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Director: Prof. Samuel Pohoryles The Culture of Water
Final Report of the First Stage The Andreas Agricultural Development Trust
Founded 1997 by Mr. Dwayne O. Andreas, Archer Daniels Midland Co., Illinois, USA Phone: +972-3-5680680 y Fax: +972-3-5627265 y Email: [email protected] The Peres Center for Peace, 2 HaShalom Rd., Tel Aviv, Israel 67892 The Culture of Water
Final Report of the First Stage Table of Contents
Executive Summary .3 1. Israel: Ramat HaNegev Desert Agro-Research Center – Highlights .4 Summary of main results to date of applicable research on Salicornia as a fresh herb Economic evaluation and problems that call for further Salicornia research .7 Aster Tripolium .9 Orache (Atriplex) .12 Enhanced tomato resistance to salinity conditions through the use of rootstocks that boost salinity tolerance.13 Leaf vegetables.15 2. Jordan: Tel Al-Arbayeen Center of Excellence – Highlights .15 Technology Transfer and Implementation .15 Demonstration of Results and Extension Work .16 3. Culture of Water Training – Highlights .18 Presentations and Basis for Distance Learning.18 Conferences and Workshops.20 Next Steps – A Proposed Second Stage .26 Executive Summary
With the scarcity of water on the rise in the Mid-East Region, there is a continuous need for the provision of new water resources. Non-traditional approaches, however, have to be deployed in order to provide such resources. Water savings and increased efficient use of water, including wastewater, is one such approach. To reach optimal levels of water savings, it is necessary to involve the different sectors of the community from the affected countries. Such approach creates a larger sense of awareness and belonging toward a common problem. Once such attitude is attained, the water problem will become a vital part of the daily lives of the peoples of the region, thus furnishing grounds for a sustainable "Culture of Water". This project contributed to increased awareness and understanding of the problem, whilst suggesting practical solutions. Special emphasis was placed on research and development of technologies to produce high- value crops under conditions of salinity and water stress, centered at the Ramat HaNegev Desert Agro-Research Center, which has a very impressive record of accomplishment in developing new crops and crop varieties resistant to water stress and salinity. The research was lead by Dr. Moshe Sagi of the Ben-Gurion University. The highlights of achievements were the introduction of a new halophyte – Salicornia – as a cash crop exported to Europe as a vegetable; and optimized salinity management for best practices in growing tomatoes, leaf vegetables and flowers. Advanced technologies of water savings in agricultural practice where introduced in the Excellence Center in Tel Al-Arbayeen, as a demonstration center for farmers in region, which is oriented to improving agricultural quality and the production capacities in the region. This introduction of advanced technology practically revolutionized yield and quality levels, especially of loquat, hot peppers, and citrus, which highly impressed the targeted farming communities, who were willing to replicate it in their farms. A program for the dissemination and cross-border sharing of information included the preparation of presentation materials as the basis for a comprehensive face-to-face and distance-learning program in English and Arabic, the training of a facilitator from the Jordan Valley in information sharing, and workshops in Israel and Jordan. These meetings

between Israelis, Jordanians and Palestinians also resulted in direct contact and continuous dialogue on a personal basis. 1. Israel: Ramat HaNegev Desert Agro-Research Center – Highlights
In the areas around Ramat HaNegev, the Dead Sea and the Arava, there are water-wells with a salinity level of 1,000 mg-10,000 mg chloride/liter and untapped aquifers of saline water containing up to 30,000 mg chloride/liter. In large sections of these regions, there is an acute shortage of land suitable for agriculture, while on the other hand, saline areas exist, but cannot be used for conventional agriculture and the cultivation of traditional crops. This saline water could be exploited to cultivate high quality crops that could yield fresh produce for export to Europe, through a process of plant acclimatization and suitable agro- techniques to be adopted by Negev and Arava farmers to their advantage. Summary of main results to date of applicable research on Salicornia as a fresh herb
for export
A. Material for propagation: Salicornia is not a familiar crop in Israel. The attempt to
import Salicornia seeds faced difficulties due to a negative response to our request for Solutions:
1. Native types were identified (some in the Ramat HaNegev and Arava regions) that may be suitable for marketing abroad and may free us from reliance on outside seed 2. Conditions necessary for the production of seeds from the above-mentioned types under a controlled habitat were identified. 3. Other types that are recognized for their yields and quality are being identified. 4. It was determined that native types could be induced to sprout as early as January, inhibiting blossom production. B. Year-round production of Salicornia: Annual Salicornia respond to daylight, and
thus begin to blossom in autumn. By shifting the cycle to January, it became possible to harvest crops in April; plants that have already produced blossoms are unsuitable for export. Therefore, Salicornia plants cannot be produced or exported for a six-month period between October and April. Solutions
1. Types that do not blossom during the autumn and winter months were identified. 2. Beginning in August, due to extended daylight hours, blossom production was 3. It was determined that the Salicornia's blossom production could still be inhibited if daylight extension was delayed to September. C. Harvest potential and quality: production potential, quality and salinity tolerance of
the native ecotypes have not been determined. Solutions
1. The multi-annual harvesting potential of the Salicornia became apparent when harvested at a suitable height and the production potential was identified in protected greenhouses, in salinity conditions of representative types. The optimum production and quality potential of a number of types was determined. 2. There is evidence that in plants irrigated with high-salinity water, the stalks cut for export lost less water than those irrigated with low-salinity water and/or with tap water. Hence, in addition to the advantage of a rich harvest in elevated salinity conditions, the higher quality harvest yielded from plants grown in an elevated salinity habitat also have the advantage of producing plants with a longer shelf-life. 3. There is evidence that prevalent in the Salicornia is biomass production when sodium and chloride are present in the growth medium. Saline growth solution that did not include sodium chloride produced a smaller yield than those that included sodium chloride. Moreover, when sodium chloride was the main salts, maximum yield was obtained, greater still with a high concentration level of 100 mM versus 50 4. There is evidence that the plant stores sodium chloride in its leaves, regardless of the actual concentration in the irrigation water, so that even when the Salicornia is irrigated with fresh water, more than 5% of the dry weight is contributed by sodium 5. Due to the health-related benefits of iron in the nutrition basket, the iron and manganese content was also measured. A content of microelements important to our health, iron and manganese was higher in treatments that contained only sodium than those that contained potassium. 6. The addition of sodium, both as the exclusive salinity ingredient, and/or combined with potassium, improved the taste of the Salicornia in terms of general flavor and saltiness, and also reduced its bitterness. To be noted is that in all the tests carried out, Salicornia grown in water containing the saline ingredient sodium chloride was saltier (popular in export markets) and less bitter. 7. There is evidence that Salicornia contains health-related properties, such as vitamin C and soluble sugar, at a level similar to that of the tomato, as well as a significant amount of poly-phenols and iron. It should be noted that the soluble sugar and
vitamin C content in the Salicornia increased with the introduction of higher
levels of salinity, and therefore may possibly qualifiy as a health food product.
D. Controlled application in semi-commercial conditions: to study the potential of
production and marketing under controlled conditions, a model cultivation area was established in the Ramat HaNegev Experimental Station; in greenhouse conditions, and unprotected conditions. Seedlings were prepared for the plots by inducing seeds to sprout in long daylight conditions in a growth room. The developed plants were transferred to the experimental station in Ramat HaNegev, where they were planted on 0.5 dunam of land, partly in a greenhouse and partly outside the greenhouse, on isolated beds. Transplanting the shoots in early winter caused them to blossom and later die. The only plants that did not blossom but did develop well were those that had been transplanted and began developing at the end of December. Today, the plants do not produce blossoms due to the agro-technique developed and mentioned before. Marketing began in April 2004, and the plants were harvested every 3 weeks and exported to Europe in bulk. An area of 0.7 dunam yielded approximately 9 tons of fresh produce that generated an income of over NIS 100,000.

E. Commercial farms
On the basis of results obtained from the semi-commercial experiment, farmers from the Nitzana area expressed their wish to cultivate over 15 dunams of Salicornia, of which they exported 35 tons to Europe to date. Economic evaluation and problems that call for further Salicornia research
Need to identify Salicornia types suitable for year-round export. It is our
intention to identify additional types distinguished for the yields they produce and their quality, such as some types that perform well under the salinity conditions of the water of Ramat HaNegev and Kikar Sdom (3.5 – 7 dS/m), without the need for extra salt, and types that grow in cold climates with a long summer, such as Salicornia ramossisima indigenous to Wales, and acclimatizing them to winter conditions, while seeking to save on greenhouse heating. Optimization of the lighting regime to inhibit Salicornia blossom production.
Through the introduction of continuous lighting throughout a 14.5-hour day,
blossom production was inhibited in Salicornia types that blossom in autumn, making it possible to produce Salicornia plants suitable for export in winter, giving us a marketing edge. However, the most suitable time, and the latest, at which to operate the lighting system in autumn to inhibit blossom production on the one hand, and save on heating costs on the other, has yet to be determined. Furthermore, the optimal lighting conditions needed (light bulb wattage and spacing) have still not been determined. Plans for the near future include determining the optimal electricity-saving on-off lighting cycle, as opposed to continuous lighting, to inhibit Salicornia's blossom production.

Developing a heating system for the Salicornia in winter that will yield a large
and high quality harvest. The extra heating needed in the greenhouse for the
production of high quality Salicornia in the winter months has not been determined. Various heating levels will be examined. Since the Salicornia grows to a height of 40 cm before it is harvested, plans for the near future include growing the Salicornia in tunnels 50 cm – 60 cm high inside the greenhouse, enabling us to heat the tunnels at night at low capacity (tunnel capacity) and save on energy, as opposed to heating the entire greenhouse. During the day, the tunnels will be aired, and the Salicornia plants will enjoy the additional warmth of the greenhouse temperature provided by the winter sun in arid regions. Improving the Salicornia yield and quality by optimizing harvesting
conditions of the Salicornia. The optimal Salicornia product has stalks of 5 cm-7
cm height (this means that they are more tender and juicy and less fibrous, compared to the 10-cm long stalks being harvested today). In order to boost the attractiveness of the product, plans have been made for the near future to perform a comparative study of stalks harvested when they are 5 cm–7 cm long versus 10 cm long to identify the conditions necessary for their optimal re-growth capacity in winter and in summer. The optimal intervals between harvests, their yields and quality throughout the different seasons, and the impact of the seasons on harvest intervals will be studied and compared. The importance and significance of the study: This research may potentially aid in
determining new crops for export, the first in a chain of halophyte crops resistant to a salt- rich environment, enhancing the profits of farmers residing in arid regions. Developing areas for the cultivation of Salicornia in high salinity water will make it possible to exploit water currently unsuitable to agricultural use, and enable their utilization for agricultural purposes, such as the water with a high concentration of salt produced by the desalination

plant in Ramat HaNegev and the saline water wells in the Arava and Dead Sea areas, as
well as the water with less saline in these regions.
Economic assessment: Experimental export shipments in bulk provide the farmer with an
income of NIS 12-20/kg, and packaged Salicornia (known as Samphire or Asparagus Sea) is expected to generate much higher prices (NIS 80-200/kg (see Samphire on the website http:/ The head of the Spice and Herb Department of Agrexco, and his counterpart at the exporter Bikel, estimate the export market of Salicornia from Israel to be in the region of 2000 tons per year at this stage, before development and marketing efforts started. On the basis of a rough estimate founded on previous experiments, the plant produces about 12 tons of fresh produce per dunam during the March to August period. Regardless of the capacity for production and marketing during the remaining periods of the year, and on the assumption that types suitable for marketing as a high quality herb produce 75% plants suitable for marketing as a fresh herb, it is estimated that 9 tons of fresh product per dunam of export quality is produced. Even on the extreme assumption that enhanced marketing operations will bring prices down to NIS 10/kg, projected revenues are still NIS 90,000/dunam – by all means a satisfactory income, allowing for an acceptable margin of cultivation-related expenditures (harvesting, packaging, shipment and marketing). The estimate for the production and marketing potential is 15 dunams for the first year and 50 dunams for the third year, the equivalent of NIS 1350,000 – 4,500,000 for the first and third years, respectively. Aster Tripolium
Summary of results to date of applicable research carried out on the Aster tripolium as a fresh herb for export
A. Propagation material: Aster is not cultivated in Israel.
Four types were identified, of which two may be suitable for export markets and could free us from reliance on outside suppliers for proliferation material. Conditions for the production of seeds from the above-mentioned types have been Additional types recognized for their yield and quality are now being identified. B. Yield and quality
Estimate of the projected yield in various salinity conditions was determined. There is evidence that the soluble sugar content in the aster leaves is high. There is also evidence that with increased salinity, also the level of soluble sugar content in the aster leaves increased. There is evidence of high vitamin C content in the aster leaves, as well as poly- phenols, an indication of anti-oxidizing properties, that increased with higher salinity, indicating that the Aster has the potential of qualifying as a health
food product.
There is evidence that the aster has a strong propensity to accumulate salt, so that even after being irrigated with fresh water, the level of salinity was still high in all the types. Salt content rose somewhat when salinity levels increased in the irrigation water. In addition to sodium and chloride, there was evidence of high calcium content in aster leaves. Salinity had very little influence on this calcium level, whereas increased salinity led to lower potassium levels. When refrigerated, the aster retained its freshness and wilting was limited, an indication of its capacity to perform well during shipment to European markets. Aster leaves have a high protein content of 2.7% that indicates an untapped
potential of the Aster to serve as a source of protein.
• Establish a semi-commercial agricultural facility to study production and marketing aspects on a larger scale. • Continue to identify types for study purposes. • Continue simulating conditions of shipment by sea and study their impact. • Continue studying the parameters of the plant's physical qualities (texture, color) and its chemical properties (poly-phenols, sugar, vitamin C, as well as iron and calcium). • Study harvest cycles and height with the intention of developing agro-techniques for multi-annual harvests. • Adopt an optimal irrigation regime at a given salinity level. • Adopt an alimentation regime suitable for a variety of types and salinity levels. The importance and significance of this research: With the help of this research, an
Agro-technique will be developed for a new type of export-oriented crop, which will boost revenues for arid region farmers. Developing such an Agro-technique for the cultivation of the aster in elevated salinity will also enable agricultural exploitation of land and water that cannot, as of now, be used for agricultural purposes, such as the high saline concentration water produced by the water desalination plant of Ramat HaNegev, and water with a salinity level higher than 7 dS/m in Nitzana. Economic Evaluation According to a report from the exporter Bikel, the aster is available in English and French markets only between May and September, and its price during that time is Euro 15/kg. According to a rough calculation, the plant produces about 8 tons of fresh produce per dunam. On the assumption that types suitable for export as a quality herb produce 75% of plants with the marketing potential of fresh herbs, it follows that 1 dunam will yield 6 tons of commercially viable fresh product. On the basis of European market prices of NIS 80/kg, of which the farmer receives NIS 20, the farmer enjoys an income of NIS 120,000 per dunam. By all means, this figure represents a highly satisfactory income for the State of Israel and the farmer, allowing a sufficient margin for high cultivation-related costs, such as packaging, shipment and marketing. At the first stage, our intention is to penetrate the export market during the September to May period, when the aster is not available there. The marketing potential is 10 dunams in the first year and 50 dunams in the third year, equivalent to NIS 1,200,000 and NIS 6,000,000 per annum to the farmer, respectively.

Orache (Atriplex)
Summary of the principle results to date of applicable research carried out on Orache (Atriplex) as a fresh herb for export A. Propagation material: Orache is not a crop known in Israel, but the Bedouins do
consume it in small quantities. A number of perennial native orache types and 5 annual types were identified. Conditions that will enable the production of seeds from the above-mentioned types are being studied. Other types that have yield and quality potential are being identified. B. Yield and quality
The projected yield of the annual types in various salinity conditions has been The conditions allowing the production of seeds from the above-mentioned types There is evidence of a high content of sugar, vitamin C, iron and anti-oxidants, which qualifies it as a health food product. • Establish a semi-commercial agricultural facility to study production and marketing potential on a larger scale. • Create a simulation environment to study shipment conditions. • Continue to study the parameters of the plant's physical qualities (texture, color) and its chemical properties (poly-phenols, sugar, vitamin C, iron and calcium contents). • Study the harvesting cycle and optimal plant height for harvesting, with the intention of developing multi-harvesting agro-techniques and/or a cultivation cycle to enable the production of orache year-round. • Devise an optimal irrigation regime at a given salinity. • Devise an alimentation regime suitable for various types and salinity levels. Economic evaluation Orache: According to shipments of similar products (other halophytes) to markets abroad,
it is possible to obtain about NIS 12-20/kg for bulk shipments. According to a rough calculation applied to previous experiments, the plant produces about 30 grams of foliage (fresh produce) per dunam in a 2-month cycle. On the assumption of 6 cycles a year, and 5,000 plants per dunam, the projected harvest is expected to be 1.5 tons per dunam per cycle, i.e. 9 tons per dunam per year, and even on the stringent assumption that intensified marketing will bring down revenues to NIS 10/kg for the farmer, a turnover of NIS 90,000 per dunam is still anticipated. By all means, this figure is a highly satisfactory income, allowing for an acceptable margin for high cultivation, packaging, shipment and marketing costs. Marketing potential is 10 dunams per year for the first year, and 50 dunams for the third year, equivalent to an income of NIS 900,000 and NIS 4,500,00 per annum for the farmer, respectively. Enhanced tomato resistance to salinity conditions through the use of rootstocks that
boost salinity tolerance
Objective: To propose a method for enhancing salinity tolerance by means of rootstocks
resistant to elevated salinity, serving as a grafting host for scions. Rootstocks whose resistance stems from their rejection of salts and/or storage of salts in subterranean areas were located, so as to prevent their passage to the grafted scions and undermine their production ability. The objective is to cultivate tomatoes for export, irrigated with water whose salinity level is higher than that which is customary today and which will produce a higher quality harvest. Principle results 1. In the first year, the rootstocks AX105, Beaufort 6153, Hi-man and others, produced encouraging results in terms of their tolerance to salt. These types absorbed and stored sodium and chloride in their roots and transferred a comparatively small quantity of sodium and chloride to the scions, in comparison to other rootstocks and control types. In the second and third year, these results were confirmed with rootstocks 6153 and Beaufort, and Maxifor was added as another appropriate rootstock. 2. Rootstocks AX105, Beaufort, 6153, and Hi-man absorbed and stored sodium and chloride in their roots and transferred a comparatively small amount of sodium and chloride to the scions, versus other rootstocks and control types 144 and 1903 (grafted on themselves or not grafted). The use of rootstocks that transfer a limited amount of salts to scions led to the production of a harvest higher than that produced by rootstocks that transfer salts through irrigation with fresh and also saline water. Conclusions and projections related to the application of the research and its extension Growing tomatoes for export in elevated salinity conditions in Ramat HaNegev, through the use of rootstocks that transfer a limited amount of salts to the surface, has a great deal of Economic Evaluation It is possible to double the scope of production and income by improving the quality of the product. However, the possibility of expanding the agricultural areas is limited due to the acute shortage of fresh water in Israel and the region, meaning that the water available for mixing with saline water is limited. The expansion of tomato crops in the area can be carried out through the use of elevated salinity water and the use of less fresh water to dilute it. In the absence of a solution (presently unavailable) enabling the cultivation of tomatoes in high salinity conditions, it will not be possible to expand tomato cultivation areas for export in Ramat HaNegev. Developing an appropriate agro-technique will help double production by boosting harvest per unit of land, as well as by expanding the cultivation areas, and as a result, doubling the farmers' income in the Ramat HaNegev region, in the course of a few years. Issues pending solutions An experiment is in course in Ramat HaNegev for developing methods that will induce the growth of a larger number of branches per rootstock, thus reducing the number of plants used, and thereby reducing their cost. In due course, plans are to study the option of limiting the number of plants by extracting a greater number of branches from each rootstock. Identification of the suitable rootstocks will make it possible to identify the genes involved in limiting salt transport from root to shoot, making it possible to produce types with high salinity tolerance by means of genetic engineering techniques (types of rootstocks and Leaf vegetables
A large number of new varieties of leaf vegetables – vegetables or herbs – that grow with saline water in Ramat HaNegev have been studied, and their response to various levels of salinity has been evaluated in terms of harvest and quality. As a direct outcome of the project, there are currently 7 farmers in Ramat HaNegev that export herbs (chives, chervil and melissa) on an area of about 50 dunams, excluding the Salicornia cultivation areas. 2. Jordan: Tel Al-Arbayeen Center of Excellence – Highlights
Technology Transfer and Implementation
The project carried out in the demonstration farm constituted a significant breakthrough. Israeli know-how and Israeli inputs yielded satisfactory results, in particular in pepper and loquat crops. For example, the Israeli loquat in Jordan enjoys a three-fold premium for the fruit. All the crops have caught the interest of farmers and officials, and ongoing demonstrations and training programs are carried out on the ground. Hot peppers have already been picked; the yield was tremendous and the fruit unblemished. The shrubs are green and healthy, with no sign of sickness, and as of today have not been sprayed, nor does it seem that this will be necessary. The fruit cultivated in the farm is picked frequently to prevent it from turning red, for there is less demand for such product in the market; the refrigeration room has proved itself beyond expectation. The picked fruit is stored under refrigerated conditions and keeps extremely well until such a time when a good-sized quantity is accumulated and ready for distribution, enabling delivery of the fruit to the customer in optimal condition. The whole process of handling and storing the crops at the post-picking stage was unfamiliar in the Jordan Valley (as opposed to the Arava where the procedure is applied); problems in the irrigation system have been identified, and Netafim staff provide a high level of assistance in overcoming them. The conditions necessary for the erection of a wastewater purification plant have been examined – a move which will provide a solution to both environmental and agricultural quality. Also under

examination is the possibility of creating a plant nursery and advanced technology greenhouses for soil-less cultivation (connected to the fields of research in Ramat HaNegev), as well as the proper timing to undertake vegetable growing initiatives. 6000 lemon, guava and loquat saplings were received on the Jordanian side after passing Ministry of Agriculture inspection. The citrus groves on the farm are doing well, and the fruit is developing beyond the average results achieved in previous years, generating a great deal of enthusiasm. Also in the case of loquats, the fruit has blossomed early and the sight is Preparations for the erection of a training center and packing house are advancing, including the use of shade-producing nets to cover the crops. The farm manager is meticulous about cleanliness and order and the results are evident. Parallel to the launching of the picking season in the farm, the packing system was put into operation as well, with the aim of demonstrating a new method of treating the fruit at the post-picking stage, as per plan. After a few adjustments were made, execution was noteworthy. The results are viewed by the farmers attending the training program as part of the efforts to improve treatment procedures of the fruit, so that its upgraded quality when it reaches the markets will solicit higher prices. Funding problems are blocking further development of lemon cultivation, the establishment of a fertilizing unit, the introduction of a more effective sorting system, and the treatment of sunburns and weeds. Demonstration of Results and Extension Work
Cooperation between Jordanian and Israeli officials was close and ongoing throughout the project; frequent visits were made (on an average 3 times a week) by consultants, Netafim staff and other experts (loquat-related expert, liquid fertilizer consultant, water engineers, computing experts, in tandem with the introduction of educational and demonstration equipment). At the same time, farm personnel visited Israel and observed Israeli technologies in the service of qualitative cultivation and water-saving methods. Despite the fact that the project has come to a close, contact is still maintained by telephone and internet consultations, distance learning and face-to-face meetings. To enable the further development of programs now that the current project has ended, the mobilization of further resources is needed to avoid losing the present momentum. Prince Hassan and the Jordanian Agriculture and Water Minister are aware of the project and are totally convinced that cooperation is essential. Following a number of visits to the study farm in Tel Al-Arbayeen by the managers of Prince Hassan's farm, they expressed the desire to see for themselves the agricultural systems and crops on the Israeli side. They had a one-day visit to the Jordan and Kinnerot Valleys to see tomato, mango, avocado, date, lemon and banana cultivations, using technologies that generated a 40% saving on water. Changes were made accordingly in Prince Hassan's farm. Furthermore, a reciprocal visit was made by the Peres Center consultant, Mr. Elkayam, and the Jordanian farm owner, Mr. Ghezawi, to the Prince's farm. The farm is well-maintained and clean, but the planting pattern of the trees is similar to the one applied in the other Jordanian farms around, namely: a mix of fruit trees in the same area, making it hard to administer individual and appropriate treatment to each specific strain. They are extremely interested in reviving the present farm, and additional ones in its wake along the Jordan Valley and the Arava. Further to upgrading the farm, they are considering the option of promoting programs to train and instruct farmers in the region in the application of advanced farming methods and know-how. 3. Culture of Water Training – Highlights
Presentations and Basis for Distance Learning
Several presentations have been prepared which can serve as a comprehensive program separate from the overall comprehensive study program, and they have been distributed among Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian farmers for their use. The current presentations, and in particular the future interactive programs, are generating a great deal of interest in the Middle East and throughout the world, and are positioning Israeli technologies at the forefront of global developments in the field. Below is a list of subjects prepared within the framework of the "distance learning" • Gravity Drip Irrigation • R&D in Ramat Hanegev These two subjects also include an audio soundtrack in English and the relative material was distributed, among others, to the Palestinian Authority in Gaza and Nablus, and to the Jordanian Minister of Agriculture. • Drip Irrigation - Principles • Drip Irrigation – Advantages and Limitations These two subjects were also translated to Arabic and were given to facilitators as part of the face-to-face training sessions. Other topics were: • Regional Water Demand Management (for IRUD) • Water Demand Management (modified for the conference in Jordan) • Salinity Management • Efficient Use of Water – Non-Drained Dripper • Management of Water Resources in Israel • Efficient Use of Water – The Israeli Experience • Introduction to Irrigation • Proposal for wastewater treatment in rural communities in Jordan • Recycling of drainage water in greenhouses Preparation of the program and the implementation stage on the ground proceeded simultaneously. Contact was made with the director of the Union of Farmers in the Jordan Valley with a view to moving forward with the operational plans in the region. In accordance with a proposal submitted by the Union's management, it was decided to initially concentrate on adapting the drip irrigation presentation for the target public. Furthermore, an agreement has been signed with the Arava Institute to operate a pilot program for distance learning in their campus that includes the following contents: Governance, Policy and Institutional Roles a. Domestic Governance i. Constitutional and jurisdictional responsibility ii. Laws, regulations, policies, and enforcement - national and regional iii. Agencies, mandates, and interactions iv. Laws, regulations, policies, and enforcement at the local level International Governance i. International relations, laws, treaties, and agreements Trans-governmental Approaches i. Basin Commissions, international commissions, etc. Community-Based Management Community-Based Approaches i. Local involvement, and the significance of place Community Involvement i. Public awareness, engagement, and involvement ii. Public education programs, public consultation, and public response iii. Stakeholders, landowners, education, information and incentive programmes iv. Community-based projects and assessments. Social Change and Awareness i. Gender issues in the water and sanitation sector ii. Good practice on gender in water and sanitation iii. Lessons from project experience i. Water campaigns and awareness-raising, and water ethics i. Formal and informal education and training Demand Management i. Improved water use efficiency, recycling, and sustainable use Conflict Resolution and Avoidance Conflict Avoidance and Management Shared Vision Planning Consensus-Building Economics and Operational Models Pollution Charges Subsidies and Incentives Private Participation Conferences and Workshops
In parallel to the distance learning program and training program in Jordan, a number of "Training of the Trainer" conferences and workshops were held in Israel. The workshops were attended by Jordanians, Palestinians and Israelis interested in this field of activity. All the workshops included meetings, lectures and tours, with particular focus on the project site in Ramat HaNegev.
Training of proposed Jordanian facilitators, August 2005
A number of presentations on drip irrigation were introduced with the objective to train facilitators to conduct a series of sessions, each for 15-20 farmers from the Jordan Valley, with the aim of reaching all 3,000 members of the Farmers' Association. Each session includes a half-day meeting in class and then a demonstration in the field. Three leading facilitators took part in the training. Sharing of bilateral experience, October 2005 Objective: A visit to the Jordan Valley Farmers Association on Wednesday 26/10/2005 was coordinated by the Peres Center for Peace in consultation with JICA and JVFA. The objective of the visit was to demonstrate the bilateral experience and achievements of JVFA and the Peres Center for Peace as an example for consideration of a similar program in other locations in the Jordan Valley and Jericho and also in terms of further development of the During the field visit, we had the opportunity to observe the introduction of modern irrigation technology and agricultural practices in demonstration plots of vegetables and orchard plantations in Tel Al-Arbayeen close to Sheikh Hussein Bridge. At this site, we observed a program of pepper cultivation and of perennial fruit plantations of apricot, loquat, citrus and guava planted under an intercropping system. The second part of the field visit was to Tal Almantah to see the existing sewage treatment plant, the problems there, and the proposed solution. We also saw the proposed area to be irrigated by the treated The meeting was at the office of the JVFA in Deir Alla. The main issues raised were: • The Jordan Valley Farmers Association has more than 3,000 members covering an irrigated area of about 310 thousand dunams. Their future plan is to develop the distance learning program and give special attention to environmental issues such as solid waste and recycling of wastewater. • In modern irrigated agriculture with high investments it is important to establish appropriate support services for the farmers, including a soil-plant-water laboratory, in order to give farmers the most accurate recommendations based upon quantitative terms of field parameters. • Improving the operation and management of irrigation systems through training of the farmers is essential in achieving high water use efficiency as well as good return. Currently, a face-to-face training program is being planned. Several presentations were prepared on different topics, some translated to Arabic for the facilitators to conduct training of the farmers in the Jordan Valley and the Jericho region. The objective is to introduce the distance learning approach as a means to disseminating wide-scale know-how application. • The quality of the existing wastewater treatment plant in Tal Almantah is not suitable for irrigation. It is proposed that the plant be upgraded through an introduction of the "Multi-Stage Activated Biological Process". This will solve problems of environmental issues, as well as supply water for irrigation. This upgrading could serve as a pilot project for other locations in the region as well as for the Jericho • There is great potential to further develop the introduction of organic farming into the region. It was proposed to prepare a plan for increasing the area of organic farming, including training of farmers in organic agriculture. Participants: 20 Jordanians, Israelis and Palestinians Advanced Technologies in Irrigation, March 2006 Objective: The objective of this workshop was to acquaint participants with the latest advanced technologies practiced in various sub-regions, with special emphasis on irrigation, efficient use of water and water-saving, use and recycling of marginal water, and salinity issues. Additionally, principles for establishing irrigation field advisory services were discussed, as was the idea of promoting a cadre of facilitators for face-to-face and distance learning training so as to benefit continuously from a free exchange of knowledge. Participants: 12 Jordanians, 8 Palestinians, 10 Israelis Agenda: Tuesday, March 21st – Southern Israel 07:00 Departure 07:45 Kibbutz Yavne – wastewater treatment plant (similar to that planned for the Jordan 10:45 Ramat HaNegev R&D Center - Research and Development in marginal water for 14:00 Lachish R&D Center – research and development in greenhouses and recycling of 18:00 Return to the hotel Wednesday, March 22nd – Lectures at the Sheraton Moriah Hotel, Tel Aviv 09:00 Morning session Introduction – Dr. Shaul Manor Efficiency of water use in Jordan - experiences - Mr. Suleiman Ghezawi The Culture of Water – Mr. Itzhak Abt 10:00 Distance Learning Access to information via e-learning: knowledge at the tip of your fingers - Ms. Iris Rosenthal and Ms. Nehama 11:00 Coffee break Demonstration of distance learning: integrated rural-urban development - Mr. Uzi Israeli Discussion: the prospect of future learning 12:30 Lunch 14:00 Wastewater treatment systems - Dr. Efim Monosov 14:30 Culture of Water: presentations on aspects of water use efficiency - Dr. Shaul Manor 23 15:30 Coffee break 16:00 Techniques to improve tomato yields under protected agriculture - Mr. Omar Zeidan Conclusion Thursday, March 23rd – Northern Israel 07:00 Checkout from the hotel 07:30 Departure 08:30 Emek Efer Water User Association – a model of regional water management of different water qualities, exchange of fresh water with treated wastewater of the city of Netanya 11:30 Kibbutz Magal – R&D of greenhouses of Netafim Drip Irrigation Company – advanced agro-technologies 15:00 Kerem Maharal – organic farming 16:30 Departure to Sheikh Hussein Bridge / Palestinian Authority Water Resources Management for Agricultural and Urban Use, March 2007 (in cooperation with MASHAV/CINADCO) Objective: The objective of this workshop was to acquaint participants with the latest advanced technologies of water treatment, with special emphasis on small plants for small communities. The issue of water treatment technologies was discussed and demonstrated in R&D centers and under operation in the field. The workshop participants also had the opportunity to visit the Ashkelon seawater reverse osmosis plant – the largest desalination plant of its kind in the world. Participants: Total of 20 participants from Jordan and 10 from Israel. Workshop program: The program included 2 days of sessions and 3 days of field visits to operational water treatment plants. Workshop Recommendations: • There is a need for training on Grey Water use and management • There is a need for training on design/operation for wastewater treatment plants in Israel including: ƒ Advanced technique for bio-treatment ƒ Membrane techniques ƒ Disinfection techniques • The effect of treated wastewater on crops should be studied • There is a need for training on water resources techniques applications ex. GIS techniques, GIW models, evapo-transpiration and crop water requirements. • There is a need for training on water and wastewater qualities and standards for drinking and irrigation. • There is a need for training on water resources development in order to cover the Israeli experience like: ƒ Water harvesting ƒ Water resources planning ƒ Water resource protection techniques and policies ƒ Optimal choice of development options (BOT, PPP) • There is a need for intensive training on the use of saline water and saline soil. • There is a need for a short term expert to evaluate the desalination of Red Sea water and brackish water. • There is a need for intensive training and field trips on water delivery and wastewater operational systems including: ƒ Introduction to the operational irrigation systems. ƒ Introduction to on-farm management (crop water requirements and • There is a need for transfer of technology and expertise through shadowing of Israeli staff for 1 week – 1 month. Next Steps – A Proposed Second Stage
A second phase of the project is needed to deepen and further disseminate the "Culture of Water" concept, with particular emphasis on the use and treatment of recycled sewage and The recycling of sewage water in selected villages unconnected to sewage systems is a major environmental challenge facing the region. The use and treatment of saline water has a very promising economic implication as shown in the first phase, but can have a negative environmental impact in the long-run, including salinization of soils. Therefore, the use and treatment of saline water for agriculture production will be further developed both in the southern Arava and Ramat HaNegev R&D stations to develop crops and additional halophytes of economic potential, including Salicornia, not only as a vegetable but also for essential oil production. The program will monitor salinization of soils. Another facet of the program is to develop an R&D program for using recycled saline and geothermal water for desert aquaculture, aiming at only 5-7% additional fresh water to fish This technology may be of highly significant economic importance. The technology involved will include the use of more efficient membranes being developed in the Yeshaya Horowitz Association supported research program of "Advanced Water Technologies". The overall expected output from this phase aims to research and demonstrate how to incur a 30-40% reduction in water requirements for crops and fish production. Results and achievements in this phase will also be disseminated both through workshops and a face-to-face/distance learning program. Budget required for 3 years:
Item Cost
1. Applicative research to further develop Solanacia crops types in the Arava $600,000 region and further development of halophytes to produce high value essential oils at Ramat HaNegev (in collaboration with the Ben Gurion University). 2. R&D water saving techniques for intensive land based aquaculture under $450,000 semi or fully closed water systems for fish breeding (in collaboration with the Sede Boker Desert Research Center and the Faculty of Agriculture). 3. R&D remediation plans of small and medium size to recycle sewage water $400,000 from scattered villages, to safeguard common aquifers and alleviate environmental hazards. This will involve both microbiology treatment and membrane technology. 4. Expand the existing face-to-face and Middle East regional distance learning program related to all aspects of water treatment, water saving, and the optimizing of water use.



Publikationen aus der Klinik für Hämatologie, Onkologie und Palliativmedizin seit 2004 I. Originalarbeiten Maschmeyer G, Böhme, A, Buchheidt D, Cornely OA, Fricke HJ, Karthaus M, Lehrnbecher T, Link, Shah PM, Wilhelm M (2004): Diagnostik und Therapie von Infektionen bei Patienten in der Hämatologie und Onkologie. Leitlinien der Sektion Infektionen in der Hämatologie/Onkologie der Paul-Ehrlich-Gesellschaft e.V. Chemother J 13: 134-141

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