Publication trends and knowledge maps of global translational medicine research Fei-Cheng Ma• Peng-Hui Lyu• Qiang Yao• Lan Yao • Shi-Jing Zhang Translational medical research literatures have increased rapidly in last decades and there have been fewer attempts or efforts to map global research context of translational medical related research. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the global progress and to assess the current quantitatively
Microsoft word - 08_ep dect phones.docEnvironmental Petition submitted to the Auditor General of Canada, June 2008 Request that first generation DECT
Phones be Banned in Canada
Environmental Petition: DECT Phones Environmental Petition submitted to the Auditor General of Canada, June 2008 Request that first generation DECT
Phones be Banned in Canada
Environmental & Resource Studies, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 COMMUNICATIONS WITH HEALTH CANADA REGARDING DECT PHONES
On March 9, 2007, I sent an email to Robert P. Bradley, Director of theConsumer and Clinical Radiation Protection Bureau, Product Safety Programme, HealthCanada asking that he consider banning DECT phones in Canada.
Dr. Bradley responded on March 26, 2007 and told me he was unaware of DECTtechnology and that after receiving my email, he did a "google" search and also had abrief discussion with research staff of the Electromagnetic Division. He stated that hewould have his staff look further into this technology. He also advised me that banningsuch devices came under the jurisdiction of Industry Canada. He went on to write: "We provide advice regarding the potential health issues arising from any of thetechnologies that they regulate. This advice is considered in the decisions to allowor disallow any device for use in the Canadian market. Should our review of theDECT systems, or any other wireless devices in the future, lead us to believe themnot to be safe you can be assured that we will so inform Industry Canada." Five months later, on August 19, 2007, I contacted Dr. Bradley again, via email, andasked for an update on progress to review the literature on DECT phones. Dr. Bradleyfailed to respond to that email. That was 10 months ago.
Environmental Petition: DECT Phones BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON DECT PHONES
DECT is an acronym for (Digitally Enhanced Cordless Technology, previously known asDigital European Cordless Telephony). It is a technology that originated in Germany andhas spread to other countries, including Canada.
DECT phones operate at 2.4 and 5.8 GHz and provide a digital signal that is bothpowerful and clear. DECT phones can be used up to 300 meters from their base station(cradle that holds the phone). Several manufacturers including Panasonic, GE, Motorola,AT&T, and V-Tech use this technology.
Unlike other types of cordless phones, DECT cordless phones continuously emitmicrowave radiation at full power as long as the base station is plugged into an electricaloutlet. These phones emit radiation 24/7 whether they are being used or sitting idle intheir cradle. This exposes people to unnecessary microwave radiation and has beenraised as a potential health concern by scientists and doctors in Germany and Austria.
CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO RADIATION FROM THE DECT PHONE BASE
I own a DECT phone (which I no longer use). It is a 2.4 GHz phone made by AT&T.
On June 16th, 2008 I measured the radiation coming from this phone while it was in idle.
I used an Electrosmog Meter with an omni-directional antenna. This meter has anoperating range of 50 MHz to 3.5 GHz. Background level (6-minute maximum) in myhome immediately prior to testing was 0.000 microW/cm2. Clearly in parts of my homethere is no radio frequency radiation within the 50 MHz to 3.5 GHz range. I thenmeasured the radiation at various distance from the base of the phone. Values in Figure 1represent a 6-minute maximum near the phone. The values decrease with 1/x2, with "x"representing the distance in cm.
I then compared the values I obtained for my DECT phone to studies in the literature thatdocument adverse health effects from radio frequency radiation and superimposed thedata (Figure 2).
What Figure 2 shows is that at a distance just beyond 3 meters from my DECT phonebase unit (according to studies of RF radiation) EEG brain waves are altered. At 2.8meters motor function, memory and attention of children are affected. At 1.7 meterssleep is disturbed. How many people have DECT phones near their bed? At 30 cmmemory is impaired and at closer distances the immune system is affected, REM sleep isreduced, insulin levels drop, and there are pathological changes in the blood brain barrier.
Studies also show that there is 100% increase in adult leukemia between 45 and 130 cmfrom the phone and a similar increase in childhood leukemia between 35 and 260 cm.
Environmental Petition: DECT Phones Radiation near a 2.4 GHz AT&T DECT Phone (not in use)
Power Density (microW/cm2)
Figure 1. Radiation near a 2.4 GHz AT&T DECT phone while the phone was not in use.
Figure 2. Studies showing health effects of radio frequency radiation (RFR) at variouspower densities superimposed on radiation from a DECT phone (2).
What Figure 2 also shows is that all of these effects are well below Health Canada'sSafety Code 6 (1000 microW/cm2), which suggests that Safety Code 6 is failing to protectthe health of Canadians.
Children are sensitive to DECT phones according to Dr. Leberecht von Klitzing, aGerman medical physicist and researcher at the University of Luebeck and one of themedical physicists who signed the Freiburger Appeal (1,3). His research on blood Environmental Petition: DECT Phones samples taken from children in the vicinity of DECT phones showed that the red bloodcorpuscles did not ‘ripen out properly' (a direct translation). The physical signs werelistlessness and/or aggression, pallor, and sleeplessness. These symptoms could bereversed with the removal of the phone.
Symptoms of 356 people under long time home exposure to high frequency pulsedelectromagnetic fields associated with DECT phones and/or mobile phone base stationswere evaluated (Appendix A). At levels well below those in Figure 1, the followingsymptoms increased with increasing power density: sleep disturbance, fatigue,depression, headaches, restlessness, dazed state, irritability, difficulty concentrating,forgetfulness, learning difficulties, difficulty finding words, frequent infections, Frequentinfections, sinusitis, lymph node swellings, joint and limb pains, nerve and soft tissuepains, numbness or tingling, allergies, tinnitus, hearing loss, sudden hearing loss,giddiness, impaired balance, visual disturbances, eye inflammation, dry eyes,tachycardia, episodic hypertension, collapse, hormonal disturbances, thyroid disease,night sweats, frequent urge to urinate, weight increase, nausea, loss of appetite, nosebleeds, skin complaints, tumours, and diabetes. Many of these are the symptoms nowassociated with electrohypersensitivity (EHS).
Based on these studies DECT phones should not be in bedrooms or near children, whoare likely to be more sensitive to this form of radiation.
Because DECT phones are so powerful and because the radiation can penetrate throughwalls people can be exposed to this radiation even if they do not own a DECT phone. Iftheir neighbours have one they can also be exposed.
I have neighbours who have DECT phones and I can measure radiation from their phonescoming into my home in the rooms nearest their phone. Homes in my neighbourhood areapproximately 10 meters apart. Imagine living in an apartment building with a DECTphone on the other side of an adjacent wall.
Indeed a few years ago I visited a person in Toronto who was electrically sensitive. Imeasured the radiation in her home and found high readings in her bedroom. We tracedthe source to a DECT phone in her neighbour's apartment. Without knowing it andwithout having any control over her own exposure, this person was exposed tomicrowave radiation while sleeping. Indeed she complained of sleep difficulties andoften slept on the couch in the living room where levels of radiation were much lower. Itis possible that her exposure to the DECT phone contributed to her electrical sensitivity.
A recent study reported that some young people who use mobile phones at least 15 timesdaily were more prone to have difficulty falling asleep, disrupted sleep, restlessness,stress and fatigue than those who used them less than 5 times a day (Appendix B).
Second and third generation DECT phones, with lower radiation levels, are now availablein Germany but have not yet crossed the Atlantic to Canada. Furthermore, there aredigital phones on the market that do not use DECT technology. So it is possible forpeople to have the benefits of digital mobile phones without being constantly exposed to Environmental Petition: DECT Phones microwave radiation. Unless the current generation of DECT phones is banned inCanada, there will be no incentive for Canadians to buy cordless phones that does notradiate continuously. In the meantime, Canadians will be unnecessarily exposed to thesemicrowave frequencies.
HOW OTHER JURISDICTIONS ARE RESPONDING TO DECT PHONES
In 2002, a group of Physicians signed the Freiburger Appeal, which requests thatimmediate measures and transitions steps be taken to ban mobile phone use and digitalcordless (DECT) phones in preschools, schools, hospitals, nursing homes, event halls,public buildings and vehicles. They go on to state that DECT standards for cordlesstelephones be revised with the goal of reducing radiation intensity (3).
In 2005, Dr. Gerd Oberfeld, MD with the Salzburg Region Public Health Department inAustria, wrote an open letter to teachers, parents about wireless technology and stated thefollowing (4): "The official advice of the Public Health Department of the Salzburg Region is notto use WLAN and DECT in Schools or Kindergartens." In 2006, the German Federal Agency For Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fürStrahlenschutz – BfS) issued a health warning concerning DECT phones in their PressRelease dated 31 January 2006 (5): A cordless phone of DECT standard is often the strongest source of high frequencyelectromagnetic radiation in a private home. To renounce your cordless phone as aprecautionary measure will contribute to minimise your personal radiationexposure . . Cordless landline telephones of DECT standard have no output control to regulatepower output according to the actual power needed. Therefore, the base station andthe handset are permanently emitting radiation at the same power level during acall, no matter whether the user holding the handset is one meter or 300 metersaway from the base station . . To prevent possible health risks, the BfS recommends minimizing personalradiation exposure. The following tips will help you if you are not prepared tocompletely give up the benefits of a cordless phone: Put the base station in a placewhere you do not spend much time, for example in the hall. Do not put it directly onyour desk. Only make short phone calls. Use the latest generation of phones, whichare emission free when the handset in connected to the base station. Environmental Petition: DECT Phones INFANTS RESPOND TO DECT PHONES AND DECT BABY MONITORS
According to Powerwatch in the UK (6): "Over the past five years we, with the help of parents, have measured a variety ofbaby monitors and the DECT pulsing ones seem to be far more disruptive of theinfant's sleep and state of contentment (causing restlessness, irritability andcrying). The old wired ones and the older "analogue" cordless ones do not seem tocause the same problems if kept at least one metre from the cot / bed. We have had a number of reports from parents that their babies did not sleep welland cried a lot when they used DECT monitors but were ok when no baby monitorwas used. When they then tried a cheaper analogue monitor, the infant then slept aswell as they did with no monitor. A DECT monitor placed in your baby's bedroom will expose them to more pulsingmicrowave radiation that living near to a mobile phone base station mast would do.
As a result, whilst there have been no studies done into baby monitors specifically,studies that cover mobile phone masts provide a good background to the effects thatwould be expected in your baby." Dr. von Klitzing reported that otherwise perfectly healthy infants had erratic heart beatwhen exposed to a DECT cordless phone. When the DECT phone was removed from thebedroom or neighboring apartment, the infant's heartbeat returned to normal (7).
ACUTE EXPOSURE TO RADIATION WHILE USING MOBILE PHONES
A secondary concern of mobile phones (cordless and cell, analog and digital) is thatpeople who use them are exposing their brain to microwave radiation. Studies show anincrease in various types of tumors (gliomas, astroycystomas, acoustic neuromas,uvealmelanomas) that range from a 30% increase to a 4.6-fold increase (8). Often thetumor is on the same side of the head that one uses the phone and becomes a statisticallysignificant risk after 10 years of use, which is a relative short latency period for a braintumor. See also Appendix C.
Once again children are likely to be more sensitive and authorities in the UK havewarned that children should minimize their use of this technology (9).
INADEQUACY OF HEALTH CANADA'S SAFETY CODE 6 GUIDELINES
In 1999, an Expert Panel of the Royal Society of Canada (10) was convened to review thepotential health risks of radio frequency radiation from wireless devices. In their reportthey state the following: Environmental Petition: DECT Phones A growing body of scientific evidence suggests that exposure to RF fields at intensities far less than levels required to produce measurable heating can causeeffects in cells and tissues.
These biological effects include alterations in the activity of the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), which is associated with cancer growth; regulation ofcalcium; and permeability of the blood-brain barrier Some of these biological effects brought about by non-thermal exposure levels of RF could potentially be associated with adverse health effects.
Canada's guideline for DECT phone frequencies (2.4 and 5.8 GHz) is 1000 microW/cm2(11). In Russia the guideline is 10 microW/cm2 for the same frequency range, and inSalzburg, Austria the recommended level is 0.1 microW/cm2 (12). The Canadian SafetyCode 6 Guideline is based on thermal effects, whereas the other guidelines are based onbiological effects. It is Health Canada's position that stricter guidelines are not requiredbecause if this radiation does not heat body tissue it will have no effect and the currentguidelines protect us from such heating. Scientific evidence points to the contrary (2,12)as has been recognized by other governments (3,4,5) and has been recently documentedin the Bioinitiative Report that calls for biological guidelines for microwave radiation(13).
The Canadian public needs to be protected against microwave radiation and it is HealthCanada's responsibility to do so. It seems that in this case, Health Canada is failing toprotect the public and is not acting expeditiously to inform Industry Canada of thepotential treat of microwave radiation presented by DECT phone technology. Thissituation needs to be changed. Under no circumstances should these early warningsignals of adverse health effects be dismissed or disregarded. At the very least HealthCanada should invoke the Precautionary Principle if they consider the scientific evidenceinconclusive.
1. Based on the fact that: a. DECT phones radiate 24/7 at maximum power, and thatb. Levels of radiation within 3 meters of a DECT phone base station, while not in use, have been associated in various scientific studies with ill health,memory loss, sleep disturbances, cancers, etc. and that c. Newer versions of DECT phones are available in Germany that have Will Health Canada recommend to Industry Canada that these phones be bannedin Canada? Could they also provide their rationale for their decision? 2. Will Industry Canada consider banning DECT phones in Canada? If not, what kind of information is necessary to warrant a ban of this technology? Environmental Petition: DECT Phones 3. What is Health Canada doing to warn Canadians about DECT phones? 4. What is Health Canada doing to minimize the exposure of children to DECT phones and other types of wireless technology in schools and in the home? 5. Since studies are documenting adverse health effects at levels well below Safety Code 6 why has Health Canada not revised this safety code so that it protects theHealth of Canadians? 6. What combination of scientific research results is required for Health Canada to revise Safety Code 6? In other words, what does Health Canada recognize as"conclusive scientific evidence" of harmful effects? Please provide specifics ofthe types of scientific studies required, the number of studies required, and thetypes of results needed to provide what Health Canada would consider"conclusive evidence".
7. What research is Health Canada conducting or funding to determine the safety of
DECT phones and other types of wireless technology including cell phones, cellphone antennas, WiFi, WiMax, smart meters, radio frequency identification tags,and broadband over power lines (BPL)? 8. Does Health Canada or Industry Canada know if DECT baby monitors are sold in
Canada and, if they are, would they consider warning the public not to use them? 9. In light of scientific uncertainty, will Health Canada recommend prudent
avoidance and/or the Precautionary Principle to the Canadian public? If not, whynot? 10. Is any of the research conducted by Health Canada (including reviews of the
literature as well as primary research) directly or indirectly funded by the wirelesstelecommunications industry and/or the electric utility? Could Health Canadaprovide a list of financial contributions made to them by these organizationsduring the past 10 years? 11. Is any of the research conducted by Industry Canada (including reviews of the
literature as well as primary research) directly or indirectly funded by the wirelesstelecommunications industry and/or the electric utility? Could Industry Canadaprovide a list of financial contributions made to them by these organizationsduring the past 10 years? Environmental Petition: DECT Phones 2. Firstenberg, A. 2001. Radio Wave Packet. Cellular Phone Taskforce. 8 pp.
3. Freiburger Appeal, 2002.
4. Oberfeld, 2005. http://omega.twoday.net/stories/1579030/ 5. German Federal Agency for Radiation Protection. 2006.
6. Powerwater (UK), 7. Maisch, D. 2006. Medical warnings needed on DECT cordless phone use. J.
Aust. Coll. Nutri. & Env. Med. Vol. 25 No. 2.
8. Kundi et al. 2004. Mobile telephones and cancer--a review of epidemiological evidence. J. Toxicol. Environ Health B Crit Rev. 7(5):351-384.
9. Independent Export Group on Mobile Phones, 2000.
10. An Expert Panel Report prepared at the request of The Royal Society of Canada for Health Canada. 1999. A Review of the Potential Health Risks ofRadiofrequency Fields from Wireless Telecommunication Devices.
11. Health Canada's Safety Code 6. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh- 12. Havas, M. 2007. Analysis of Health and Environmental Effects of Proposed, San 13. Carpenter, D. and C. Sage. 2007. Bioinitiative Report. A Rationale for a Biologically-based Public Exposure Standard for Electromagnetic Fields (ELFand RF), http://www.bioinitiative.org Environmental Petition: DECT Phones Appendix A. Study by Dr. Cornelia Waldmann Selsam
The following is a foreword to an Open Letter written by Dr. Cornelia Waldmann Selsamto Edmund Stoiber, Prime Minister of Bavaria in Germany.
"These reports show that the people for years have been ill due to pulsed high frequencyelectromagnetic fields, without the treating doctors recognising the cause. For that reason,people who are receiving the high frequency at home or at work have suffered and aresuffering and they receive no therapy. The deciding [effective] therapy is to end theexposure.
"The continually repeated assertion in the media by the Radiological ProtectionCommission (Strahlenschutzkommission), that there is no proof for health risks under thepresent valid limits, has had the consequence that most doctors, (including myself until ayear ago) have not drawn a relationship between the many unexplained illness patternsand high frequency radiation. The doctors do not know that at not one single mobilephone base station have investigations into the health-state of the people been carried out.
Thus, the evaluation of the Strahlenschutzkommission in 2001 has no scientific basis.
"In Oberfranken, we have just evaluated the medical complaints of 356 people who havehad long-term [radiation] exposure in their homes.
The pulsed high frequency electro magnetic fields (from mobile phone base stations, from cableless DECT telephones, amongst others), led to a new,previously unknown pattern of illnesses with a characteristic symptom complex.
People suffer from one, several or many of the following symptoms: Sleep disturbances, tiredness, disturbance in concentration, forgetfulness, problem withfinding words, depressive mood, ear noises, sudden loss of hearing, hearing loss,giddiness, nose bleeds, visual disturbances, frequent infections, sinusitis, joint andlimb pains, nerve and soft tissue pains, feeling of numbness, heart rhythmdisturbances, increased blood pressure episodes, hormonal disturbances, night-time sweats, nausea.
Even at 10 µW/m2 (0.001 µW/cm2 only 0.06 V/m average) many people are becoming ill.
The symptoms occur in temporal and spatial relationship to exposure. It is no way only a subjective sensitivity disturbance. Disturbances of rhythm, hearingproblems, sudden deafness, hearing loss, loss of vision, increased blood pressure,hormonal disturbances, concentration impairments, and others can be provedusing scientific objective measures.
Some of the health disturbance disappears immediately the exposure ceases (removal of DECT telephone, temporary moving away from home, permanentlymoving away, using shielding).
Environmental Petition: DECT Phones Therefore, the expansion must be stopped immediately. Mobile phone base stations, inwhose fields people are exposed to more than 10 µW/m2 [0.001 µW/cm2] must be turnedoff . . DECT telephones must be changed . . Affected people, relatives and doctorsmust jointly commit themselves and work together with all their energy [to this end].
Evaluation of symptoms of 356 people under long time home exposure to high
frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (DECT telephones, mobile phone base
stations) versus the level of the power flux density in microwatts per square metre.
Foreword - Documented Health Damage under the Influence of High FrequencyElectromagnetic Fields, Dr. Cornelia Waldmann Selsam, Karl-May-Str.48, 96049Bamberg.
The values convert approximately as follows: * 10 µW/m2 = 0.001 µW/ cm2 = 0.06 V/m average * 100 µW/m2 = 0.01 µW/ cm2 = 0.2 V/m average * 1000 µW/m2 = 0.1 µW/ cm2 = 0.6 V/m average The symptom groups are defined as follows: Sleep disturbance, tiredness, depressive mood Headaches, restlessness, dazed state, irritability, disturbance of concentration,forgetfulness, learning difficulties, difficulty finding words.
Frequent infections, sinusitis, lymph node swellings, joint and limb pains,nerve and soft tissue pains, numbness or tingling, allergies Tinnitus, hearing loss, sudden hearing loss, giddiness, impaired balance,visual disturbances, eye inflammation, dry eyes Tachycardia, episodic hypertension, collapse Other symptoms (hormonal disturbances, thyroid disease, night sweats,frequent urge to urinate, weight increase, nausea, loss of appetite, nosebleeds, skin complaints, tumours, diabetes) Environmental Petition: DECT Phones Figure 1. Symptoms grouped by power flux density. Note conversion as follows:10 µW/m2 = 0.001 µW/cm2; 100 µW/m2 = 0.01 µW/cm2; 1000 µW/m2 = 0.1 µW/cm2 If true, this is a very clear trend. For those where it is under 10 µW/m2 [0.001 µW/cm2]70% of the sample (37 people) suffered no adverse health effects. For those where thepower flux density is over 100 µW/m2 [0.01 µW/cm2] only 5-6% of the sample (172people) did not experience adverse health effects. Please look at this graph to see howthese levels translate to exposure from a typical mast. Microwave signals are often above0.6 V/m [0.1 µW/cm2] within 400 metres! There are no confounding factors listed in thedata, but the strength of the trend is extremely pronounced.
This is further evidence to support the potential adverse health effects that may besynonymous with the pulsed Microwave technology that surround us in everyday life.
Those in the medical profession are beginning to voice their concerns, and it is worthbearing in mind that they have first hand experience of real people with real problems. Itis important not to discard this evidence due to lack of experimental control, as it seemsthat a number of qualified professionals have independently found the same trends. At thevery least this should call for more organised research into these findings.
Environmental Petition: DECT Phones Appendix B: Mobile phones stop teenagers getting a good night's sleep
By Kate Devlin Medical Correspondent, Telegraph (UK) Last updated: 1:23 AM BST 10/06/2008 TEENAGERS WHO send more than five text messages or make more than five calls aday on their mobile phones are ruining their chances of getting a good night's sleep, anew study shows.
Young people who often used their phone to text or call their friends were more likely tohave trouble sleeping than those who used their mobile moderately.
As a consequence "excessive texters" felt more tired during the day and drank morecaffeine to help them stay awake.
Many young people also felt a "pressure" to be at the end of their phones "around theclock", the stress of which led them to take up smoking or drinking, the team behind theresearch warned.
The study, presented at SLEEP 2008, the 22nd Annual Meeting of the AssociatedProfessional Sleep Societies (APSS), in Baltimore, found that teenagers who used theirmobiles often were more prone to disrupted sleep, restlessness, stress and fatigue thanother young people.
Researchers at Sahlgren's Academy in Gothenburg, Sweden, looked at 21 otherwisehealthy teenagers, between 14 and 20 years of age, who had regular school or work hoursand who did not suffer from serious sleep problems.
The volunteers were split into two groups, the first who made less than five calls or sentless than five texts a day and a second group who used their phones at least 15 timesdaily.
The scientists found that those who used their mobile phones the most were mostsusceptible to stress and fatigue.
Not only did they find it more difficult to fall asleep than the other group but they alsosuffered from more disruptive sleep patterns once they finally nodded off.
The study also found that those who often used their phones were more likely to takedrinks designed to make them feel more alert during the day.
They were also more likely to feel more awake at night than in the morning, suggesting adelayed biological clock.
Dr Gaby Badre, who led the study, said that those who used their phones the mostappeared to have a different, more frantic lifestyle than other teenagers.
Environmental Petition: DECT Phones Dr Badre said: "Addiction to cell phone is becoming common. Youngsters feel a grouppressure to remain inter-connected and reachable round the clock.
Children start to use mobile phones at an early stage of their life. There seem to be aconnection between intensive use of cell phones and health compromising behavioursuch as smoking, snuffing and use of alcohol." Getting a good night's sleep was extremely important for young people, she added, andthey should be made more aware that excessive mobile phone use can bring with it"serious health risks" as well as attention problems and trouble sleeping.
Jessica Alexander, from the Sleep Council, which promotes healthy sleeping habits, said:"Too many teenagers are stimulating their brains with mobile phones or computers late atnight, when they should be settling down in preparation for sleep." Although adults are advised to get between seven and eight hours sleep a night, doctorsrecommend that adolescents get nine hours.
However, another paper presented at the SLEEP 2008 conference shows that teenagersoften get into a pattern of getting less sleep on school nights and having to "make up" thedifference at weekends.
Environmental Petition: DECT Phones Appendix C: Sunday Times: Headline: Cellphone link to tumours.
The Sunday Times. Publication: SST Date: 23 Mar 2003 Page: A16 SCIENTISTS HAVE found the first evidence of a link between regular use of digitalmobile phones and brain tumours. Researchers in Sweden discovered a 30% increasedrisk of brain tumours among regular users, typically those spending more than an hour aday on the phones. Such tumours occurred most frequently on the side of the head towhich the person held their phone. The biggest increase was seen in acoustic neuromas,which form behind the ear and can mostly be treated.
Mobile phones have been found to alter the workings of brain cells, affect memory andcause cancer in laboratory rats. Until now, however, there has been no proven link tohuman disease.
The new study, published in the International Journal of Oncology, was based on theanalysis of 1600 tumour victims who had been using mobile phones for up to 10 years.
Professor Kjell Mild, the Swedish biophysicist who led the study, said: "The evidence fora connection between phone use and cancer is clear and convincing. The more you usephones and the greater the number of years you have them, the greater the risk of braintumours." An earlier study by Mild and Lennart Hardell, a cancer specialist, linked brain tumours tothe use of analogue mobile phones. The new research repeated this and also looked atdigital mobiles and "DECT" cordless phones. It showed that all three types were linkedwith increased tumour rates.
Acoustic neuromas are usually slow growing and can be detected because they causetingling and hearing loss. However, it takes doctors an average of two years to make adiagnosis, and surgery, the usual treatment, can leave damaged nerves that lead toinvoluntary facial spasms. Since 1980, the number of acoustic neuromas diagnosed inBritain has risen from one in every 100,000 of the population to one in 80,000 a year.
The mobile phone industry has long resisted any suggestion of a link to cancer, though itaccepts that mobile phone radiation does affect the electrical activity in the brain.
Environmental Petition: DECT Phones
Clinicopathologic Manifestations of Fordyce Spots Ann Dermatol Vol. 24, No. 1, 2012 LETTER TO THE EDITOR Clinicopathologic Manifestations of Patients with Ji Hyun Lee, M.D., Ji Hae Lee, M.D., Na Hyun Kwon, M.D., Dong Soo Yu, M.D., Gyong Moon Kim, M.D., Chul Jong Park, M.D., Jeong Deuk Lee, M.D., Si Yong Kim, M.D. Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea