fishermen ionic form, (Hg2+) and the organic family chain as methyl mercury, primarily continued to sell their catch. By 1997, of forms, principally methyl mercury (Cl- through the action of bacteria and other 2,200 people were certified as having Hg0-CH3). Each has its own effects, microbes transforming elemental or Minamata disease and qualified for routes of absorption and tissue inorganic forms. Even mercury from compensation. More than 8,000 suffered amalgams is readily methylated by from some degree of physical and psycho- In spite of its well recognized bacteria in the mouth.5 Organic mercury logical symptoms, such as muscle and toxicity, mercury in its various forms is is the most deadly of the mercury com- joint pain, forgetfulness, memory loss, released into the environment at the rate of pounds, probably due to its ability to enter fatigue and tremors.9,10 11,000 tons annually, supposedly for the the cells almost effortlessly. Within the "benefit" of mankind. Cinnabar (mercuric cell it can destroy the various components MERCURY HOT SPOTS
sulphite), for instance, continues to be used selectively or in total by releasing Scientists investigating mercury buildup for red pigment in many tattoo salons; lysosomes, damaging DNA and by in wildlife have looked closely at two calomel (mercurous chloride) is a common rupturing the cell membrane. Its effects locations where mercury concentrations treatment for diaper rash; mercury vapour upon the neurological and reproductive are particularly high: the Mediterranean lamps provide enhanced indoor and system have been extensively docu- basin and the island of Madeira in the outdoor lighting; and elemental mercury has many uses including thermostat Methyl mercury accumulates in Marine animals found in the regulation and the manufacture of plastics, living organisms because it has a strong Mediterranean Basin have high mercury mirrors and thermometers.
affinity for protein sulfhydryl groups. As concentrations compared to similar

MERCURY - Special Feature
Hg2+ does indeed accumulate in the body from the metallic mercury vapor given off by dental amalgam fillings. In addition, methyl mercury, the highly toxic organic compound, can be formed from inorganic mercury by the action of bacteria in the mouth.
A study carried out by M. J. Vimy industrial process in 1990,13 brought to light the highly absorbable nature of mercury out-gassed amalgam fillings, by amalgam fillings. He placed twelve occlusal amalgams contain-ing radioac- tively tagged mercury (that does not occur across the pulmonary in nature) in the molars of pregnant sheep.
membranes. It then dis- Radioactivity mea-surements determined solves in plasma, persisting as a that by the third day mercury was found in species from most parts of the Atlantic dissolved gas for a period sufficient to the amniotic fluid and foetal blood, and because of the natural presence of mer- cross most of the diffusion barriers in the that by the 26th day most foetal tissues cury from volcanic activity. About half of body including the blood-brain barrier.
(especially the liver, bile, bone marrow, world mercury resources are located in the Once it enters cells, whether the blood and brain) had a higher mercury Mediterranean area.11 Mining in the area brain or red blood cells, or any other level than that within three days found in has increased the release of mercury into body cell, mercury un-dergoes an maternal tissues. During lactation mercury the environment.
oxidation reaction to the inorganic ionic levels in the milk were eight times greater The process of biomagnification in the form—often referred to as divalent than those in the maternal blood serum, Mediterranean basin is evident. High mercury (Hg2+). Through this route thereby causing great risk of mercury levels of mercury are found in Mediterra-nean tuna compared to similar species inmost parts of the Atlantic, as well as insmaller species such as anchovy and SYMPTOMS OF MERCURY TOXICITY
sardines, and also in local marine birdsand their eggs. An investigation of 1. LOCAL ORAL CAVITY: Excessive salivation; metallic taste; swollen tongue with
fishermen and their families in coastal scalloped edges; periodontal disease; bleeding gums; stomatitis; loosening of teeth; foul villages on the north Tyrrhenian Sea found breath; white patches in mouth; bone loss around teeth; ulcers of gums, palate, a correlation between the number of tongue; burning of mouth; gum pigmentation.
seafood meals and the mercury levelsfrom hair samples. Those consuming one 2. PSYCHOLOGICAL: Irritability and unreasonable anger; inability to make decisions;
or fewer seafood meals per month aver- insomnia; lack of concentration; low self-confidence; drowsiness; decline of intellect; aged about 1 mcg/g while those who low self-control; nervousness; memory loss; depression; anxiety; shyness /timidity.
consumed four or more seafood meals perweek had an average of 36 mcg/g. Levels 3. NEUROLOGICAL: Headaches, including migraines; tremors (hands, feet, eyelids,
over 50 mcg/g of mercury in hair were tongue); muscular weakness; diffuse myalgia (muscular rheumatism); tinnitus (ringing in found in a few fishermen, who then the ears); paraesthesia (abnormal skin sensations); impaired visual fields and visual underwent a cytogenetic monitoring study acuity; depression; memory loss.
to evaluate DNA damage. A positivecorrelation was found between mercury 4. CARDIOVASCULAR AND RESPIRATORY: Tachyarrhythmia (irregular heart beat);
concentration in blood and chromosomal chest pain; changes in blood pressure; feeble or irregular pulse; pain or pressure in aberration, findings that have been chest; persistent cough; emphysema; shallow or irregular breathing.
confirmed by several authors.
A study of women in the village of 5. GASTROINTESTINAL: Abdominal pain (often mimicking ulcers); colitis; constipation;
Camara de Lobos in the island of Madeira, diarrhoea; irritable bowel.
where sea currents cause a concentration ofmercury in local sea life, found that average 6. IMMUNOLOGICAL: Allergies; rhinitis; swollen lymph nodes in neck; asthma;
values of total mercury in hair and blood were about 10 mcg/g and 32 mcg/L respec-tively. These levels have been associated 7. ENDOCRINOLOGICAL: Chronic fatigue; subnormal temperature; excessive
with risk for fetal brain development.
perspiration; edema; weight loss; cold, clammy hands and feet; muscle weakness;hypoxia (oxygen deficiency in the tissues); loss of appetite; joint pain; thyroid dysfunc- MERCURY FROM AMALGAMS
tion; infertility.
The largest exposure to mercury among adults comes comes from a source that is 8. URINOGENITAL: Frequent urination; night urination; loss of libido.
completely avoidable—amalgam fill-ings—primarily in the form of vapor of 9. INTEGUMENTARY: Unexplained rashes.
metallic, elemental mercury. Elemental

exposure to the neonate. Even after the mercury in the milk at 2 months were due non-occupationally exposed population.19 73rd day the mer-cury level in the foetal to higher amounts of milk being produced.
tissues was still rising, prompting Vimy's Mercury is excreted predominantly team to conclude that placing amalgam in the faeces, but also in sweat and urine.
In spite of well-established health risks, during pregnancy unquestionably places Five percent will be excreted in breast organic mercurials are still added to the foetus at undue risk and endangers the milk. By the time of parturition, a baby's prescription and non-prescription drugs, health of our children.
levels can be 30 percent higher to 100 such as medicines for haemorrhoids Vimy also found that the labelled percent higher than that of the mother.
(Preparation H), as well as in formulations mercury concentrated within three days in Mercury passes readily across the pla- for the treatment of bacterial and fungal the sheeps' kidneys and caused a signifi- centa, and binds to the red blood cells and infections. Because mercury has antifungal cant reduction in the glomerular filtration tissues in the foetus. Since the foetus is properties, it is used in indoor paints.20 rate. In a second animal study of monkeys, not sweating, making bile or having bowel Until recently, nearly all contact lens whose digestive tract is much more movements, the mercury accumulates.
solutions contained thimerosal as an closely related to that of humans, a team Also, foetal haemoglobin has a greater antibacterial agent. Thimerosal is ethyl of microbiologists from the University of affinity for mercury than the mother's mercury, an organic mercurial (sometimes Georgia working with Vimy found that called merthiolate). In some patients, mercury from dental amalgam promoted On January 12, 2001, the FDA press thimerosal caused visible accumulation of the development of mer-cury-resistant office released a statement advising mercury in the retina and chronic eye bacteria in both the mouth and in the pregnant women, women of childbearing irritation. In a few highly sensitive people, intestine, a finding of far-reaching signifi- age who may become pregnant, nursing the mercury-based additive caused loss of mothers, and young children not to eat sight. Nevertheless, manufacturers shark, swordfish, tilefish and king mack- continued to add it to contact lense MERCURY IN BREAST MILK
erel. The statement also warned against solution for many years. The ban on two servings of any other fish per week.
Studies carried out during the mid 1990s thimerosal in contact lens solutions did Government agencies in Australia and found a correlation between the mercury little to eliminate its use in other products, New Zealand have issued similar recom- concentrations in the kidneys of newborn such as eardrops and nose drops. Thime- babies and the number of amalgam fillings rosal continues to be used today in a The FDA report cited swordfish that of the mother.15 As a result, the Federal variety of health-related products: for routinely tested over the 1 mcg/g "action Institute of Medicines and Medical Products preserving vaccines and intramuscular level," above which fish should not be (an agency of the German government) injections, cosmetics, and some drugs that sold. Some swordfish contained greater officially advised against the use of amal- must be kept in solution.
than 3 ppm of mercury. Thus, the EPA and gam as a filling material during pregnancy It is the thimerosal used in childhood FDA advises expectant mothers to reduce and breast feeding.16 vaccines that gives the greatest cause for or eliminate their intake of seafood due to These studies found that the mercury concern. Investigators evaluating doses of the possibility that the amount of methyl concentration in the urine of pregnant and mercury in the form of thimerosal used as mercury contained in fish might adversely lactating women positively correlated with a preservative in childhood immunizations affect their unborn offspring. The question the number and surfaces of amalgam found that they exceeded US federal is, why aren't the EPA and FDA clamoring fillings and with frequency of fish con- safety guidelines. The analysis showed for the elimination of mercury amalgam sumption.17 Levels of mercury in breast increased risks for neurodevelopment restorations—a much greater source of milk taken at day 2 of lactation also disorders, autism and heart disease with mercury than swordfish—at least in depended on the number and surfaces of increasing exposure to thimerosal in pregnant women, women of child bearing amalgam fillings and with frequency of fish vaccines. The US Environmental Protec- age and children? As long ago as 1991, a consumption. Mercury levels in the second tion Agency (EPA) safety of exposure panel of experts convened by the World breast milk sample, taken after two months standard is .1 microgram per kilogram of Health Organization determined that of breastfeeding, were found to depend body weight per day equating to 7 mercury amalgam fillings were the only on fish consumption. Investigators micrograms for a 70 kilogram adult. Fully primary source of mercury exposure in the believed the lower concentrations of vaccinated children receive as much as MERCURY - Special Feature
237.5 micrograms of mercury from ing a low-protein, low-fat, low-cholesterol chemistry, based on the principles of Free vaccines in doses of up to 25 micrograms diet that includes fish as the chief animal Radical Therapy,26 we can gain a fairly each. According to studies carried out by food, often eaten several times per week.
accurate idea of which toxin or combina- the research team of Geier and Geier, Nervanne was such a patient. She tion of toxins we are dealing with, where thimerosal in a single vaccine greatly originally consulted our practice in the toxin is located, how much is there and exceeds the EPA adult standard.21 November of 2001 with a multiplicity of how it is being transported, and thereby The epidemiological evidence is symptoms including migraines three times gain some idea of how best to neutralize compelling and statistically conclusive.
per week; tremors (both internal and the toxins and get them out.
Geier and Geier found that the prevalence visible external) with associated tingling The protocol we use to help the patient get of speech disorders, autism and heart in the hands and feet; poor memory and rid of mercury is a multi-step process. The arrest was a function of the mercury dose decline of cognitive function; chronic first step involves changing the diet to that the children received. Autism is now unrelenting fatigue and depression; enhance the body's ability to handle epidemic in the United States, rising from tinnitus; painful joints; night urination; a contaminant materials. The next step adds 1 in 2500 children in the mid 1980s to 1 metallic taste in her mouth; and abdominal specific supplementation and chelation in about 300 children in 1996. There has bloating with a history of diarrhoea and therapy. We then do a comprehensive survey been a steady increase to the childhood now constipation. She was also on thyroid of the mouth to determine the best order for vaccination schedule since the late1970s.
medication due to a bout of autoimmune removal of amalgams and the most compat- thyroid disease, and suffered recurrent ible type of dental material with which to MERCURY AND HEART
yeast and bacterial infections. An MRI replace them. Only then do we proceed with revealed no sign of angiopathy in the the removal of amalgam fillings.
carotid and vertebral arteries but did Upon examining Nervanne's blood Mercury exposure may also contribute reveal evidence of deep white matter results the following findings were of to heart disease in adults. In a study disease, demyelination and possible particular interest: her total serum choles- involving over 1000 men aged 42-60, multiple sclerosis.
terol was very low at 150 mg/dl with the "The Kuopio Ischemic Heart Dis- Nervanne had many mercury amalgams HDL-cholesterol at 48 mg/dl; and her ease Risk Factor Study" (KIHD), and gum disease as revealed by bleeding total protein and albumin levels were low, researchers from the University of upon flossing and oral examination. She the globulin was high normal.
Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland, noted that also had three root-filled teeth, one with Nervanne's total cholesterol, HDL- lipid peroxidation and excess risk of obvious apical pathology. Her children cholesterol and total protein levels had myocardial infarction (MI) could be suffered from dental malocclusions and never before been this low. So I asked her best related to high mercury levels in the attention behavioral problems. One of her what sort of dietary regimen she had been hair.22 At the four-year follow-up point sons was autistic.
following. Nervanne had not eaten eggs, of the KIHD study, the same research red meat or dairy products (except skim team noted that high hair mercury levels were related to increased arterial wallthickness and growth in the carotid The body deals with toxins in a very AVERAGE DAILY INTAKE
arteries.23 The team concluded: "Accu- mulation of mercury in the body is sProtective barriers and secretions OF MERCURY PER SOURCE
associated with accelerated atheroscle- (skin, sImmunologically (inflammation, rotic progression in men." Dental amalgam fillings (mercury A CASE HISTORY
immunoglobulin response) vapor), according to the American I have a busy, biologic dental practice in sBiotransformation (activation of Dental Association the Queensland area of Australia, which cytochrome P450 enzyme detoxification specializes in patients suffering from mercury toxicity. The typical patient is a sRaising blood lipids (HDL, LDL and Dental amalgam fillings (mercury female with numerous dental amalgams in VLDL cholesterol and vapor), according to the World her mouth and who has followed the advice Health Organization of the Australian Heart Foundation, consum- By doing a comprehensive blood 3.0-17.5 mcg/day average10 mcg/day extreme100 mcg/dayFish (methylmercury)2.4 mcg/dayNon-fish food (inorganic mercury)0.3 mcg/dayAir, water and food3.09 mcg/day absorbed2.26 mcg/dayOther sources negligiblesweating,making bile or having bowelmovements, the mercury accumu-lates. Also, foetal haemoglobin has agreater affinity for mercury thanthe mother's haemoglobin.18 milk or soy milk on her cereal) for several needs to be eaten. The use of additional The proteins in the diet must be animal years prior to her devastating decline in butter or lard in cooking is of paramount proteins, providing a complete specturm health. She had reduced her diet to salads, importance. By having adequate fat, bile of amino acids. A study of Asian vegetar- pasta, fruits, an occasional serving of production is stimulated, absorption of ians with incomplete amino acid intake skinless chicken and frequent canned tuna minerals increased and the excretion of showed reduced clearing of due to convenience and her desire to mercury facilitated as long as constipation xenobiotics.47 Low levels of hydrochlo- increase her omega-3 intake. She regularly ric acid have an adverse impact on the consumed "cholesterol-free" crackers with In my practice, I have found that people availability of dietary amino acids, even margarine and "lite" cheese as a snack.
who are sturdy in structure recover more in a higher protein diet, so stimulating She also consumed many other sources of quickly and have less reactivity during the pancreas using lacto-fermented foods trans fatty acids—margarine, pastries, their treatment, compared with people is crucial. Our protocol makes the use of breads, cereals and chocolate.
who are extremely thin or who lose the cultured dairy products rich in whey Did Nervanne's health fail as a result of most weight or undergo ill-advised fasting protein. Not only will whey provide the her new eating habits, or was it mere procedures concurrently while having complete protein needed for coincidence that her recent health decline been exposed to toxins such as mercury.35 metabolization of xenobiotics and followed the adoption of an extremely This observation is supported by recent mercury, it has also been shown to low-fat, low-cholesterol, low-animal- studies published in the Journal of increase glutathione content in the protein diet? I believe it was the latter and liver.48,49 We recommend sheep's milk the scientific literature confirms my A correct cholesterol response is yoghurt, rich in lauric acid, whey and fundamental to move mercury and other Nervanne's reduction in cholesterol and neurotoxins to sites where they can be By April of 2002, Nervanne's migraines total serum protein had made her vulner- excreted. A Danish study of 50,318 users had completely ceased and her able to bacterial and viral infection by of statin (cholesterol-lowering) drugs gastrointestinal symptoms had abated. For promoting T-cell suppression. This is revealed a higher risk of peripheral the first time in many years, she can string especially so in the presence of mercury, neuropathy related to the percentage of a sentence together without stuttering. Her which has been shown to reduce resist- drop in total cholesterol. In other words, inability to cope, internal irritability and ance to viruses, cancer and autoimmune lowering cholesterol increases risk of feelings of helplessness had resolved and disease.27,28 Low levels of cholesterol reactivity to nerve toxins37 resulting in she was now able care for her family and also make T-cell proliferation more pain, paraesthesia, numbness and demyeli- support her husband's efforts.The chil- difficult,29,30,31,32 and the excretion of nating effects. Six additional studies since dren's behaviors were also improving and mercury nearly impossible.
1994 have indicated the same rise in the parents were ready to commence a The onset of emotional depression and polyperipheral neuropathy symptoms for program for the child with autism.
irritability is frequently reported in people users of statin drugs,38,39,40,41,42,43 who suddenly lower their cholesterol supporting our clinical findings that low levels. These symptoms have occurred in cholesterol levels in the presence of a Most individuals can protect themselves all of the longer-term studies on choles- potent neurotoxin such as mercury found against mercury by avoiding unnecessary terol lowering, but rarely do physicians in amalgam fillings or any other source, is exposure. That means using only composite link their patients' depressive symptoms a recipe for disaster. Nervanne's history dental fillings—never amalgam—and with the sudden change in diet or choles- was characteristic of this pattern.
avoiding vaccines and pharmaceuticals that terol level.
may contain thimerosal. Occasional fish Neurotoxins are transported throughout consumption is fine in a healthy person who the body attached to protein components Our treatment for Nervanne involved a also consumes a diet rich in animal protein of lipoproteins, and therefore require radical change in her diet followed by the and fat, but tuna, swordfish and larger cholesterol for their transport and elimina- careful removal of her amalgam fillings predatory species should be consumed only tion. These neurotoxins also have a strong (as well as her root-filled teeth). Proper on rare occasions.
affinity for lipoidal tissue of the nervous diet is fundamental to clearing toxins, as The pregnant and nursing woman system and brain. A rise in cholesterol well as to regaining the best of health.
represents a special case. The foetus has levels and triglycerides in response to We advised Nervanne to eliminate tuna no way to eliminate mercury that may neurotoxins protects by preventing and other seafoods from her diet, but to cross the placental barrier and is therefore permanent attachment of the neurotoxin to incorporate a variety of meats, eggs and very vulnerable. It has been clearly the nerve and brain cells. Symptoms of whole milk dairy products. The only documented that mercury in the develop- neurotoxicity are most likely to occur seafood allowed is cod liver oil to ing infant and foetus can lead to perma- when the cholesterol is lowered suddenly provide vitamins A and D.
nent and irreversible brain damage. Thus, or when the affected patient goes on a Protein deprivation has been shown to it is highly recommended that all amalgam low-fat, low-cholesterol, low-protein diet.
decrease the liver content of several of the fillings be removed before conception and In a human trial, a high-protein, low- cytochrome P450 enzymes, the enzyme imperative that none be put in place carbohydrate diet was compared to a low- system the body calls upon to remove during pregnancy and lactation. Pregnant protein, high-carbohydrate diet. The toxins.44 Mercury also blocks the P450 and lactating women should avoid researchers found greater clearance of system.45 Trans fats also interfere with consumption of tuna, swordfish and toxins with the high-protein, low-carbohy- the P450 detoxification enzyme system, similar species completely. RH-negative drate diet and diminished clearance when according to research carried out by Dr.
women should insist on vaccines that are the ratio was reversed.33,34 To utilise the Mary Enig, so these must also be elimi- protein correctly, the fat on the "lamb" nated from the diet.46 Many unnecessary uses of MERCURY - Special Feature
mercury combined with the burning of halting the indiscriminate use of mer- post-graduate studies in the areas of coal and other fossil fuels (the most cury in all of its various forms; espe- clinical nutrition, medical acupuncture, significant source of air-borne mercury) cially the conscious act of implanting neural therapy, homotoxicology and can contaminate our food chain and mercury directly into people like you electro-acupuncture. He was a founding pollute our environment to an extent and your child by using mercury dental member and past president of the Austral- that threatens the health of everyone.
fillings and mercury-containing ian Society of Oral Medicine and Toxicol- Mercury is the most toxic of the heavy ogy. In 1996 Dr. Davis was made a fellow metals. Thus, if we are to protect our Dr Davis is principal physician of a of the Australian College of Nutritional own health as well as that of future large and busy dental practice and is well and Environmental Medicine. He has generations, it's imperative that we and known in the Health Care Industry as a lectured in the areas of Biological Den- the scientific community pass legislation leader in the field of Biological Dentistry.
tistry and Nutrition both nationally and soon at the state, local, federal and Dr Davis is also the clinical director of internationally. Visit his website at international levels for reducing or Nutrition Diagnostics. He has pursued 1. Queen HL. Chronic Mercury Toxicity: New Hope Against An Endemic Disease, Queen and Company Health Communications, Inc., Colorado Springs, Colorado, 1998.
2. Renzoni A, Zino F, Franchi E. Mercury Levels Along the Food Chain and Risk for Exposed Populations. Environmental Research, 1998;77(2):68-72.
3.Drexler H, Schaller KH. The Mercury Concentration in Breast Milk Resulting from Amalgam Fillings and Dietary Habits. Environmental Research, 1998;77(2):124-129.
4.Arenholt-Bindslev D, Larsen, AH. Mercury Levels and Discharge in Waste Water from Dental Clinics. Water Air Soil Pollution, 1996;86(1-4):93-9.
5. Leistevuo J, Leistevuo T, Helenius H, Pyy L, Osterblad M, Huovinen P, Tenovuo J. Dental amalgam fillings and the amount of organic mercury in human saliva. CariesRes May-June 2001;35(3):163-6.
6.Geier MR, Geier DA 2003, Thimerosal in Childhood Vaccines, Neurodevelopment Disorders, and Heart Disease in the United States. Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons, 2003;8(1):6-11.
7. Renzoni, op cit.
8. Heintze U, Edwardsson S, Derand T, Birkhed D. Methylation of Mercury from Dental Amalgam and Mercuric Chloride by Oral Streptococci in vitro. Scand. J. DentalResearch 1983;91(2) 150-152.
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TO APPEAR IN THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNALPreprint typeset using LATEX style emulateapj v. 8/13/10 ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES OF SOLAR SIBLING CANDIDATES I. RAM´IREZ1 , A. T. BAJKOVA2 , V. V. BOBYLEV2,3 , I. U. ROEDERER4 , D. L. LAMBERT1 , M. ENDL1 , W. D. COCHRAN1 , P. J. MACQUEEN1 , AND R. A. WITTENMYER5,6 To appear in the Astrophysical Journal Dynamical information along with survey data on metallicity and in some cases age have been used recently

Microsoft word - k9947v3_reva.doc

K9947V3 5/08 Rev. A ADEMCO 5821 Temperature Sensor & Flood Detector INSTALLATION AND SETUP GUIDE GENERAL INFORMATION TAMPER SUPERVISION The ADEMCO 5821 Temperature Sensor & Flood Detector The 5821 tamper supervision feature (Loop 4) causes a is a wireless transmitter used with Honeywell's ADEMCO trouble signal to be sent to the control if the unit's cover is