School Library Association ofNew Zealand Aotearoa Conference CONCURRENT SESSIONS abstract / biographies COLLABORATIVE FORCES WELLINGTON 2–4 JULY 2007 Wellington High School, Upper Taranaki Street, Wellington intersections COLLABORATIVE FORCES WELLINGTON 2–4 JULY 2007 ANETTE AINSWORThA Fortunate Life — The JourneyABSTRACTThe joy of being a teacher librarian has provided the opportunity to listen to many authors and illustrators discuss their books and to gain an understanding of the background to the stories. Come with me on a journey visiting Australian authors and illustrators and the remarkable work that they produce. Many of these books are then linked to the use of Literature Circles with primary school students. Explore the use of this form of reading unit to engage students with literature.
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Gvr brochure- feb 05.indd
GVR RecloserFor Pole Mounting and Substation Application
FIT AND FORGET RECLOSER
From a new generation of intelligent switchgear, the GVR
With a Choice of Protection
brings the reliability of modern materials and technology
to overhead distribution networks, achieving a lifetime of
The standard Polarr relay offers full auto-reclose maintenance free operation.*
protection and control functionality. Its long life lithium batteries eliminate the need for an auxiliary Key Features
The Whipp & Bourne patented, single coil magnetic Alternatively, the Panacea offers the highest levels actuator mechanism which allows the GVR to operate of control and protection for improved distribution independently of the MV supply and to be tested in an network performance, from directional auto-reclosing ordinary workshop.
for closed loop schemes to full remote control Environmentally friendly vacuum interruption utilising the DNP3.0 protocol.
produces no by-products.
The lightweight aluminium tank makes the GVR easier to transport and install.
The EPDM or silicone rubber bushings are resistant to damage from vandalism or mishandling.
By extensive use of insulated mouldings, in particular the bushings, the total number of parts has been reduced by a factor of x20 and the number of moving parts by x50.
No scheduled maintenance for 30 years* * Excludes control battery replacement 10 yrs or 10,000 ops for lithium batteries, 5 yrs for lead acid batteries.
The award-winning* GVR gas-filled vacuum recloser combines the high reliability of vacuum interruption with the controlled environment and high dielectric strength of SF6, in a compact, maintenance-free unit. Since SF6 is only used as insulation, there is no health hazard from toxic by-products of arcing. Electrical life is well in excess of ANSI requirements.
The patented, single coil magnetic actuator provides consistent performance and a dramatic reduction in the number of moving parts. Materials and finishes have been carefully chosen for reliability - from EPDM bushings, tested for tracking and erosion to IEC 61109, in salt, fog and other environments, to the neodymium iron boron permanent magnets used in the mechanism.
The GVR can be pole mounted or substation mounted and can operate as a stand alone recloser without the need for an additional auxiliary supply, or it can be integrated into the most advanced distribution automation schemes.
By using the advanced control and protection functions of the Panacea, the GVR can also be used in applications where reclosers have not traditionally been used such as closed rings and underfrequency load shedding schemes.
* Queens Award for Technological Achievement and the MacRobert Award, both awarded in 1997.
ATTENTION TO ENGINEERING DETAIL
Magnetic Actuator Single piece, aluminium or copper-cored EPDM or silicone rubber bushings, with grooves to take optional wildlife guards/MV boots.
Current transformers are mounted within the tank's controlled environment, while optional capacitive voltage dividers provide voltage signals for use by the Panacea or an RTU.
Aluminium housing with lightweight, moulded baseplate, secured by stainless steel bolts and incorporating rubber 'O' ring seals.
Pressure-relief disc, to comply with IEC 60298 Appendix AA, offers the highest levels of safety.
Mechanical ON/OFF position indication visible through clear viewing window from ground level.
Hook stick-operated manual trip and lockout control.
A single moulding supports the three phase vacuum interrupter assembly, magnetic actuator mechanism and one-piece drive beam.
The patented, single coil magnetic actuator is based on a solenoid plunger, held in the tripped or closed position by a permanent magnet.
Umbilical Cable Plug and Position Indication Socket on GVR Tank Magnetic flux from Permanent Non magnetic drive rod Drive rod movement Patented, Single Coil Magnetic Actuator
from actuator coil The actuator coil is energised in one direction to 'power close' the GVR and in the opposite direction Magnetic flux from Permanent to open it by de-latching the holding force. This is a unique feature of the single coil actuator design used in the GVR and ensures reliable tripping operation under all battery conditions and even for manual trip.
Contact pressure springs compressed The bi-stable design ensures that the plunger is held back in the open position (1) until the solenoid
current rises above the level required to guarantee closure. Once the holding force is overcome (2), the
circuit breaker closes positively (3), due to the stored
energy in the solenoid and permanent magnets.
The solenoid is energised in the reverse direction (4)
to overcome the magnetic hold-on force and de- latch the actuator. Opening is then completed by the Drive rod movement caused by spring pressure energy stored during the closing stroke in the contact pressure and opening springs and is completely independent of the power supply during electrical opening, and of the operator during manual opening. The energy required to trip is approximately 1/30th of that required to close.
CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Principle of Operation
The Polarr is the standard relay package for the GVR. It measures the 3 phase and residual currents using CTs located in the GVR, and performs auto- reclosing over current, earth fault and sensitive earth fault protection. The low power, microprocessor architecture of the Polarr is unique to the power industry. Its design has been perfected over several years and offers the user significant benefits through the elimination of the need for any external power supply. In addition to this, the Polarr offers several advanced auto-reclosing functions in a comprehensive but cost effective package.
The Polarr relay and control batteries are housed in a control box located on the pole at ground height underneath the GVR. Connection to the GVR is via an umbilical cable and weather proof plug and socket that is used to carry the CT currents and the GVR control signals. The IP56 sealed control box is made from stainless steel, with an outer double skinned sun shield of polyester-coated galvatite. It protects against the harshest environment and maintains an even internal temperature keeping the High energy density lithium battery technology makes the GVR with Polarr ideal for applications where an auxiliary power supply is not available.
Alternatively, where an auxiliary supply is already available, or when one is required to power an additional RTU and communications equipment, rechargeable lead acid batteries can be supplied as an option.
User friendly windows software for programming settings and viewing history.
Programming Protection Settings
Protection settings can be programmed via the dot Push-buttons are provided for the standard auto- matrix display and keypad or downloaded though the recloser functions, while separate keys and LED serial port from a notebook computer using libraries indication are used for the circuit breaker control.
of settings created in Windows based software.
All of these functions are also available through Historical, diagnostic and load current data can be a parallel SCADA port on the back of the relay, accessed through the local display or the serial port. accessible through a gland plate in the control box. The Polarr history is held in non-volatile memory, and Voltage free contacts and opto-isolated inputs offer includes the time and date of the last 20 sequences a standard interface to a third party RTU of the together with the number of trips in the sequence and customer's choice. Alternatively, an enlarged control fault magnitude of each of the elements.
box to house an RTU and rechargeable battery pack can be provided. More advanced remote control functionality is provided by the Panacea.
Minimum Trip Currents
The multi-ratio CTs located in the GVR and a wide range of programmable minimum trip settings ensure that the GVR and Polarr can be used at any point in the network, from substation through to the feeder ends with the earth fault currents as low as Short Cut Keys
In addition to large, clear control keys, LED indication and a menu-driven display for entering settings and viewing historic data, the front panel also incorporates three push-buttons for instant access to load current, fault target and battery condition The Polarr's advance sequence co-ordination logic and fast response times of the relay allow co- ordinating delays as low as 60mS to ensure that only the recloser closest to the fault operates.
CONTROL AND PROTECTION
The Panacea is based on the SEL 351R Relay and includes
many features only associated with substation class
protection, offering the optimum in the control and protection
of distribution networks. The Panacea includes:
Advanced control and protection functions including directional protection, voltage synchronisation, load encroachment logic and underfrequency load shedding.
An intelligent communications port for direct connection to a radio or modem, eliminating the need for an additional Remote Terminal Unit and so saving on the overall purchase price.
The Power System Variables
The line and residual currents are measured using CT's located inside the GVR. The voltage on both sides of the GVR and the residual voltage are taken from internal capacitive dividers or external VT's. The output GVR Control and Diagnostics
of these transducers is produced in the Protection and Operation of the GVR actuator is through energy Measurement module using a combination of high speed stored in long life capacitors. analogue circuitry and digital signal processing.
Uninterruptable Power Supply
The Panacea Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) In addition to directional over current, earth fault and is suitable for 120 vac. It includes a long life 24 volt sensitive earth fault auto-reclose protection, advanced lead acid battery for standby use, with temperature directional earth fault algorithms allow the Panacea controlled charging and a battery test facility.
to make an automatic selection of the best earth fault The UPS module monitors the auxiliary supply status, directional element for the system conditions. Other operating characteristics and battery temperature protection features such as load encroachment logic and to ensure continuity of supply under all operating underfrequency load shedding increase the functionality of the GVR to levels previously only available in complex substation schemes.
Metering and Load Profile
The Loop Scheme Control System (LSCS)
The power system variables including the volts, amps, The Loop Scheme Control System (LSCS) is used to watts and vars, can be viewed in real time on the automatically restrict permanent faults to a smaller Panacea front panel or remotely through the serial section of a distribution system, whilst maintaining supply port. It is also possible to average the current and to the un-faulted sections. For a typical five recloser voltage measurements over 5, 15, 30 or 60 minute based Loop Scheme, a permanent fault anywhere on periods to produce a load profile. This can be stored either feeder should never result in the loss of more than in memory and later downloaded through the local or one third of the load on the affected feeder. Using the remote serial ports.
power and flexibility of SELogic a customer specific logic scheme can be developed.
The SEL-351R Recloser Control
The Panacea can be set up to record various events such as loss of auxiliary power or a protection For recloser users whose policy it is to standardise event. Up to 512 events can be stored in non-volatile on the Schweitzer 351-R Protection and Control rather memory, each one date and time-stamped. This is than the Panacea, then the option is available. The SEL- supported by a separate oscillogram report showing 351R Recloser Control combines traditional recloser up to thirty 15-cycle or fifteen 30-cycle reports. control functions with technologically advanced SEL relaying features.
In the USA, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories provide complete technical support for the entire control cabinet.
The Panacea local control panel offers the same basic functionality as the Polarr. Local LED indication has been increased to offer even greater operational and system status information.
The Panacea controls, status indication, settings and history are available remotely through one of 2 serial ports on the back of the relay. It is possible to connect directly to a radio or modem and to communicate with a SCADA system using the DNP3.0 protocol (other protocols available on request). Space is provided in the control box to mount a suitable radio or modem and the UPS provides a 12 volt 0.5 amp fused supply.
Capacitive Voltage Sensing (CVTs)
Located inside the GVR, these CVTs are a low cost method of measuring source and load voltage. They User friendly Windows based software for EZ can be used with the Panacea for direct voltage settings and history retrieval (above) SUMMARY OF PROTECTION CHARACTERISTICS
Up to 4 trips to lockout are available for over current, Trips to lockout earth fault and sensitive earth fault sequences. The time between GVR clearing the fault and reclosing Reclaim time (S) is known as the dead time and is selectable for * 0.25 for 1st dead time, each trip. If the fault is temporary, the protection 0.75 minimum for 2nd and 3rd dead times in sequence will begin to reclaim after reclosing. If the fault is permanent, the GVR will lockout after the last trip. A Cold Load Pickup feature avoids spurious tripping when manually closing onto de-energised loads.
Time Current Characteristics
IEC 255 (IDMTL, VIDMTL, Time current characteristics are programmable for EIDMTL) & McGraw Edison every trip in the sequence. There is a choice of time Inst. 1>> (xln) dependant curves of definite time. The curves can be modified using time multipliers, additional delays and minimum response times. Instantaneous protection offers the fastest fault clearing times and can be used with additional delays for sequence co-ordination.
Minimum Trip Settings
The combination of multi-tapped protection CTs and the range of trip settings within Polarr and Panacea relays ensure suitable operation at any point in a Phase and ground directional elements are standard features of the Panacea. Direction and polarization settings are available for the control of the phase elements, earth fault elements and the negative sequence elements. Polarization quantities include positive sequence voltage, negative sequence voltage and zero sequence Ratings (ANSI C37.60 or better)
Maximum System Voltage
Impulse Voltage Withstand
Power Frequency Withstand Dry
Power Frequency Withstand Wet
Rated Gas Pressure for Above
Atmospheric / 0.3 bar* 0.3 bar (gauge) Number of Operations with No Maintenance
* Ratings for 150kV impulse version.
Protection +/- 5% of time to IEC255 Dimensions "L" Cable
Instrumentation up to 1% for Panacea Voltage measurement +/- 3% with CVTs or 1% with VT.
Electromagnetic Pole Mounted
Manual Trip/Lock Out Dimension "L" Battery Power pack Low Voltage Umbilical Lead Newport Road, Blackwood, South Wales UK NP12 2XH Tel: +44 (0)1495 223001 Fax: +44 (0)1495 225674 Hawker Siddeley Switchgear Pty Brisbane Australia
PO Box 36, Kallangur, Qld 4503, Australia Tel: +61 (0) 7 3888 1455 Fax: +61 (0) 7 3888 3241 FKI Switchgear South America
Carrera 21 No 86A-31 of 101, Bogota, Colombia Tel: +57 (0) 1 256 4617 Fax: +57 (0) 1 655 8915 Switchgear Works, Castleton, Rochdale, Lancashire UK OL11 2SS Tel: +44 (0)1706 632051 Fax: +44 (0)1706 674236 Whipp & Bourne Inc.
2500 Almeda Avenue, Suite 115, Norfolk USA VA 23513 Tel: +1 (0) 757 858 8972 Fax: +1 (0) 757 858 8987 The Design and manufacture of our products are subject to constant review, therefore slight variation may occur between the details given and the equipment supplied.
PART OF THE FKI GROUP OF COMPANIES
한국현미경학회지 제40권 제4호 2010 Korean J. Microscopy 40(4), 267 270(2010) Scanning Electron Microscopic Observation of Human Skin Replica Yeon Seung Rhyu, Ye Ji Chung*, Chang Sub Uhm1,* composed of five layers called stratum corneum, stratum luci- Buram High School, Seoul 139-861, Korea dum, stratum glanulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum ba-