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Microsoft word - detailed theme 4 2007.doc


The Vocational Education and
Training System of Cyprus:
INITIAL VOCATIONAL
EDUCATION AND TRAINING
JULY 2007
ISBN 978-9963-43-790-0
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………


Prepared by
Ms. Yianna Korelli, Human Resource Officer

Coordination
Mr. Yiannis Mourouzides, Senior Human Resource Officer
Major Contribution

Mr. Elias Margadjis, Inspector of Secondary Technical and Vocational
Education, Ministry of Education and Culture.
Ms Christiana Charilaou, Administration Officer, Secondary Technical and
Vocational Education, Ministry of Education and Culture.
Contribution

Ms. Demetra Costa, Statistical Assistant, Statistical Service of Cyprus
Overall responsibility

Dr. George Oxinos, Research and Planning Director
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.
Human Resource Development Authority:
2 Anavissou Str., Strovolos, P.O. Box 25431, CY-1392 Nicosia, Cyprus
Tel: +357 22515000, Fax: +357 22496949
E-mail: hrda@hrdauth.org.cy, Website: www.hrdauth.org.cy
ReferNet Cyprus:
Tel: +357 22390350, Fax: +357 22428522
E-mail: refernet@hrdauth.org.cy, Website: www.refernet.org.cy.
FOREWORD
This report was initiated by Cedefop, the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, and has been prepared by the Human Resource Development Authority of Cyprus (HRDA), the nominated National Coordinator of the European network ReferNet in Cyprus. ReferNet was set up by Cedefop as the European network of reference and expertise in vocational education and training. It aims to improve the collection and dissemination of information to policy makers, researchers and practitioners in the field of vocational education and training. The report has been prepared as part of a series of reports on vocational education and training in European Union countries. It is a contribution to Cedefop's continuing work on VET systems in EU member states, which is changing from being mainly based on hard copy descriptions of each national system to an electronic-based system. This report aims to provide a description of the initial vocational education and training system in Cyprus, in which people may acquire the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes for entering an occupation or group of occupations. The focus is both on schematising the pathways through the system and the levels at which people can obtain a vocational qualification. The Cedefop database, eKnowVet1, offers on-line information on vocational education and training in partner countries. The standard entry format allows country-specific and multi-country searches covering 11 thematic areas in overview (thematic overviews) and 7 in detail. The database is regularly updated by the European network ReferNet. ReferNet is made up of national consortiums, each comprising organisations, which are representative of the interests of vocational education and training within each EU Member State, plus Norway and Iceland. The HRDA, as the National Coordinator of ReferNet in Cyprus, wishes to acknowledge the invaluable contribution of the Ministry of Education and Culture and the Ministry of Labour and Social Insurance. The contribution of the Statistical Service of Cyprus is also acknowledged. 04 – INITIAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING

0401 – INTRODUCTION TO INITIAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND
TRAINING

Vocational Education and Training, VET (Epangelmatiki Ekpaidefsi kai Katartisi) includes all types of education and training that give people the qualifications needed to enter the labour market and to work in certain jobs. There is no formal or legal definition of VET in Cyprus. Initial Vocational Education and Training (IVET) in Cyprus is provided through the Upper Secondary Technical and Vocational Education, STVE (Defterovathmia Techniki kai Epangelmatiki Ekpaidefsi, DTEE), the Apprenticeship System (Systima Mathiteias, SM), the initial training programmes subsidised by the Human Resource Development Authority HRDA (Archi Anaptyxis Anthropinou Dynamikou, AnAD) and the public institutions of tertiary education. There is no IVET during the first ten years of compulsory education up to the lower secondary school. Instead, IVET starts at the upper secondary school, grade 11 of the education system, where the students have the option to follow the technical and vocational schools (technikes kai epangelmatikes scholes). The typical age of students at the technical and vocational schools is between 15 and 18 years of age. There are three grades and each class has a maximum of 28 students. STVE is offered in two directions, the Theoretical Direction (Theoritiki Katefthinsi) and the Practical Direction (Praktiki Katefthinsi). The duration of studies is three years for each direction. The first year of studies is common for all branches/specialisations in each direction and students select a specialisation in their chosen branch in the second and third year of their studies. Upon completing the study programmes successfully, graduates of both directions are awarded a Leaving Certificate (Apolytirio), which is equivalent to that obtained from Public Schools of Secondary General Education and entitles them either to pursue further studies at Institutions of Higher and Tertiary Education, or to enter the labour market as skilled workers. The Theoretical Direction is completely school-based and combines general education subjects with technological and workshop subjects. About 53% of the graduates of the Theoretical Direction pursue successfully studies at Institutions of Higher and Tertiary Education, either in Cyprus or abroad. The first and second year of the Practical Direction are completely school-based and combine general education subjects with technological and workshop subjects. The third year of studies in the Practical Direction combines a school-based environment with a real workplace and final-year students are placed in industry for one day per week, where they follow a practical training programme. About 15% of the graduates of the Practical Direction pursue successfully studies at Institutions of Higher and Tertiary Education, either in Cyprus or abroad. STVE is offered at twelve Public Technical and Vocational Schools operating in the government–controlled area of Cyprus. There are three Schools in Nicosia, three in Limassol, two in Larnaca, two in the free area of the Famagusta district, one in Pafos and one in Polis. There is also one Hotel and Catering department at Apeitio Gymnasium in Agros. The Directorate of Secondary Technical and Vocational Education (Diefthinsi Defterovathmias Technikis kai Epaggelmatikis Ekpaidefsis), is responsible for planning, organising, implementing and evaluating the educational programmes that are offered at the twelve Public Technical and Vocational Schools. The Director of STVE reports directly to the Director General of the Ministry of Education and Culture, MoEC (Ypourgeio Paideias kai Politismou, YPP). There are two Chief Education Officers, one of which is assigned as Head Inspector, who supervise the work of five STVE School Inspectors. Technical and Vocational Schools maintain close cooperation with the STVE Directorate. Each School has its own Director, who reports directly to the assigned school inspector and the Director of STVE. The Evening Technical School (Esperini Techniki Scholi) accepts persons of all ages who wish to complete a course of study at technical and vocational schools. It has been operating at the premises of the A´ Technical School in Nicosia since September 1999. The study programmes offered are equivalent to the STVE programmes that are offered in the morning. The curricula in each branch/specialisation are the same as the curricula in the respective branch/specialisation of the morning classes, adapted, however, to the particular characteristics and needs of the students who attend evening classes. The duration of studies varies from one to four years, depending on the educational level of students. Attendance is free and leads to the acquisition of a Leaving Certificate, which is equivalent to that awarded by Technical and Vocational Schools. The Apprenticeship System is another form of initial vocational education, which accepts students who leave formal education between grades eight and ten. Participants are students of 14 to 18 years of age. The programme lasts for two years and is a combination of general education and vocational training which takes place at Technical Schools (Technikes Scholes, TS), for two days per week with practical training in industry, where apprentices are remunerated for their work, for three days per week. The System is run jointly by the Ministry of Education and Culture, MoEC (Ypourgeio Paideias kai Politismou, YPP) and the Cyprus Productivity Centre, CPC (Kentro Paragogikotitas, KEPA). The HRDA approves and subsidises multi-company initial training programmes organised in cooperation with training institutions, enterprise-based initial training and the practical training of students of certain specialisations in public secondary and tertiary education institutions. The HRDA also co-funds the Apprenticeship System. Additionally, the HRDA has developed and put in operation in 2006 three schemes aiming to promote the training and employability of Young Secondary School-leavers, the Unemployed and the Economically Inactive Women. In addition, a new scheme for the enhancement of computer literacy of the unemployed has been developed and is implemented over the period November 2006-December 2007. All these schemes are co-financed by the European Social Fund, ESF (Evropaiko Koinoniko Tameio, EKT). Public tertiary education is currently provided at the University of Cyprus, UCY (Panepistimio Kyprou, PK). Two more state universities, the Technological University of Cyprus (Technologiko Panepistimio Kyprou, TEPAK) and the Open University of Cyprus (Anikto Panepistimio Kyprou, APKy), have recently been established and commenced their operations. In addition to the public provision of tertiary education, there are several private institutions. IVET at tertiary level is provided at seven institutes/colleges, which come under the jurisdiction of various ministries. The structure of the Education System of Cyprus is shown in Table 1. The gross participation rates considering population aged 15-20 and 15-17 (the most relevant age group) are shown in Table 2. Table 2: Statistics on Introduction to Initial Vocational Education and Training Gross participation rates
Gross participation rates
considering population aged
considering population aged
15-20(1)
15-17(2) (most relevant
age group)
Secondary
Only Upper
Secondary
Only Upper
Technical and
Technical and
Secondary
Secondary
Technical and
Vocational
Technical
Vocational
Education
Education
Vocational
Education
Vocational
Education
1990/91 5.9% 7.4% 12.2% 15.3% 1995/96 7.3% 8.4% 13.7% 16.0% 2000/01 6.6% 7.5% 13.5% 14.8% 2005/06 6.4% 6.9% 13.1% 14.3% (1) Total number of students in the programmes irrespective of age is divided by the population in the age group 15-20 (2) Total number of students in the programmes irrespective of age is divided by the population in the age group TABLE 1: TH E FO RM AL AND NO N-FO RM AL EDUCATIO N AND TRAINING SYSTEM O F CYPRUS
•C yprus U niversity (state)•T echnological U niversity •State Institutes/C olleges State & Privately run •O ther Institutes •U niversity level Private •Private Colleges (D iploma) "T heoretical direction" •"O pen" U niversity "Practical direction" •Evening Lyceums •State & privately run A b-initio training •Evening T ech. Schools and Re-training courses A PPRENT ICESH IP SY ST EM •U pgrading and U pdating •Evening Institutes courses (State and Private) (State and Private) KEY : Leaving School Certificate/D iplom a/D egree Entrance/Selection Combination of Institutional and Industrial T raining (em ployed and unem ployed people) Source: ET F, V ocational education and N ote: M ost of the A b-initio, Re-training, U pdating and U pgrading courses are training and employm ent services in C yprus- M onographs for candidate countries (2002). sponsored by the H uman Resource D evelopment A uthority.
040101 – DEVELOPMENT OF IVET

Historical Review

The first efforts to introduce Technical and Vocational Education, TVE
(Techniki kai Epangelmatiki Ekpaidefsi, TEE) in Cyprus were initiated
before the Second World War by the private sector, but ended in failure
because of the complete absence of infrastructure and the lack of financial
investment.
During the Second World War, the lack of trained personnel forced the
British colonial authorities of Cyprus to take the first steps towards
developing a Public Technical and Vocational Education system. In 1944, a
special committee was formed in order to draw a proposal for the
establishment of TVE in Cyprus. In 1946, the first apprentice-training
programme was introduced and in 1951 a Technical and Vocational School
was established in Lefka. In 1952, the British authorities decided to
introduce a five-year Technical and Vocational Education programme. In
1956, the Nicosia Technical Institute, the Nicosia Preparatory Technical
School and the Limassol Technical School commenced their operation.
After independence in 1960, the Cyprus economy exhibited spectacular
growth and, as a result, there was great need for adequately trained
personnel in all sectors of the economy. Therefore, the number of
Technical and Vocational Schools increased to eleven, including two
Commercial and Vocational Schools and an Agricultural School.
However, the Turkish invasion in 1974 and the occupation of 40% of the
island had devastating effects on all aspects of life, including education.
Five out of eleven Technical and Vocational Schools were occupied,
including the two Commercial and Vocational Schools and the Agricultural
School.
In the years after the Turkish invasion, there was a swift transformation of
the economy from predominantly agricultural to service based. As a
result, Technical and Vocational Education had to respond to new
educational, economic, industrial and social challenges.
Gradually, more Technical and Vocational Schools were established in the
government–controlled area of Cyprus. Currently, there are twelve TVE
Schools: three in Nicosia, three in Limassol, two in Larnaca, two in the
free area of the Famagusta district, one in Pafos and one in Polis. There is
also one Hotel and Catering department at Apeitio Gymnasium in Agros.
Apart from the schools mentioned above, there is also one Evening
Technical School (Esperini Techniki Scholi), which has been operating at
the premises of the A´ Technical School in Nicosia since September 1999.

The STVE's Reform, Restructuring and Modernisation of 2001

The Ministry of Education and Culture, MoEC (Ypourgeio Paideias kai
Politismou, YPP), aiming at the reform of the content and structure of
Secondary Technical and Vocational Education, STVE (Defterovathmia
Techniki kai Epangelmatiki Ekpaidefsi, DTEE), formed a Proposal for the
Reform, Restructuring and Modernisation of STVE. The Proposal was
approved by the Council of Ministers (Ypourgiko Symvoulio) in August
2000 and was implemented in September 2001.
In the context of the Proposal for Reform, Restructuring and
Modernisation, the special objectives of STVE have been revised, in order
for this type of education to:
• Help society achieve its goals for social, cultural and economic growth.
• Contribute to the improvement of the quality of life, by providing
individuals with the opportunity to broaden their intellectual horizons. • Enable society to utilise the results of economic and scientific- technological changes, for the benefit and prosperity of society as a whole. • Provide students with better opportunities for vertical and horizontal movement across the upper secondary educational system. • Offer solid knowledge and broad technological training, making STVE an attractive option for the development of students' talents, interests and skills, therefore leading them either towards Higher and Tertiary Education or the labour market. • Enhance understanding of the modern civilisation's technological dimensions and their impact on the environment. • Develop the decision-making competencies of students, as well as the necessary attitudes for active and educated participation, co-operation and leadership at the workplace and in society in general. According to the revised structure, STVE is offered in two directions, the Theoretical Direction (Theoritiki Katefthinsi) and the Practical Direction (Praktiki Katefthinsi). The duration of studies is three years for each direction. The first year of studies is common in each branch and direction. Students select a specialisation offered in the branch of their choice in the second and third year of their studies. The most significant innovations included in the Proposal for Reform, Restructuring and Modernisation of STVE were the following: • Revised special objectives. • Revised curricula. • The introduction of new branches and specialisations. • The introduction of new subjects. • The introduction of elective subjects of special interest. • The upgrading of general education subjects. • The introduction of modern technology. • The introduction of lifelong learning and training programmes. • The restructuring and modernisation of the Apprenticeship System (Systima Mathiteias, SM). • The systematic training of the teaching staff. The challenges facing technical and vocational education in the twenty-first century and the demands of the contemporary workplace call for the implementation of learner-centred innovative and flexible approaches. Therefore, the revised system of Technical and Vocational Education in Cyprus is based upon an instructional approach that places students, with their learning abilities, strengths, weaknesses, talents and interests, at the centre of the educational process, thus leading them to the acquisition of solid broad knowledge and generic skills, which will equip them with the capacity to solve problems, carry out research, learn how to learn and help them adapt to a changing environment. To this end, the revised curricula developed by the Directorate of Secondary Technical and Vocational Education (Diefthinsi Defterovathmias Technikis kai Epaggelmatikis Ekpaidefsis), have introduced a common first year of study for the branch in each direction, providing students with solid general education and generic skills associated with their branch, before choosing their specialisation in the second and third year of their studies. Moreover, the revised curricula place particular emphasis on subjects and issues such as modern technology, the environment, foreign languages and entrepreneurship, and also take account of the requirements of rapidly growing service industries. In addition to the above, contemporary educational technology is employed, particularly the Internet, interactive multimedia materials and audiovisual aids, in order to motivate students, promote self-learning and enhance the effectiveness, quality and richness of the programmes on offer. The Directorate of Secondary Technical and Vocational Education is in the process of adapting or even developing teaching and learning materials that use the information and communication technologies. In an effort to provide students with the experience they need for their smooth entry into the labour market, machines and equipment used in laboratories and workshops simulate the workplace as closely as possible. As a result, students develop a command of valuable practical skills such as tool use, repair and maintenance of equipment and safety procedures. Revision of Curricula

STVE is currently in the process of revising, modernising and upgrading
the curricula it offers, while at the same time modernising the teaching
and learning processes. A comprehensive scientific external evaluation of
the curricula offered by STVE is currently underway. The external
evaluation of the STVE curricula is co-financed by the European Social
Fund, ESF (Evropaiko Koinoniko Tameio, EKT) with the amount of
£348 000 (€594 593) (Measure 2.2.2 Improvement and Reinforcement of
Secondary Technical and Vocational Education). The curricula will be
revised according to the conclusions reached by the external evaluation.
The revision of the curricula is expected to be completed in 2008.
Furthermore, in order to improve both the quality and attractiveness of
STVE, the MoEC continues its policy of developing the infrastructure of
Technical and Vocational Schools and also of introducing Modern
Technology in the STVE curricula.
040102 – RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN IVET AND GENERAL
EDUCATION

Compulsory education lasts for ten years and covers pre-primary
education, primary education, grades one to six, and lower secondary
education in the gymnasium, grades seven to nine. Students are accepted
at the pre-primary school at the age of four years and eight months. At
the end of the gymnasium, students receive a certificate. Most students in
primary and secondary education (86.2%) attend public-sector schools,
which are set up and funded by the government. Private-sector schools
are mainly self-funded.
Formal upper secondary education lasts for three years, grades 10 to 12.
It is provided at two types of upper secondary school, namely, the unified
lyceum (Eniaio Lykeio) and Technical Schools (Technikes Scholes, TS).
Upon completion of upper secondary education, (either general or
technical and vocational) all students receive a Leaving Certificate
(Apolytirio), which provides access to the labour market or to Institutions
of Higher and Tertiary Education in Cyprus or abroad.
The unified lyceum provides general upper secondary education. The new
unified lyceum curricula aim to provide a wide knowledge base and
greater flexibility in the selection of subjects. During the first year of
studies, students follow a common core of subjects, while in the second
and third year of their studies, students can select from a wide range of
subjects. Technical Schools provide two major directions of upper
secondary technical and vocational education, the Theoretical (Theoritiki)
and the Practical (Praktiki). At the beginning of the first year of studies,
students in both directions select the branch of their choice from a
selection of thirteen branches. The first year of studies is common for the
branch in each direction and students can select from a wide range of specialisations offered in the branch of their choice in the second and third year of their studies. General education subjects constitute a substantial part of the Technical and Vocational Education, TVE (Techniki kai Epangelmatiki Ekpaidefsi, TEE) study programmes. A considerable number of secondary general education teachers, teaching general education subjects, are employed at Technical Schools. Respectively, some technological subjects are integrated in the general education curriculum and are taught by Technical School teachers. One of the most significant innovations introduced in the National Education System is the facilitation of horizontal and vertical movement across the upper secondary level of education. This means that students attending the unified lyceum can enrol in the second year of Technical Schools if they wish, provided that they succeed in special examinations. The same applies for students attending Technical Schools. General Education and Technical and Vocational Education share a number of common objectives, since both aim at providing all students with the opportunity to develop their individual skills, aptitudes and unique personalities by offering them a variety of elective subjects of special interest. They also aim at assisting students to develop their communication and learning skills so as to enhance self-confidence and therefore empower them to deal successfully with the diverse roles they are expected to play in life. In addition to the above, qualified guidance counsellors of the Counselling and Career Education Service of the Ministry of Education and Culture, MoEC (Ypourgeio Paideias kai Politismou, YPP), offer students of Public Secondary General (Defterovathmia Geniki) and Public Secondary Technical and Vocational Education, STVE (Defterovathmia Techniki kai Epangelmatiki Ekpaidefsi, DTEE) assistance in order to develop personal awareness as regards their interests, needs and skills and therefore make the right decisions about their education and future career. Initial Vocational Education and Training is also provided through the Apprenticeship System (Systima Mathiteias, SM), which is run jointly by the Ministry of Education and Culture and the Cyprus Productivity Centre, CPC (Kentro Paragogikotitas, KEPA). The Apprenticeship System addresses students who do not wish to continue their studies at the upper secondary level and also dropouts from the formal secondary education system. The Apprenticeship System accepts students who leave formal education between grades eight and ten. It lasts for two years and combines general education and vocational training at school, which takes place at Technical Schools for two days per week, with practical training in industry, where apprentices are remunerated for their work, for three days per week. General education subjects are taught by secondary general education teachers. Table 1: Distribution of participants between Upper Secondary Technical and Vocational Education and Upper Secondary General Education Secondary
Secondary
Technical and
Technical
Secondary Total
Vocational
Secondary Total
Education
Vocational Education
Education
Education
1990/91 17.1% 82.9% 100% 1995/96 15.5% 84.5% 100%
040103 – QUALIFICATIONS STRUCTURE

Secondary Technical and Vocational Education

Upon completing the Secondary Technical and Vocational Education, STVE
(Defterovathmia Techniki kai Epangelmatiki Ekpaidefsi, DTEE), study
programmes successfully, graduates of Technical Schools (Technikes
Scholes, TS) are awarded a Leaving Certificate (Apolytirio), which is
equivalent to the Leaving Certificates awarded by other Public Schools of
Secondary General Education. This Leaving Certificate entitles graduates
either to pursue further studies at Institutions of Higher and Tertiary
Education, or to enter the labour market as skilled workers.
The Ministry of Education and Culture, MoEC (Ypourgeio Paideias kai
Politismou, YPP) is responsible for defining and creating the qualifications
for the different pathways offered in the context of STVE.
Leaving Certificates (Apolytiria) are awarded by Technical and Vocational
Schools, on the authorisation of the MoEC.
The Apprenticeship System

Upon completing successfully the two-year programme offered in the
context of the Apprenticeship System (Systima Mathiteias, SM),
apprentices are awarded a professional certificate, which entitles them to
enter the labour market as semi-skilled workers. This certificate is not
equivalent to the Leaving Certificates awarded to graduates of upper
secondary education (general or technical and vocational) and does not
entitle apprentices to pursue further studies at Institutions of Higher and
Tertiary Education.

The MoEC and the Cyprus Productivity Centre, CPC (Kentro
Paragogikotitas, KEPA) run the Apprenticeship System jointly. The MoEC is
responsible for the vocational education and training of the apprentices,
while the CPC is responsible for the administration of the System.
Public Institutions of Tertiary Education

Successful completion of the programmes of public tertiary education
institutions leads to the award of each institution's diploma. Following law
67 (I)/96, which regulates the procedure for the recognition of higher
education qualifications, the diplomas awarded by the public tertiary
education institutions are recognised by the competent authorities of the
state.
Human Resource Development Authority Initial Training
Programmes


The Human Resource Development Authority, HRDA (Archi Anaptyxis
Anthropinou Dynamikou, AnAD) approves and subsidises multi-company
initial training programmes organised in cooperation with training
institutions, enterprise-based initial training and the practical training of
students of certain specialisations in public secondary and tertiary
education institutions. Additionally, the HRDA has developed and put in
operation in 2006 three schemes aiming to promote the training and
employability of Young Secondary School-leavers, the Unemployed and
the Economically Inactive Women. In addition, a new scheme for the
enhancement of computer literacy of the unemployed has been developed
and is implemented over the period November 2006-December 2007. All
these schemes are co-financed by the European Social Fund, ESF
(Evropaiko Koinoniko Tameio, EKT).
The participants who successfully complete the training programmes will
receive a Certificate, except those who participate in the enterprise-based
initial training.
040104 – SCHOOLS/TRAINING CENTRES/PROVIDERS

Ministry of Education and Culture
The Ministry of Education and Culture, MoEC (Ypourgeio Paideias kai Politismou, YPP) has the overall responsibility for the enforcement of laws, the implementation of education policy and the administration of education. It manages and operates public education institutions for the pre-primary, primary and secondary levels including both general and Technical and Vocational Education, TVE (Techniki kai Epangelmatiki Ekpaidefsi, TEE). Moreover, there is a private sector for education at primary, secondary
and tertiary levels. All private sector institutions, which offer school
leaving or other certificates or diplomas are registered and approved by
the MoEC. The authority of the MoEC is exercised through the various
relevant decisions taken by the Council of Ministers (Ypourgiko Symvoulio)
and acts passed by the House of Representatives (Vouli ton
Antiprosopon). All private institutions, which award leaving or other
certificates or diplomas, must be approved by the MoEC.
The main provider of Initial Vocational Education and Training, IVET, is
therefore the MoEC, and more specifically the Directorate of Secondary
Technical and Vocational Education, STVE (Defterovathmia Techniki kai
Epangelmatiki Ekpaidefsi, DTEE). STVE offers a wide range of technical
and vocational education, initial training and lifelong training programmes
to eligible gymnasium leavers and adults. It is integrated into the national
school system and maintains close links with industry and other training
institutions. STVE includes morning and afternoon and evening classes.
Initial STVE is offered at twelve Public Technical and Vocational Schools
operating in the government-controlled area of Cyprus. There are three
Schools in Nicosia, three in Limassol, two in Larnaca, two in the free area
of the Famagusta district, one in Pafos and one in Polis. There is also one
Hotel and Catering department at Apeitio Gymnasium in Agros.
Apart from the schools mentioned above, there is also one Evening
Technical School (Esperini Techniki Scholi), which has been operating on
the premises of the A´ Technical School in Nicosia since September 1999.
The study programmes offered at the Evening Technical School are
equivalent to the STVE programmes that are offered in the morning. The
curricula in each branch and specialisation are the same as the curricula in
the respective branch/specialisation of the morning classes, adapted,
however, to the particular characteristics and needs of the students who
attend evening classes. The duration of studies varies from one to four
years, depending on the educational level of those interested in attending
evening TVE programmes. Attendance is free and leads to the acquisition
of a Leaving Certificate (Apolitirio), which is equivalent to that awarded by
Technical and Vocational Schools.
In addition to the above, in the context of lifelong learning, STVE offers
afternoon and evening classes, which cover Technical and Vocational
Training subjects.
Ministry of Labour and Social Insurance
The Ministry of Labour and Social Insurance, MLSI (Ypourgeio Ergasias kai Koinonikon Asfaliseon, YEKA), as part of its responsibility to cater for labour and human resource development matters, has taken initiatives to set up vocationally oriented education and training institutions.
Cyprus Productivity Centre

The Cyprus Productivity Centre, CPC (Kentro Paragogikotitas, KEPA) is
also involved in IVET, in the context of the Apprenticeship System
(Systima Mathiteias, SM). The System is run jointly by the MoEC and the
CPC. The MoEC is responsible for the vocational education and training of
the apprentices, while the CPC is responsible for the administration of the
System. The programme lasts for two years and combines general
education and vocational training, which takes place at Technical Schools
(Technikes Scholes, TS), for two days per week with practical training in
industry, where apprentices are remunerated for their work, for three
days per week.
Other Ministries

A small number of vocational and post-secondary institutions come under
the jurisdiction of several ministries such as the Ministry of Health, MoH
(Ypourgeio Ygeias), the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and
Environment, MoA (Ypourgeio Georgias, Fysikon Poron kai Perivallontos,
YGFPP), the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism, MCIT
(Ypourgeio Emporiou, Viomichanias kai Tourismou, YEVT), the Ministry of
Finance, MoF (Ypourgeio Oikonomikon, YO) and the Ministry of Justice and
Public Order, MJPO (Ypourgeio Dikaiosynis kai Dimosias Taxis, YDDT).
Human Resource Development Authority

The Human Resource Development Authority, HRDA (Archi Anaptyxis
Anthropinou Dynamikou, AnAD) plays an important role in initial
vocational training. The HRDA promotes and subsidises initial training
activities aimed to bridge the gap between the abilities of people leaving
the educational system and the needs of the labour market.
040105 – ROLE OF SOCIAL PARTNERS AND ENTERPRISES

In Cyprus there has been a long-standing tradition of tripartite
consultation (government, trade unions and employers' organisations) and
social dialogue. This is reflected in the active participation of social
partners in the various bodies and committees.
The Directorate of Secondary Technical and Vocational Education
(Diefthinsi Defterovathmias Technikis kai Epaggelmatikis Ekpaidefsis), in
order to be able to re-examine and adapt the content of its curricula
according to the current development needs of the Cyprus economy and
industry, and taking into account the latest scientific and technological
advances, has developed close cooperation with the following agencies:
• The Advisory Committee for Secondary Technical and Vocational Education, STVE (Defterovathmia Techniki kai Epangelmatiki Ekpaidefsi, DTEE). • The Branches and Specialisations Advisory Committees for STVE. • The organised agencies of employers and manufacturers (Employers´ • The organised agencies of employees (Employees´ Organisations). • The Human Resource Development Authority, HRDA (Archi Anaptyxis Anthropinou Dynamikou, AnAD). Cooperation between the Directorate of STVE and the agencies mentioned above has been developed in the following areas: • The introduction of revised curricula, as well as of new branches and specialisations in STVE. • The levels and content of the STVE curricula. • The employment prospects and career opportunities of the Technical School (Technikes Scholes, TS) graduates. • The practical training of final year students of the Practical Direction (Praktiki Katefthinsi) in industry, under actual working conditions, in order to be able to assimilate and implement the knowledge and skills which they have been taught at school.
The Advisory Committee for STVE

The Advisory Committee for STVE is composed of representatives of:
• Ministries and Departments. • Semi-Governmental Organisations. • The Scientific and Technical Chamber of Cyprus and the Associations of the Cyprus Professional Engineers. • Employees´ Organisations. • Teachers´ Organisations and Parents´ Associations. • The STVE Alumni Association.
The Minister of Education and Culture (Ypourgos Paideias kai Politismou)
appoints the members of the Advisory Committee for a two-year term.
The chairman of the Advisory Committee is the Director of STVE.
The Branches and Specialisations Advisory Committees for STVE

A number of Advisory Committees on issues regarding the branches and
specialisations offered at Technical Schools have been formed, aiming at
enhancing cooperation between Secondary Technical and Vocational Education and the labour market. The Advisory Committee for each branch/specialisation is responsible for: • Advising the Minister of Education and Culture on all the issues concerning the education and industrial placement of STVE students. • Advising and submitting suggestions about the curricula, as well as the timetables and analytical programmes, of the various branches and specialisations that are offered at Technical Schools, particularly during the formation or revision of curricula. • Advising and submitting suggestions about issues concerning the infrastructure and equipment of the specialisations of the branches. • Contributing to the development of closer ties and cooperation with the labour market and submitting detailed and precise suggestions about issues regarding the placement of students for industrial training.
The Minister of Education and Culture appoints the members of each
Advisory Committee for a two-year term.
Involvement of Social Partners
The social partners also participate in an advisory and consultative capacity in the development planning process, including the preparation of the Strategic Development Plan, SDP (Stratigiko Schedio Anaptyxis, SSA), the National Lisbon Programme (Ethniko Schedio Drasis gia ti Stratigiki tis Lissavonas), the National Strategic Reference Framework for Cohesion Policy 2007-2013, NSRF (Ethniko Stratigiko Plaisio Anaforas gia tin Politiki Synoxis, ESPA) as well as the Community Initiative Programme (CIP) "EQUAL". As a result of administrative arrangements the social partners also participate in: • The Labour Advisory Board (Ergatiko Symvoulevtiko Soma), which advises the Minister of Labour and Social Insurance (Ypourgos Ergasias kai Koinonikon Asfaliseon). • The Pancyprian Productivity Council (Pangyprio Symvoulio Paragogikotitas). • The Economic Consultative Committee (Symvoulevtiki Oikonomiki Furthermore, the social partners as main stakeholders usually participate on the Board of Governors of institutions dealing with human resources such as the Cyprus Productivity Centre, CPC (Kentro Paragogikotitas, KEPA), the Higher Technical Institute, HTI (Anotero Technologiko Institouto, ATI) and the Higher Hotel Institute of Cyprus, HHIC (Higher Hotel Institute of Cyprus, AXIK).
The HRDA is administered by a 13-member Board of Governors with a
tripartite character where representatives of the Government, the
Employers and the Trade Unions participate. The tripartite character is
also reflected in the various committees set up by the HRDA.
040106 – PLANNING AND FORECASTING

The main formal mechanism in place for the assessment of skill needs is
operated by the Human Resource Development Authority, HRDA (Archi
Anaptyxis Anthropinou Dynamikou, AnAD), which examines and analyses
developments in the labour market. The Ministry of Finance, MoF
(Ypourgeio Oikonomikon, YO) and the Planning Bureau, PB (Grafeio
Programmatismou, GP) provide projections for the growth of the
economy. The Ministry of Education and Culture, MoEC (Ypourgeio
Paideias kai Politismou, YPP) is, on the other hand, responsible for the
identification of educational and special skill needs.
Human Resource Development Authority

The HRDA conducts research studies in issues of strategic importance,
which constitute a useful guide for the formulation of the training and
human resource development strategy and for planning the organisation's
activities.
The research activity places particular emphasis on analysing the trends in the labour market, with emphasis on human resource development issues, on providing employment forecasts, on examining the functioning of the VET systems and the training market, on analysing participation in education and training and on evaluating the impact of training activities. The Research and Planning Directorate of the HRDA has completed and published three research studies providing employment forecasts for Cyprus for the period 2005-2015, the latest in a series of research studies providing analyses and forecasts for the labour market in Cyprus. The first study entitled "Employment Forecasts in the Cyprus Economy 2005-2015" provides employment forecasts for 44 selected sectors of economic activity and for 27 selected occupational groups, covering the whole spectrum of the Cyprus labour market. The second study entitled "Forecasts of Employment Prospects in High Level Occupations in Cyprus 2005-2015" provides forecasts for employment, expansion, replacement and total demand for 104 high level occupations for the period 2005-2015. These occupations usually require either university or post-secondary education and are distributed amongst three main occupational categories: Managers (13 occupations), Professionals (45 occupations) and Technicians and associate
professionals (46 occupations).
Similarly, the third study entitled "Forecasts of Employment Prospects in
Middle Level Occupations in Cyprus 2005-2015" provides forecasts for
employment, expansion, replacement and total demand for 90 middle
level occupations for the period 2005-2015. These occupations usually
require secondary education and are distributed amongst five occupational
categories: Clerks (16 occupations), Service and sales workers (13
occupations), Agricultural workers (1 occupation), Craft workers (40
occupations) and Machine operators and assemblers (20 occupations).
The 10-year employment forecasts are planned to be carried out on a
regular basis every 3 years. The next ones will be carried out in 2008
covering the period 2008-2018.
The HRDA studies providing employment forecasts are widely distributed
and are utilised by private and public organisations and bodies that are
involved in human resource planning and vocational guidance and
counselling to students.
Ministry of Finance and Planning Bureau

The MoF and the PB provide projections for the growth of the economy,
which include forecasts for different sectors, and submit proposals for the
required policy changes.
Ministry of Education and Culture

The MoEC and more specifically the Directorate of the Secondary Technical
and Vocational Education, STVE (Diefthinsi Defterovathmias Technikis kai
Epaggelmatikis Ekpaidefsis, DTEE) is responsible for the introduction of
new branches and specialisations, the determination of the numbers of
students who will be enrolled in each branch and specialisation, the design
of curricula and the identification of special skills needed.
In order to carry out these tasks, whilst considering the developmental
needs of the Cyprus economy and the latest scientific and technological
advances, the STVE has developed close cooperation with all major
stakeholders, such as Ministries and the PB, the Social Partners
(Employers´ and Employees´ Organisations), teachers and their
associations, the University of Cyprus, UCY (Panepistimio Kyprou, PK), the
Pedagogical Institute, PI (Pedagogiko Instituto) and the HRDA.
Furthermore, the desires of gymnasium graduates to follow a branch and
specialisation are also taken into consideration when determining the
number of available places at each branch and specialisation.

040107 – DIAGRAM OF MAIN PATHWAYS WITHIN IVET

Table 1: Structure of Secondary Technical and Vocational Education
TERTIARY
EDUCATION IN
CYPRUS AND
THEORETICAL
DIRECTION
GYMNASIUM
• Technological PRACTICAL
DIRECTION
INITIAL TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION Theoretical Stream – School Based Practical Stream – School Based + One day per week in industry during the Apprenticeship System – Combined, Two days in school + Three days in Gymnasium – Compulsory Education Comprehensive Lyceum Tertiary Education – School Based or Combined THE WORLD OF WORK
0402 – IVET AT LOWER SECONDARY LEVEL

There is no initial vocational education and training provided in Cyprus at
the lower secondary level.
040201 – CURRICULA

Not applicable.
040202 – LEARNING OUTCOMES

Not applicable.
0403 – IVET AT UPPER SECONDARY LEVEL: SCHOOL-BASED AND
ALTERNANCE

In Cyprus, Initial Vocational Education and Training (IVET) programmes
begin to be provided at the upper secondary level of the education
system. Upon completion of their compulsory lower-secondary education,
successful gymnasium (Gymnasio) leavers are eligible to enrol either in
the theoretical or in the practical direction offered by technical schools.
Secondary Technical and Vocational Education, STVE (Defterovathmia
Techniki kai Epangelmatiki Ekpaidefsi, DTEE) provides a broad range of
technical/vocational education, initial training and re-training programmes
to eligible gymnasium leavers and adults. It is integrated into the national
school system and maintains close links with industry and other training
institutions.
Technical Schools (Technikes Scholes, TS) offer two distinct three-year
secondary school programmes free of charge: the Theoretical Direction
(Theoritiki Katefthinsi) and the Practical Direction (Praktiki Katefthinsi).
The duration of studies is three years for each direction. The first year of
studies is common for the branch in each direction and students select a
specialisation offered in the branch of their choice in the second and third
year of their studies. The Theoretical Direction is completely school-based
and combines general education subjects with technological and workshop
subjects. The first and second year of the Practical Direction are also
completely school-based and combine general education subjects with
technological and workshop subjects, while the third year of studies in the
Practical Direction combines a school-based environment with a real
workplace as final-year students are placed in industry for one day per
week, where they follow a practical training programme.
The basic aim of both the STVE directions is to meet the academic and
vocational needs of students. The knowledge and skills acquired are
oriented towards enabling students to pursue appropriate technical or vocational jobs in industry or to continue their technical or vocational education and training in higher educational institutions. Upon completing the STVE study programmes successfully, graduates of Technical Schools (Theoretical or Practical Direction) are awarded a Leaving Certificate (Apolytirio), which is equivalent to that obtained from Public Schools of Secondary General Education. This Leaving Certificate entitles graduates either to pursue further studies at Institutions of Higher and Tertiary Education, or enter directly the labour market as technicians and skilled workers. The allocation of teaching time to various subjects, aims to enable STVE students to acquire solid and adaptable knowledge, as well as learning skills and the competencies that will help them adjust to dynamic and unpredictable situations. In addition, it aims to help students acquire competence in searching for, assessing, selecting and employing essential information. Students are also given the opportunity to acquire methodological skills and learn how to analyse and solve problems. Moreover, they are provided with a productive environment that encourages them to develop such characteristics as the ability to co-operate with other people, their creativity and self-confidence, and the skills to help them deal successfully with the diverse roles they are expected to play in life. The subjects that are included in the curricula can be classified into the following seven categories: • Common Core Subjects. • Related Subjects. • Elective Subjects. • Technological and Workshop Practice Subjects for the Branch. • Technological and Workshop Practice Subjects for the Specialisation. • Elective Subjects of Special Interest. • Industrial Placement. STVE offers thirteen branches, each divided into various specialisations, as shown in Table 1. Table 1: Branches and specialisations by direction BRANCHES AND SPECIALISATIONS
DIRECTION*
Mechanical Engineering (General) Theoretical Production Engineering and Machine Tools Welding and Metal Constructions Plumbing, Heating and Cooling Systems Electromechanical Hotel Equipment Automobile Engineering Theoretical Practical Car Electrics and Electronics Theoretical Practical Motor Cycle and Boat Engines ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Electrical Installations Computer Engineering Electrical Appliances, Automation and Control Theoretical Practical Domestic Appliances, Refrigeration and Air Electronic Communication CIVIL ENGINEERING – ARCHITECTURE Civil Engineering Laboratory Assistants Chemical Production and Chemical Lab WOODCRAFT AND FURNITURE MAKING Furniture Design and Production Theoretical Woodcraft and Furniture Making BRANCHES AND SPECIALISATIONS
DIRECTION*
Theoretical Practical Goldsmithing – Silversmithing SHOEMAKING AND LEATHER CRAFT Shoemaking and Leather Craft COSMETOLOGY – HAIRDRESSING Tourist Agency and Hotel Clerks Bank and Accounting Clerks HOTEL AND CATERING * The Theoretical Direction is completely school-based and combines general education subjects with technological and workshop subjects. The first and second year of the Practical Direction are completely school-based and combine general education subjects with technological and workshop subjects. The third year of studies in the Practical Direction combines a school-based environment with a real workplace and final-year students are placed in industry for one day per week, where they follow a practical training programme. Initial STVE is offered at twelve Public Technical and Vocational Schools operating in the government-controlled area of Cyprus. There are three Schools in Nicosia, three in Limassol, two in Larnaca, two in the free area of the Famagusta district, one in Pafos and one in Polis. There is also one Hotel and Catering department at Apeitio Gymnasium in Agros. Apart from the twelve TS that operate in the morning, there is also an Evening Technical School (Esperini Techniki Scholi) operating at the premises of the A´ Technical School in Nicosia. The study programmes offered at the Evening Technical School are equivalent to the STVE programmes that are offered in the morning. The curricula in each branch
and specialisation are the same as the curricula in the respective
branch/specialisation offered at the Technical Schools that operate in the
morning, adapted however to the particular characteristics and needs of
the students who attend evening classes. The duration of studies varies
from one to four years, depending on the educational level of those
interested in attending the Evening Technical School. Attendance is free
and leads to the acquisition of a Leaving Certificate, which is equivalent to
that awarded by Technical Schools and other Public Schools of Secondary
General Education. This means that the Leaving Certificate which is
awarded by the Evening Technical School entitles graduates either to
pursue further studies at Institutions of Higher and Tertiary Education or
enter the labour market as technicians and skilled workers.
Sector-Specific IVET Pathways at Upper Secondary Level

Each Technical and Vocational School offers a wide range of branches that
cover various sectors of economic activity. Table 2 shows the branches
that are offered at each Technical School and Table 3 shows the
participation rates in Upper STVE.
Table 2: Branches offered at each Technical School
Mechanical
Electrical
Applied Ar
A´ Technical
School Nicosia

Technical
School

"Makarios III"
Nicosia
B´ Technical
School Nicosia

A´ Technical
School

Limassol
B´ Technical

Limassol
C´ Technical
School

Limassol
Dianellos

Technical
School Larnaca
Ayios Lazaros
Technical
School Larnaca
Technical
Paralimni
Peripheral
Technical

Avgorou
Technical

School Paphos
Technical
School Polis
Chrysochous
Apeitio
Gymnasium

Agros- Hotel
and Catering
Dept.

Table 3: Participation rates in Upper Secondary Technical and Vocational
Education
Upper Secondary Technical and Vocational Education
Participation rates
Participation rates
considering population
considering population
aged 16-19
aged 15-17 (most relevant
age group)
Gross (1) Net
(2) Gross
1990/91 8.8% N/a 12.2% N/a 1995/96 11.0% N/a 13.7% N/a 2000/01 9.9% 6.7% 13.0% 11.3% 2005/06 9.6% 6.3% 13.1% 11.3% (1) Gross Participation Rates: Total number of students in the programmes irrespective of age is divided by the population in the age group of interest. (2) Net Participation Rates: Total number of students in the programmes who are in the age group of interest divided by the population in the age group of interest. N/a: Not available Source: Statistical Service of Cyprus The 2005/2006 enrolments in TVE include 1 069 students in the theoretical direction and 3 327 students in the practical direction including evening classes. The total number of students in upper secondary schools in 2005/2006 was 33 158. Only 13.3%, one of the lowest percentages among European countries, were students in technical/vocational schools. Tables 4-6 present the number of participants in upper secondary IVET by age and gender in 1995/1996, 2000/2001 and 2005/2006 respectively. Table 7 shows the number of students in technical schools by type of school, class, branch of study, 2005/2006. Table 4: Number of participants in upper secondary IVET by age and gender 1995/1996 (does not include evening technical schools) <14 15 16 17 18 >19
4409 236 1488 1377 1090 190 Source: Statistical Service of Cyprus, Statistics of Education 1996 (1997). Table 5: Number of participants in upper secondary IVET by age and gender 2000/2001 (does not include evening technical schools) <14 15 16 17 18 19
Male 3748 174 1032 1243 1056 219 24 0 0 Female 731 29 172 232 223 Total 4479 203 1204 1475 1279 284 Source: Statistical Service of Cyprus, Statistics of Education 2001 (2003). Table 6: Number of participants in upper secondary IVET by age and gender 2005/2006 (does not include evening technical schools) <14 15 16 17 18 19
Female 691 22 155 220 192 79 17 6 0 Total 4255 158 1209 1358 1181 278 Source: Statistical Service of Cyprus Table 7: Number of students in technical schools by type of school, class, branch of study, 2005/2006 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Total
Theoretical Direction
General Engineering Motor Vehicle Engineering Car Electrics and Electronics General Electrical Engineering Electrical Installations Computer Engineering Electrical Machines, Automation and Control Electronic Communication Civil Eng./Architecture Civil Engineering Woodcraft and Cabinet making Hotel and Tourist Services Cooks and Waiters Total 503
Practical Direction
General Mechanics Plumbing, Heating and Cooling Systems 0 Welding and Metal Construction 0 Maintenance of Hotel Electromechanical Equipment Motor Vehicle Engineering Car Electrics and Electronics Motorcycle and Boat Machine Electronics 0 General Electrical Engineering Electrical Installations Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Total
Domestic Appliances, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Electronic Communication Civil Eng./Architecture Woodcraft and Cabinet making General Applied Arts Agricultural Studies Hotel and Tourist Services Secretarial Studies Hotel and Catering Stream Cooks and Waiters Cooks and Waiters Secretarial Studies Beauticians and Hairdressing Total 1078 1145 1012 0

* Includes the Evening Technical Schools, shown as Class 4. Classes 1, 2
3 refer to years 1,2,3
Source: Statistical Service of Cyprus
040301 – ACCESS REQUIREMENTS

Access requirements to enter Upper Secondary Technical and Vocational
Education (school based and alternance IVET at upper secondary level),
which is offered by mainstream Technical Schools (Technikes Scholes, TS)
and the Evening Technical School (Esperini Techniki Scholi), are defined
by the Ministry of Education and Culture, MoEC (Ypourgeio Paideias kai
Politismou, YPP). The minimum access requirement for enrolling in
Technical Schools is the successful completion of Lower Secondary
Education (grade 9). Enrolment is without examinations.
Certain branches of study are not available in some Technical Schools,
however the great majority of branches is available in each district of the
government-controlled area of Cyprus (see Table 2, Branches offered at
each Technical School, field 0403).
04030101 – PROMOTING PARTICIPATION

In order to promote participation in Secondary Technical and Vocational
Education, STVE (Defterovathmia Techniki kai Epangelmatiki Ekpaidefsi,
DTEE), an Evening Technical School (Esperini Techniki Scholi) operating at
the premises of the A´ Technical School in Nicosia was established in
1999. The study programmes offered at the Evening Technical School are
equivalent to the STVE programmes that are offered in the morning. The
curricula in each branch and specialisation are the same as the curricula in
the respective branch/specialisation offered at the Technical Schools
(Technikes Scholes, TS) that operate in the morning, adapted however to
the particular characteristics and needs of the students who attend
evening classes. The duration of studies varies from one to four years,
depending on the educational level of those interested in attending the
Evening Technical School. Attendance is free and leads to the acquisition
of a Leaving Certificate (Apolytirio), which is equivalent to that awarded
by Public Technical Schools and other Public Schools of Secondary General
Education. This means that the Leaving Certificate which is awarded by
the Evening Technical School entitles graduates either to pursue further
studies at Institutions of Higher and Tertiary Education or enter the labour
market as technicians and skilled workers.
Another measure taken in order to render STVE more attractive to
students and therefore promote participation has been the introduction of
new specialisations, which is one of the major innovations included in the
recent revision of the STVE curricula.
Some of the new specialisations that have been introduced are:
• Car Electrics and Electronics.
• Motor Cycle and Boat Engines. • Electrical Appliances, Automation and Control Systems. • Electronic Communication. • Architecture. • Furniture Design and Production. • Bank and Accounting Clerks. • Secretarial Studies. Finally, foreign students who have difficulty in following the STVE
programmes due to language problems may attend classes offered at
Technical Schools as mere observers if they wish and be entitled to enrol
in the next class as regular students, provided that they succeed in the
special entrance exams.
040302 – CURRICULA

Curriculum development is a collective effort involving qualified Secondary
Technical and Vocational Education, STVE (Defterovathmia Techniki kai
Epangelmatiki Ekpaidefsi, DTEE) staff, experts from other training
institutions, STVE Advisory Committee members, trade union and industry
representatives. The STVE curriculum is subject to approval by the Council
of Ministers (Ypourgiko Symvoulio) before being implemented.
Specifically, the Directorate of Secondary Technical and Vocational
Education, (Diefthinsi Defterovathmias Technikis kai Epaggelmatikis
Ekpaidefsis) in order to be able to re-examine and adapt the content of its
curricula according to the developmental needs of the Cyprus economy
and industry, and taking into account the latest scientific and
technological advances, developed close cooperation with the following
agencies:
• The Advisory Committee for STVE. • The Branches and Specialisations Advisory Committees for STVE. • The organised agencies of employers and manufacturers (Employers´ • The organised agencies of employees (Employees´ Organisations). • The Human Resource Development Authority,HRDA (Archi Anaptyxis Anthropinou Dynamikou, AnAD). Cooperation between the Directorate of STVE and the agencies mentioned above has been developed in the following areas: • The introduction of revised curricula. • The introduction of new branches and specialisations. • The levels and content of the curricula. • The employment prospects and career opportunities of the Technical School (Technikes Scholes, TS) graduates. • The practical training of final-year students of the Practical Direction. The STVE's Reform, Restructuring and Modernisation of 2001
The Ministry of Education and Culture, MoEC (Ypourgeio Paideias kai Politismou, YPP) put forward a reform proposal for STVE, which was approved by the Council of Ministers in August 2000 and was implemented in September 2001. The reform focused on a revision of curriculum in order to provide students with the knowledge and skills required to: • Enter the labour market and society smoothly. • Compete successfully for a place in Institutions of Higher and Tertiary Education, in Cyprus or abroad. • Participate in lifelong education and training and learn how to adapt in an ever-changing world. The revised curricula include a considerable number of innovations, which enable students to make effective and mature decisions concerning the kind of knowledge and skills they would like to acquire. Some of the most significant innovations are the following: • A common first year of study for the branch in each direction. • The introduction of the selection of subjects offered in the branch of the students´ choice in the second and third year of their studies. • The implementation of modern teaching methods. • The upgrading of general education. • The introduction of horizontal and vertical movement across the upper secondary education system. • The introduction of new branches and specialisations. • The introduction of elective subjects of special interest.
Revision of Curricula
STVE is currently in the process of revising, modernising and upgrading the curricula it offers, while at the same time modernising the teaching and learning processes. A comprehensive scientific external evaluation of the curricula offered by STVE is currently underway. The external evaluation of the STVE curricula is co-financed by the European Social Fund, ESF (Evropaiko Koinoniko Tameio, EKT) with the amount of £348 000 (€594 593) (Measure 2.2.2 Improvement and Reinforcement of Secondary Technical and Vocational Education). The curricula will be revised according to the conclusions reached by the external evaluation. The revision of the curricula is expected to be completed in 2008. Furthermore, in order to improve both the quality and attractiveness of STVE, the MoEC continues its policy of developing the infrastructure of Technical and Vocational Schools and also of introducing Modern Technology in the STVE curricula.
04030201 – CONTENT AND DELIVERY
Secondary Technical and Vocational Education, STVE (Defterovathmia Techniki kai Epangelmatiki Ekpaidefsi, DTEE), taking into account the dynamics and growth rate of the Cyprus economy, offers a wide range of specialisations in various sectors of economic activity. The various branches and specialisations are offered in two directions, the Theoretical Direction (Theoritiki Katefthinsi) and the Practical Direction (Praktiki Katefthinsi). The curricula offer balanced programmes of general education, technological education and workshop practice and aim to prepare graduates: • To be employed in industry, or • To continue their academic studies in the Institutions of Higher and Tertiary Education in Cyprus or abroad. The Theoretical Direction is completely school-based and combines general education subjects with technological and workshop subjects. The first and second year of the Practical Direction are also completely school-based and combine general education subjects with technological and workshop subjects, while the third year of studies in the Practical Direction combines a school-based environment with a real workplace as final-year students are placed in industry for one day per week, (seven teaching periods per week) where they follow a practical training programme. The programmes of practical training in industry aim to provide final-year students of the Practical Direction with specialised knowledge and skills, under actual working conditions and in accordance with authorised curricula. The programmes contribute to: • The improvement of the students´ vocational training, aiming at their smooth transition from school to the labour market. • The consolidation and implementation of the skills and competencies provided to students at Technical Schools (Technikes Scholes, TS). • The development of the professional ethics, attitudes and values that are required for the graduates´ entry into the labour market and integration into society. • The development of closer ties between the system of formal education and the system of industrial training. The programmes provided include a variety of branches in both the Theoretical and Practical Directions. Examples of branches provided include mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, building and civil engineering, hotel and catering, fashion design, graphic arts and interior design and other branches. The great majority of programme branches are offered in both the Theoretical and Practical Directions. Please see Table 1 in field 0403. The allocation of teaching time to various subjects aims to enable STVE students to acquire solid and adaptable knowledge, as well as learning skills and the competencies that will help them adjust to dynamic and unpredictable situations. In addition, it aims to help students acquire competence in searching for, assessing, selecting and employing essential information. The Theoretical Direction offers courses in a variety of specialisations with emphasis on general subjects and science, which take up 58% of the total programme. The rest of the time (42%) is allocated to technology and workshops. Specifically the 35 teaching periods per week are allocated as follows: 30% is devoted to general subject including religious education, modern Greek, languages, history and physical education, 28% is devoted to related subjects which include mathematics, physics, chemistry and computers, 22% is devoted to technology and drawing and 20% of teaching time is devoted to practical work in workshops and laboratories. In the Practical Direction courses, special emphasis is given to technology and workshop skills at a 57.5% time allocation. The remaining 42.5% is devoted to general education subjects. Following a supervised practical training programme, final-year students of the Practical Direction are placed in approved enterprises for one day a week throughout their final year. Instructors who maintain continuous contact with the employers closely monitor their progress and performance. The 35 teaching periods every week for the first two years of study are allocated as follows: 25% for general subjects, 17.5% for related subjects, 20% for technology and drawing and 37.5% for practical work in workshops. During the 3rd and final year of the Practical Direction students attend school for only four days per week while they spend the remaining day in industry. As a result teaching time in all subjects is reduced proportionally so that the distribution becomes 15% for the general subjects, 10.5% for related subjects, 12% for technology and drawing, 22.5% for workshop practice (in school) and 40% for industrial experience. The subjects that are included in the revised curricula can be classified into the following seven categories: • Common Core Subjects. • Related Subjects. • Elective Subjects. • Technological and Workshop Practice Subjects for the Branch. • Technological and Workshop Practice Subjects for the Specialisation. • Elective Subjects of Special Interest. • Industrial Placement.
Elective Subjects
The STVE curricula offer students the opportunity to select subjects that interest them and aim at enhancing their general, cultural, social, environmental, scientific and technical/ vocational education. The four teaching periods per week that are allocated to Elective Subjects are added to the periods allocated to related subjects and a uniform analytical programme is drawn up. Elective Subjects of Special Interest
In the second year of their studies, students can select one Subject of Special Interest, i.e. a subject that is not included in the standard curriculum and whose duration is one period per week. Elective Subjects of Special Interest give students the opportunity to enrich their knowledge and satisfy their individual inclinations and talents.
Information Technology
This subject aims to introduce students to the use of computers, in order to be able to use them as tools and also as a means of learning. In particular, it aims to familiarise students with computers to the point that they can employ them effectively in their everyday life. As a result, students will be adequately equipped to enter a society that is increasingly affected by the advanced technology of computers and information science. The seven categories of subjects and the teaching time allocated to each category are presented in Table 1. Table 1: Categories of subjects and their teaching time by direction THEORETICAL
PRACTICAL
CATEGORIES OF
DIRECTION1
DIRECTION1
SUBJECTS
COMMON CORE
SUBJECTS
Religious Education History and Civics Information Technology Physical Education THEORETICAL
PRACTICAL
CATEGORIES OF
DIRECTION1
DIRECTION1
SUBJECTS
NUMBER OF PERIODS
RELATED SUBJECTS
NUMBER OF PERIODS
11 11 11 8 7 7
ELECTIVE
SUBJECTS - 4 4 - 4 4
TECHNOLOGICAL AND
WORKSHOP PRACTICE

SUBJECTS FOR THE
TECHNOLOGICAL AND
WORKSHOP PRACTICE

SUBJECTS FOR THE
ELECTIVE SUBJECTS
OF SPECIAL INTEREST
European Culture Use of the Library INDUSTRIAL
PLACEMENT
TOTAL NUMBER OF
35 35 35 35 35 35
1 The Theoretical Direction is completely school-based and combines general education subjects with technological and workshop subjects. The first and second year of the Practical Direction are completely school-based and combine general education subjects with technological and workshop subjects. The third year of studies in the Practical Direction combines a school-based environment with a real workplace and final-year students are placed in industry for one day per week, where they follow a practical training programme. 2 A, B, C refer to Years 1,2 and 3 of the studies.
The underlying philosophy of STVE programmes emphasises the degree of
independence and complementarity of "theory" and "practice", aimed at
facilitating the attainment of programme goals. With regard to practical
skills and instruction on relevant technological issues, the programmes are
conducted in adequately equipped workshops, laboratories and technology
classrooms. General knowledge subjects are offered in a conventional
classroom setting. Plans are under way to improve Technical School
premises in order to ensure a more effective and enjoyable learning
experience.
Students are also given the opportunity to acquire methodological skills,
and learn how to analyse and solve problems. Moreover, they are
provided with a productive environment that encourages them to develop
such characteristics as the ability to co-operate with other people, their
creativity and self-confidence, and the skills to help them deal successfully
with the diverse roles they are expected to play in life.
Modern teaching methods are being introduced including teamwork and
creative learning techniques. Students are encouraged to take initiative in
guiding their learning, while teachers act as facilitators, demonstrating
new skills to suit the mixed-ability classes they teach. Frequent visits to
industrial establishments give students first-hand experience in current
working practices.

04030202 – ASSESSMENT

The assessment procedures at Technical Schools (Technikes Scholes, TS)
are similar to those of the General Secondary Education. Constant
assessment of the progress of students, in the form of tests, quizzes,
workshop and laboratory work, written assignments, projects and class
participation, is carried out by educators throughout the entire school
year. The final examinations that students take after the completion of the
first and second year of their studies are organised by each School,
whereas the unified school-leaving final examinations, taken by third-year
students, are organised centrally on a national basis by the Ministry of
Education and Culture, MoEC (Ypourgeio Paideias kai Politismou, YPP) and
lead to the acquisition of a Leaving Certificate (Apolyterio), which is
equivalent to that awarded by General Secondary Education Schools, i.e.
unified lyceum (Eniaio Lykeio). The subjects in which students of the
technical and vocational programmes of the technical schools take written
exams at the end of the year are: modern Greek, mathematics, physics,
technical drawing and specialised classes in technology.
The grading scale according to which students are assessed is the
following:
• Almost Good: • Excellent: 19―20.
A student is promoted to the next class if he/ she gets at least 10 in all
subjects. A student is also promoted if he/ she fails in a subject that is not
examined at the end of the school year but his/ her average grade for all
the examined subjects, as well as for the subject he/ she has failed in, is
at least 10 (almost good).
A student is not promoted to the next class if he/ she has failed in three or
more subjects that are examined at the end of the school year, or if he/
she has failed in two subjects that are examined and two or more subjects
that are not examined. In addition, a student is not promoted if he/ she
has been excessively absent from school (60 teaching periods of
unjustifiable absences or a total of 225 teaching periods of absences).
A student is considered to have satisfied the requirements of Technical
Schools and obtains the Leaving Certificate (Apolytirio) if his/ her grade in
all subjects is at least 10. A student is also awarded a Leaving Certificate
if he/ she fails in a subject that is not examined at the end of the school
year but his/ her average grade for all the examined subjects, as well as
for the subject he/ she has failed in, is at least 10 (almost good). In
addition to the above, a student can obtain his/ her Leaving Certificate, if
he/ she fails in a subject that is examined at the end of the year with a
grade of not less than 8, but the average grade for all the examined
subjects at the end of the school year (including the subject he/ she has
failed in) is at least 12.
A student who does not obtain his/ her Leaving Certificate at the end of
the school year in June has the right to take the school leaving
examinations in the testing periods of September, June or February for
the next three years following his/ her failure.
04030203 – QUALITY ASSURANCE

The respective Inspector of each branch is responsible for the correct
implementation of the IVET curricula, therefore each Inspector supervises
the work of educators and ensures that the teaching material is
adequately covered, through the use of effective teaching methods.
Furthermore, constant assessment of the progress of learners, in the form
of tests and quizzes carried out throughout the entire school year, as well
as final examinations organised by each School and the unified school-
leaving final examinations taken by third-year students organised
centrally by the Ministry of Education and Culture, MoEC (Ypourgeio
Paideias kai Politismou, YPP), are instrumental in order for Inspectors to
evaluate the outcome of the educators´ work.
In addition, Inspectors of each branch are responsible for making sure
that the infrastructure of Technical Schools (Technikes Scholes, TS) is
made use of in the best possible and most effective way. It is also their
responsibility to encourage and guide educators to take the necessary
measures where it is estimated that there is room for improvement and
help them remove any obstacles to the proper functioning of the
programmes.
In the context of the practical training of final-year students of the
Practical Direction (Praktiki Katefthinsi) in industry, their employers are
given a specific programme of practical training, which they are bound to
implement. The instructor of each IVET Specialisation assumes the role of
the Inspector, making sure that the practical training programme is
implemented correctly and that students progress and benefit by it as
much as possible.
Finally, major inspections of the operation of Technical Schools are carried
out every two years. These inspections are conducted by various groups
of Inspectors of the Directorate of Secondary Technical and Vocational
Education (Diefthinsi Defterovathmias Technikis kai Epaggelmatikis
Ekpaidefsis), in order to ensure that each Technical School has developed
those mechanisms that promote the in-service training of educators and
instructors, secure the effective solution of any problems that may arise,
improve the school units´ learning culture and safeguard the smooth
operation of each Technical School.
040303 – LEARNING OUTCOMES

Upon completing the Secondary Technical and Vocational Education, STVE
(Defterovathmia Techniki kai Epangelmatiki Ekpaidefsi, DTEE) study
programmes successfully, graduates of Technical Schools (Theoretical or
Practical Direction) are awarded a Leaving Certificate (Apolytirio), which is
equivalent to that obtained from Public Schools of Secondary General
Education. This Leaving Certificate entitles graduates either to pursue
further studies at Institutions of Higher and Tertiary Education, or enter
directly the labour market as technicians and skilled workers.
04030301 – QUALIFICATIONS/CERTIFICATION

Upon completing the Secondary Technical and Vocational Education, STVE
(Defterovathmia Techniki kai Epangelmatiki Ekpaidefsi, DTEE) study
programmes successfully, graduates of Technical Schools (Technical or
Practical Direction) are awarded a Leaving Certificate (Apolytirio), which is
equivalent to that obtained from Public Schools of Secondary General
Education. This Leaving Certificate entitles graduates either to pursue
further studies at Institutions of Higher and Tertiary Education, or enter
directly the labour market as technicians and skilled workers.
The Leaving Certificate awarded by Technical Schools (Technikes Scholes,
TS) equips graduates with one type of qualification only (one occupational
field). Graduates who wish to obtain a certificate in a specialisation other
than their original one, can do so in the context of Continuing Vocational
Education and Training (CVET), through attending programmes offered by
the Evening Technical School (Esperini Techniki Scholi) in Nicosia or the
three-year programmes offered by the Afternoon and Evening Classes of
Technical Schools (Ekpaideftika Programmata Apogevmatinon kai
Vradinon Tmimaton Technikis Ekpaidefsis) in all major towns of Cyprus.
A student is considered to have satisfied the requirements of Technical
Schools and obtains the Leaving Certificate if his/ her grade in all subjects
is at least 10. A student is also awarded a Leaving Certificate if he/ she
fails in a subject that is not examined at the end of the school year but
his/ her average grade for all the examined subjects, as well as for the
subject he/ she has failed in, is at least 10 (almost good). In addition to
the above, a student can obtain his/ her Leaving Certificate if he/ she fails
in a subject that is examined at the end of the year with a grade of not
less than 8, but the average grade for all the examined subjects at the
end of the school year (including the subject he/ she has failed in) is at
least 12.
A student is not awarded a Leaving Certificate if he/ she has been
excessively absent from school (60 teaching periods of unjustifiable
absences or a total of 225 teaching periods of absences).
A student who does not obtain his/ her Leaving Certificate at the end of
the school year in June has the right to take the school leaving
examinations in the testing periods of September, June or February for
the next three years following his/ her failure.
04030302 – PROGRESSION AND TRANSITION

Qualifications provide access to regulated occupations. Each employer
decides about the competence of his/ her future employee since there is
not an official skill accreditation body.
The Human Resource Development Authority, HRDA (Archi Anaptyxis
Anthropinou Dynamikou, AnAD) organises programmes, which aim to
train new entrants to the labour market, unemployed school-leavers and
persons who wish or have to move into new occupations through
retraining.
Moreover, drop-outs can enrol in the Apprenticeship System (Systima Mathiteias, SM) which is a two-year initial vocational education and training programme addressing students who do not wish to continue their studies within the formal upper secondary education system. Students must be at least fourteen to be accepted in the Apprenticeship System and must not be over eighteen at the time of graduation. In addition to the above, the Cyprus Youth Board (Organismos Neoleas Kyprou, ONEK) has established a service aiming at informing young persons including drop-outs about the opportunities provided to them for resuming their education in the context of the formal education system and also about training programmes that will prepare them to enter the labour market. Nearly 64% of the total secondary school leavers continue their studies beyond the secondary level. About 41% pursue their studies at higher educational institutions abroad and the other 23% attend higher educational institutions in Cyprus. About 53% of the graduates of the Theoretical Direction (Theoritiki Katefthinsi) pursue successfully studies at Institutions of Higher and Tertiary Education, either in Cyprus or abroad. The vast majority of the graduates of the Practical Direction (Praktiki Katefthinsi) enter the labour market. About 15% of the graduates of the Practical Direction pursue successfully studies at Institutions of Higher and Tertiary Education, either in Cyprus or abroad. 0404 – APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING
The Apprenticeship System (Systima Mathiteias, SM) is a two-year initial vocational education and training programme providing practical and theoretical training to young people who do not wish to continue their studies within the formal upper secondary education system when they finish the third year of gymnasium but wish to be trained and employed in technical occupations. Students who have finished the second year of gymnasium are also accepted to enrol in the Apprenticeship System. Students must be at least fourteen to be accepted in the Apprenticeship System and must not be over eighteen at the time of graduation. The Apprenticeship System is not compulsory and attendance is free of charge. The Apprenticeship System study programmes provide practical and theoretical training alternately. Practical training takes place in industry, where apprentices are remunerated for their work, for three days per week. Theoretical training is provided at Technical Schools (Technikes Scholes, TS) for two days per week. The Human Resource Development Authority, HRDA (Archi Anaptyxis Anthropinou Dynamikou, AnAD) subsidises employers for wages paid to apprentices during the two days per week when they attend classes at Technical Schools. The Apprenticeship System has been in operation since 1963. The Apprenticeship Law of 1966 is the basic law that governs the operation of the Apprenticeship System. Since 1963 the System operated under the authority of Ministry of Labour and Social Insurance, MLSI (Ypourgeio Ergasias kai Koikonikon Asfaliseon, YEKA) and the Ministry of Education and Culture, MoEC (Ypourgeio Paideias kai Politismou, YPP). The Council of Ministers (Ypourgiko Symvoulio) decided with its decision 62.037 at 23/5/2005 that the responsibility for the operation / administration of the Apprenticeship System be undertaken by the Cyprus Productivity Centre, CPC (Kentro Paragogikotitas, KEPA). The responsibility for training the apprentices remains with the MoEC. The main objectives of the Apprenticeship System are: • To offer technical training to young people working in industry. • To increase the number of trained technicians in those occupations where there are shortages. • To raise the technical standard of young workers in industry, according to modern ideas and production methods. According to the Apprenticeship Law of 1966, the Apprenticeship Board (Symvoulio Mathiteias) is responsible for supervising the operation of the System. The Apprenticeship Board has tripartite character with representation of the government, technical schools, employers and employee organisations, the CPC and the HRDA. The members of the Board are appointed by the Minister of Labour and Social Insurance for a 2-year period. The composition and work of the Board ensure the effective and coordinated effort of all interested parties in providing industrial training always to the interest of apprentices, the industry and the country in general. This Board examines issues that arise concerning the System and consults the CPC. At present, the following trades are operating under the Apprenticeship System: • Masons • Welders/plumbers. • Auto mechanics. • Auto electricians. • Furniture makers/Carpenders. • Electricians. • Builders. • Welders/Fitters. The major weaknesses are: • Steady reduction in the number of trainees. • Low completion rates of about 60%. • Limited number of specialisations. • Lack of interest of teachers/instructors as well as employers. The Apprenticeship System has been associated with low educational attainment and with failure at school. In addition, a very low percentage of girls participate in the system (while girls constitute 32% of dropouts, less than 1% registers with the system).
Redesign of the Apprenticeship System
The Council of Ministers decided (May 2005) that the responsibility for the operation of the Apprenticeship System be undertaken by the CPC. The responsibility for training the apprentices remains with the MoEC. In this context the System will be re-examined along two phases: • Short term improvements, through: a. Upgrading the Apprenticeship System, with co-financing by the European Social Fund, by reviewing the analytical programmes, training the teaching staff, and by acquiring software and other support material, which is undertaken by the MoEC, and b. Improving the administration and management of the system, including the monitoring and the supervision of both the in-class and the in–company training process, which is undertaken by the CPC. • Long term radical improvements, with significant changes in the philosophy, the structures, systems and processes, in order to provide an alternative education and training pathway to young persons who reject / drop out of the formal education system, including the possibility of widening the coverage to accommodate possible needs of young people of wider age ranges. Also the New Modern Apprenticeship (NMA) aims at attracting a greater number of girls and broadening the range of skills. The proposal for a NMA is being promoted for inclusion in the programmes that are co-financed by the EU within the framework of the new programming period 2007-2013. Table 1: Gross Participation Rates(1) in the Apprenticeship System Gross Participation rates
considering population
School year rates considering
aged 15-17
population
(most relevant age
aged 16-19
(1) Gross Participation Rates: Total number of apprentices in the programmes irrespective of age are divided by the population in the age group of interest. Table 2: Number of participants in the Apprenticeship System by gender (Data not available by age) Apprenticeship System
Male Female Total
Source: Statistical Service of Cyprus
040401 – ACCESS REQUIREMENTS

Students who are fourteen years old or over and have finished the second
year of Gymnasium (Gymnasio), are accepted to enrol in the
Apprenticeship System (Systima Mathiteias, SM). Apprentices however
must not be over eighteen at the time of graduation.
Participants are free to choose their specialisation from those offered. The
specialisations are determined every year according to the needs of the
industry and the availability of workshops, equipment and teaching staff in
the Technical Schools (Technikes Scholes, TS). Certain specialisations, due
to the above reason, are only available in specific areas.
04040101 – APPRENTICESHIP CONTRACTS

Apprentices submit their application forms to Technical and Vocational
Schools (Technikes Scholes, TS) or to the District Labour Offices, DLO
(Eparchiaka Grafeia Ergasias, EGE). The competent officers employed at
the District Labour Offices and the Apprenticeship System (Systima
Mathiteias, SM) inspectors are responsible for the industrial placement of
apprentices.
According to the Apprenticeship Law of 1966, an apprenticeship contract is
signed between the employer, the apprentice and his/her parent/guardian
where the employer is committed to provide practical experience and
allow the apprentice to attend theoretical classes and workshops for two
days a week at the premises of technical schools. The Human Resource
Development Authority, HRDA (Archi Anaptyxis Anthropinou Dynamikou,
AnAD) subsidises employers for wages paid to apprentices during the two
days per week when they attend classes at Technical Schools provided
among other requirements that they pay the apprentice a weekly salary.
The apprenticeship contract also includes some standard elements e.g.
wages, the apprentices' maximum working hours, weekly rest time. The
apprenticeship contracts do not vary according to the sector of training,
but the same apprenticeship contract is being used for all sectors.
The enterprises which provide apprenticeship must be within the same
economic sectors as those of the specifications offered. They must also
have adequate facilities to provide on the job training and competent
supervisors or foremen (instructors), for the implementation of the
approved curricula.
04040102 – PROMOTING PARTICIPATION

The Apprenticeship System (Systima Mathiteias, SM) is a two-year initial
vocational education and training programme, which is mainly directed to
those students who do not wish to continue their studies within the formal
upper secondary education system when they finish the third year of
gymnasium.
In order to promote participation in the System, students who have
finished the second year of gymnasium and have dropped out of school
are also accepted to enrol in the Apprenticeship System programmes.
However, students must be at least fourteen to be accepted in the
Apprenticeship System and must not be over eighteen at the time of
graduation.
Other measures to promote participation in the System include
publications in the newspapers and magazines, circulation of information
leaflets, provision of relevant information in schools (addressed both to
teachers and students), provision of relevant information to parents,
organisations and government departments.
At present there are not any mechanisms in place to overcome obstacles
to access. However, there are mechanisms within the Apprenticeship
System in order to respond to individual participants' needs, such as the
appointment of instructors and assistance to apprentices to find
employment.
Inspectors are appointed every year by the Minister of Labour and Social
Insurance (Ypourgos Ergasias kai Koinonikon Asfaliseon). The inspectors
appointed are teachers in the Technical Schools (Technikes Scholes, TS)
and they are obliged to visit on a monthly basis the trainees at their place
of work. Apprentices can apply to inspectors in order to discuss and solve
all the problems that might arise from their education in the schools or
their training in the workplaces.
Special efforts are made in order to assist the apprentices to find
employment (where to be trained in parallel). These efforts are made both
by the inspectors and the Department of Labour (Tmima Ergasias) (a
Labour Officer, in each District Labour Office, is responsible for this).
In addition to the above, the Human Resource Development Authority,
HRDA (Archi Anaptyxis Anthropinou Dynamikou, AnAD) subsidises
employers for wages paid to apprentices during the two days per week
when they attend classes at Technical Schools.
040402 – CURRICULA

The Ministry of Education and Culture, MoEC (Ypourgeio Paideias kai
Politismou, YPP) is responsible for the vocational education and training of
the apprentices at the Technical Schools (Technikes Scholes, TS) and the
Cyprus Productivity Centre, CPC (Kentro Paragogikotitas, KEPA) is
responsible for the administration of the Apprenticeship System (Systima
Mathiteias, SM).
According to the Apprenticeship Law of 1966, the Apprenticeship Board
(Symvoulio Mathiteias) is responsible for supervising the operation of the
Apprenticeship System. This Board has tripartite character with
representation of the government, technical schools, employers' and
employees' organisations and the Human Resource Development
Authority, HRDA (Archi Anaptyxis Anthropinou Dynamikou, AnAD). The
members of the Board are appointed by the Minister of Labour and Social
Insurance for a 2-year period. The composition and form of the Board
ensure the effective and coordinated effort of all interested parties in
providing industrial training always to the interest of apprentices, the
industry and the country in general. The Apprenticeship Board, at its
meetings, assesses the developments taking place in the Apprenticeship
System during the previous school year, takes decisions concerning
occupations for which training will be provided in the next school year,
and also decides on other important issues closely related to the operation
of the System.
The Joint Apprenticeship Committees (which are also regulated by the
Apprenticeship Law of 1966) are responsible for the monitoring of the
operation of the Apprenticeship System for each specialisation in each
district. These committees also have tripartite character and their terms of
reference are among others, to submit suggestions to the Apprenticeship
Board concerning the problems arising from the operation of the System,
for example the revision of curricula, the monitoring of the training of the
apprentices and the information to the public of the aims and goals of the
System. The members of the Committees are appointed for a 2-year
period.
Redesign of the Apprenticeship System

The Council of Ministers (Ypourgiko Symvoulio) decided (May 2005 with
decision 62.037) that the responsibility for the operation of the
Apprenticeship System be undertaken by the CPC. The responsibility for
training the apprentices remains with the MoEC. In this context the
System will be re-examined along two phases:
• Short term improvements, through: c. Upgrading the Apprenticeship System, with co-financing by the European Social Fund, ESF (Evropaiko Koinoniko Tameio, EKT), by reviewing the analytical programmes, training the teaching staff, and by acquiring software and other support material, which is undertaken by the MoEC, and d. Improving the administration and management of the system, including the monitoring and the supervision of both the in- class and the in–company training process, which is undertaken by the CPC. • Long term radical improvements, with significant changes in the philosophy, the structures, systems and processes, in order to provide an alternative education and training pathway to young persons who reject / drop out of the formal education system, including the possibility of widening the coverage to accommodate possible needs of young people of wider age ranges. Also the New Modern Apprenticeship (NMA) aims at attracting a greater number of girls and broadening the range of skills.
The proposal for a NMA is being promoted for inclusion in the programmes
that are co-financed by the EU within the framework of the new
programming period 2007-2013.

04040201 – CONTENT AND DELIVERY

At present, the following trades are operating under the Apprenticeship
System:
• Masons
• Welders/plumbers.
• Auto mechanics.
• Auto electricians.
• Furniture makers/Carpenders.
• Electricians.
• Builders.
• Welders/Fitters.
The Apprenticeship System (Systima Mathiteias, SM) study programmes provide practical and theoretical training alternately. Practical training takes place in industry, where apprentices are remunerated for their work, for three days per week. Theoretical training, which combines general education subjects with technological and workshop subjects, is provided at the premises of Technical Schools (Technikes Scholes, TS) for two days per week. During the two days spent at school apprentices take the following subjects for both years of their study: 1 period in Greek language, 2 periods in mathematics, 3 periods in technology, 2 periods in drawing and 5 periods in workshops/laboratory work. Practical training takes place within industry for three days a week.
The Human Resource Development Authority, HRDA (Archi Anaptyxis
Anthropinou Dynamikou, AnAD) subsidises employers for wages paid to
apprentices during the two days per week when they attend classes at
Technical Schools, thus securing the support of enterprises in this part of
the System.
04040202 - ASSESSMENT

Assessment in technical schools follows the rules of the education system
with regular tests and final examinations. Please see data island
04030202 for the assessment procedure in technical schools.
In industry the apprentices are assessed by their supervisors and their
grade appears on the certificate which is issued by the Ministry of Labour
and Social Insurance, MLSI (Ypourgeio Ergasias kai Koinonikon Asfaliseon,
YEKA) for the apprentices who successfully complete the course.
Assessment at Technical and Vocational Schools, as in Secondary General
Education, is continuous and consists of tests, workshop and laboratory
work and final examinations.
04040203 – QUALITY ASSURANCE

The Apprenticeship Board

The Minister of Labour and Social Insurance (Ypourgos Ergasias kai
Koinonikon Asfaliseon) appoints the members of the Apprenticeship Board
(Symvoulio Mathiteias) for a two-year term. The members of the Board
coordinate and organise the procedure for the provision of industrial
training to apprentices. The Board adjourns at least once a year in order
to assess the operation of the System during the previous school year and
determine which specialisations will be offered during the next school
year.
Interdepartmental Apprenticeship System Committees

There are various Committees responsible for each specialisation that
supervise the implementation of the Apprenticeship System (Systima
Mathiteias, SM). The members of these Committees submit their
suggestions about problems that may arise in relation to the revision of
the curricula and the industrial placement of apprentices. The members of
these Committees are appointed by the Apprenticeship Board for a two-
year term.
Apprenticeship System Inspectors

The Minister of Labour and Social Insurance appoints inspectors on an
annual basis, one in each district and for each specialisation, in order to
assure both the quality and the quantity of the apprentices´ practical
training in industry. Their main task is to follow up the progress made by
the apprentices, and assist the instructors from the industry in the
implementation of the approved curricula, which are prepared on the basis
of industry requirements. These inspectors have the responsibility of
taking suitable measures in order to secure the quality, the quantity and
the right methodology in industrial training. The inspectors appointed are
teachers in the Technical Schools (Technikes Scholes, TS) and they are
obliged to visit regularly the trainees at their place of work. Apprentices
can apply to inspectors in order to discuss and solve all the problems that
might arise from their education in the schools or their training in the
workplaces.
040403 – LEARNING OUTCOMES

Upon completing the two-year programme offered in the context of the
Apprenticeship System (Systima Mathiteias, SM) successfully, apprentices
are awarded a professional certificate. For more information please see
04040301.
04040301 – QUALIFICATIONS/CERTIFICATION

The professional certificate awarded to the apprentices who complete the
two-year programme successfully equips graduates with one type of
qualification only (one occupational field) and entitles them to enter the
labour market as semi-skilled workers. This professional certificate is not
equivalent to the Leaving Certificates (Apolytiria) awarded to graduates of
upper secondary education schools (general or technical and vocational).
Therefore, it does not entitle apprentices to pursue further studies at
Institutions of Higher and Tertiary Education. However, it is recognised by
the Government, industry and employers' organisations. This certificate is
also recognised as being equal to the certificate issued by the Lower
Technical Schools in Greece. In some cases, employers regard this
certificate as the minimum qualification required.
An apprentice is considered to have satisfied the requirements of the
Apprenticeship System (Systima Mathiteias, SM) and obtains the
professional certificate if his/her grade in all subjects is at least 10. An
apprentice is also awarded a professional certificate if he/she fails in a
subject that is not examined at the end of the school year but his/her
average grade for all the examined subjects, as well as for the subject
he/she has failed in, is at least 10 (Almost Good). In addition to the
above, an apprentice can obtain his/her professional certificate if he/she
fails in a subject that is examined at the end of the year with a grade of
not less than 8, but the average grade for all the examined subjects at the
end of the school year (including the subject he/she has failed in) is at
least 12.
An apprentice is not awarded a professional certificate if he/she has been
excessively absent from school and industry (60 teaching periods of
unjustifiable absences or a total of 225 teaching periods of absences).
An apprentice who does not obtain his/her professional certificate at the
end of the school year in June has the right to take the final examinations
in the testing periods of September, June or February for the next three
years following his/her failure.
Graduates of the Apprenticeship System who wish to obtain a professional
certificate in a specialisation other than their original one, can do so in the
context of Continuing Vocational Education and Training (CVET), through
attending the three-year programmes offered by the Afternoon and
Evening Classes of Technical Schools (Ekpaideftika Programmata
Apogevmatinon kai Vradinon Tmimaton Technikis Ekpaidefsis) in all major
towns of Cyprus.
04040302 – PROGRESSION AND TRANSITION

The teaching time devoted to the industrial placement of apprentices
facilitates their smooth entry to the labour market. The Apprenticeship
Certificate allows access to a number of regulated occupations (e.g.
building contractors, electricians), given that all the other providences of
the relevant legislation are being observed.
Participants who wish to enter the Labour Market may apply to the District
Labour Offices, DLO (Eparchiaka Grafeia Ergasias, EGE) and co-operate
with the competent Officers in order to find suitable employment.
A significant proportion of the apprentices tend to stay with their
employer, after completing their training.
There is no data available regarding the destinations of apprentices.
The Apprenticeship System (Systima Mathiteias, SM) is not compulsory
and attendance is free of charge. However, there are no direct and visible
academic progression routes from the System.
There are no mechanisms to help those who dropped out before
completing an apprenticeship programme to be integrated into the labour
market or to continue their education and training.

0405 – OTHER YOUTH PROGRAMMES AND ALTERNATIVE
PATHWAYS

There is no initial vocational education and training provided in Cyprus
under this category.
040501 – ACCESS REQUIREMENTS

Not applicable.
040502 – CURRICULA

Not applicable.
040503 – LEARNING OUTCOMES

Not applicable.
0406 – VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING AT POST-
SECONDARY (NON TERTIARY) LEVEL

There are three types of initial training schemes that are financed by the
Human Resource Development Authority, HRDA (Archi Anaptyxis
Anthropinou Dynamikou, AnAD), and mainly target upper secondary
education graduates. These are the accelerated initial training scheme, the
enterprise-based initial training scheme and the schemes co-financed by
the European Social Fund, ESF (Evropaiko Koinoniko Tamio, EKT).
Accelerated Initial Training Scheme

The Accelerated Initial Training Scheme is a multi-company scheme
organised and operated by the HRDA. It aims to train mainly new entrants
into the labour market, unemployed secondary school-leavers, and
persons who wish or have to move into new occupations through
retraining. The aim of this scheme is to meet needs in occupations where
there are significant labour shortages. Training programmes are organised
in cooperation with the Cyprus Productivity Centre, CPC (Kentro
Paragogikotitas, KEPA), the Higher Hotel Institute of Cyprus, HHIC
(Anotero Xenodocheiako Institouto Kyprou, AXIK) and other institutions.
The HRDA covers all costs for the institutional training. In addition,
trainees receive a weekly allowance. Enterprises employing these trainees
receive subsidies for the duration of the practical training depending on
the size of the enterprise and the salary of trainees. In 2006, 132 persons
participated in accelerated initial training programmes.
Table 1: Number of participants in accelerated initial training programmes in 2006 by specialisation and sex* Specialisation Men
Women Total
Cabinet Makers/ Carpenters Total 130

Source: Human Resource Development Authority
* There is no data available for the age of participants
Enterprise-Based Initial Training Scheme

The Enterprise-Based Initial Training Scheme consists of single-company
training programmes subsidised by the HRDA. It aims at the design,
organisation and implementation of training programmes by the
enterprises themselves for meeting their own training needs at all staff
levels. These programmes are mainly designed for meeting the needs for
initial training of newly recruited employees. These training programmes
can be conducted by trainers that are company employees or by other
trainers from Cyprus or abroad. The subsidies granted by the HRDA are
calculated according to the level and duration of the programme, as well
as the place of origin of trainers (i.e. from Cyprus or abroad).
Table 2: Number of participants in Enterprise-Based Initial Training
Scheme in 2006 by sex
Enterprise-Based Initial
Men Women Total
Programmes
9 programmes
Source: Human Resource Development Authority * There is no data available for the age of participants Schemes Co-Financed by the ESF

The HRDA has developed and put in operation in 2006 schemes that are
co-financed by the ESF. Each of these schemes aims to promote the
training and employability of Young Secondary School-leavers, the
Unemployed and the Economically Inactive Women. The aim of these
schemes is to effectively meet the training needs of selected target groups
of Young Secondary School-leavers, the Unemployed and the Economically
Inactive Women in order to improve their employability through the
acquisition of specialised complementary skills and knowledge.
In addition, a new scheme for the enhancement of computer literacy of
the unemployed, which is also co-financed by the ESF, has been
developed and is implemented over the period November 2006-December
2007. The scheme aims to enhance the computer literacy and thus
improve the employability of the unemployed with priority attached to
young unemployed, women unemployed as well as groups of unemployed
threatened by social exclusion e.g. older aged unemployed.
The targets set are for 2 590 persons participating in these schemes for
the period 2006-2008 and their distribution by scheme, action and sex is
shown in Table 3.
Table 3: Targets for participation in the four schemes by sex
Number of unemployed participating in training programmes Number of unemployed participating in work experience programmes Number of new secondary education graduates participating in training programmes Number of new secondary education graduates participating in work experience programmes Number of economically inactive women participating in training programmes Number of economically inactive women participating in work experience programmes Number of unemployed participating in training programmes for computer literacy 040601 – ACCESS REQUIREMENTS

Accelerated Initial Training Scheme

The Human Resource Development Authority, HRDA (Archi Anaptyxis
Anthropinou Dynamikou, AnAD), prepares on an annual basis a study for
the identification of initial training needs with the active involvement of
the Social Partners. In the study, the views of Employers´ Organisations
(Ergodotikes Organoseis), Trade Unions (Syntechnies) and District Labour
Offices, DLO (Eparchiaka Grafeia Ergasias, EGE) are collected and
analysed through a specially designed questionnaire. The study provides
annual estimates for the number of persons required for specific
occupations by district. On the basis of these estimates suggestions are
put forward for the implementation of specific programmes in the
Accelerated Initial Training Scheme.
The types of programmes that are offered are published in a prospectus
twice a year for the technical occupations and once a year for other
occupations. The occupations, the training centres, the districts, the
number of trainees and other relevant information about the programme
are given together with application details and dates of selection
interviews.
The number of programmes is limited due to limitations in the training
facilities and the instructors. The number of places is also limited, for
example certain programmes have 12 places available and others have
15.
Candidates must be at least 16 years of age. Candidates choose to apply
to the specialisation they prefer. All candidates pass through a selection
interview, which is carried out jointly by the HRDA and the relevant
institution for each specialisation.
The access requirements or criteria for selecting trainees for these
programmes are the following:
• Knowledge – It is preferable to have completed upper secondary education, although candidates with lower secondary education are not always excluded, especially if they attend Evening schools leading to upper secondary education. • Abilities – Based on the requirements of each occupation, the physical and mental abilities of each candidate are evaluated. • Social and Economic status – Candidates are given priority if they are unemployed, if they do not have anyone to support them financially, if they have to support a family, if they belong to a divorced family etc. • Interest and level of commitment of the candidate - An important criterion is the interest of the candidate in the chosen specialisation.
Access to each programme is limited depending on the number of places
available by district for each programme.
The most popular specialisation is the plumber (there are about four
applications for each position available) and the second most popular
specialisation is the construction mason.
In order to overcome obstacles to access due to distance, a traveling
allowance is given to participants that live in another district or if the
distance of the participant's permanent residence is more than 20 km
from the town centre.
Enterprise-Based Initial Training Scheme

These programmes are mainly designed for meeting the needs for initial
training of newly recruited employees who do not have any other previous
experience on their job. Enterprises control the whole process as they
decide on the trainee and the programme and then apply to the HRDA for
subsidisation. Therefore access to this type of programmes is provided
only through this process.
Schemes Co-Financed by the ESF

The schemes that are co-financed by the European Social Fund, ESF
(Evropaiko Koinoniko Tamio, EKT) during the period 2006-2008 involve
the promotion of training and employability of the unemployed, of new
young secondary school-leavers, and the economically inactive women. In
addition, a new scheme for the enhancement of computer literacy of the
unemployed, which is also co-financed by the ESF, has been developed
and is being implemented over the period November 2006-December
2007.
Promotion of training and employability of the unemployed This scheme concerns the development and utilisation of specific groups of unemployed people with emphasis on women, the young unemployed persons of 15-24 years of age with no qualifications and on groups that are in danger of social exclusion with regard to their access to the labour market. Promotion of training and employability of new secondary school-leavers This scheme concerns the new secondary school graduates with a priority given to general education graduates who are less than 25 years old and who have not gained work experience of more than 9 months after graduation. Promotion of training and employability of the economically inactive women This scheme concerns the improvement of the employability of women who remain economically inactive through actions of training and work experience. 4. Enhancement of computer literacy of the unemployed
The scheme aims to enhance the computer literacy and thus improve the
employability of the unemployed with priority attached to young
unemployed, women unemployed as well as groups of unemployed
threatened by social exclusion e.g. older aged unemployed.
As these schemes are directed to the specific target groups described
above, access to them will be limited to those groups with additional
selection criteria as indicated.
The implementation of a personalised approach to the recipients of each
target group is considered to be a crucial part for the successful and
comprehensive implementation of these actions. The personalised
approach, which is provided through the Public Employment Services, PES
(Dimosies Ypiresies Apascholisis, DYA), includes the identification and
recording of skills, talents and interests of the beneficiary persons, as well
as the design of a personal action plan along with the continuous provision
of information on the available opportunities for training and employment.
Finally, the geographical coverage of all the districts of Cyprus is
considered to be essential with a priority given to the Objective 2 areas
(West Rural Area, East Rural Area, Eligible Urban Areas of Nicosia).
The targets that were set for each scheme were mainly determined by
budget constraints. This is envisaged to be the main limitation to access in
these schemes.
040602 – CURRICULA

Accelerated Initial Training Scheme

From 2000 to 2006 training programmes have been organised for the
following occupations: Construction Masons, Plumbers, Welders,
Mechanics/Fitters, Cabinet Makers/Carpenters, Cooks, Waiters, Assistant
Information Technology Technicians and Office Support Staff.
The duration of the institutional training programmes ranges from 12 to 26 weeks, depending on the requirements of each occupation. They include theoretical and workshop sessions at a training institution and practical training in an enterprise. Table 1: Duration of Accelerated Initial Training programmes by specialisation Duration of
Duration of
practical
training
training
Duration
Construction Masons Mechanics/Fitters 16 8 24 Cabinet Makers/ Carpenters Cooks 13 Information Technology Technicians Office Support Staff Source: Human Resource Development Authority The theoretical training takes place at the Cyprus Productivity Centre, CPC (Kentro Paragogikotitas, KEPA) for technical occupations, the Higher Hotel Institute of Cyprus, HHIC (Anotero Xenodocheiako Institouto Kyprou, AXIK) for hotel related occupations and various other institutions for other specialisations. The dates and time of the programmes at the training centres are fixed and they usually last from Monday to Friday, 7:30 am - 1:30 pm. The training institutions together with the Human Resource Development Authority, HRDA (Archi Anaptyxis Anthropinou Dynamikou, AnAD) set and agree the curricula. The curricula include subjects relevant to each specialisation as well as subjects taught by external instructors such as industrial relations, basic computer knowledge, basic knowledge of first aid, health and safety in the workplace, site visits. The objective is to achieve in an accelerated manner the development of abilities and knowledge that are required so that the young person becomes employable in that specialisation. The participants must attend the training centre sessions: If they are absent for more than 15% of the time, they are not granted a certificate. In order to pass the examination the participants must be able to
complete by themselves a given project of certain complexity.
During the institutional training, the instructors assess the participants
and evaluate their performance, their interest in the programme and their
performance in a team. The trainees who do not satisfy the minimum
requirements are informed that they have to leave the programme.
As far as the practical training in the industry is concerned, the analytical
programme set by the HRDA is followed. An employee of the enterprise is
assigned as a training advisor (trainer) for the trainee. According to the
analytical programme, the trainees are required to spend 50% of their
working time for training purposes. The trainers are also required to spend
25% of their time for training and coaching of the trainee.
All the participants to the programme are required to keep a personal
logbook that is provided by the HRDA. The supervisor of the trainee in the
enterprise signs the logbook. The main instructor of the programme is
responsible for the follow up of the training. The instructor pays 2 to 3
visits to establish that the logbook is properly kept and to check the
implementation of the in-company part of the programme.
Enterprise-Based Initial Training Scheme

These programmes are tailor-made to meet the needs of the enterprise.
The curricula, the duration and the level of the programme vary according
to the trainee, the occupation and the needs of the enterprise. The
duration of programmes however usually ranges between 4-12 weeks.
The programmes are submitted to the HRDA in advance for approval of
subsidisation. This is the first quality assurance mechanism, since the
programme has to meet certain quality characteristics in order to receive
approval. The participants to the programme are required to keep their
personal logbook that is provided by the HRDA, where all their
achievements are written down. The trainers report to the HRDA on the
progress of the trainee. The HRDA officers perform site inspections at the
enterprise to ensure the quality of the programme.
During the execution of the course the trainer assesses the trainee and at
the end the trainer performs a final evaluation to ensure that the
programme has achieved its targets.
Schemes Co-Financed by the ESF

These schemes include indicatively the following operations:
Organisation of vocational training programmes The vocational programmes are grouped in two categories: • The provision of core skills, on the basis of the results of the personalised guidance/ approach. Indicatively, the following subjects can be covered: communication and interpersonal relations, group work, development of negotiating techniques, problem solving, digital literacy and learning of languages. • Participation in training activities for the acquisition of specialised vocational skills, taking into account the results of the personalised guidance/ approach and the projections provided by medium-term and short-term studies carried out by the HRDA. The training activities for the acquisition of specialised vocational skills are implemented via practical and theoretical training. The duration of the programmes varies depending on the specialisation, the level and the subject. The implementation of this approach indicatively provides: the design of analytical thematic training programmes, the establishment of criteria for the selection of specialised vocational training centers and trainees and the evaluation of the training programmes. The anticipated results are: • The correspondence of the vocational training programmes to the real needs of the labour market. • The familiarisation of the trainees in various specialisations of the labour market through the acquisition of practical experience within an enterprise. • The development of personal skills and the adaptation of the vocational qualifications of the trainees to the developments and the needs of the labour market. Programmes for the acquisition of work experience The specific operation aims at the adaptation of knowledge and skills of the target groups to the needs of the labour market through the attainment of work experience. The persons of the target groups have the opportunity to participate in programmes in order to gain work experience through their placement in enterprises. Based on the capabilities, talents and interests of the persons concerned, these persons are placed to suitable enterprises. Upon the placement of the individual, a training programme is prepared for him/ her with the participation of both the individual and the company. Each programme includes practical training on the core operations of the company, on professional behaviour and communication at the work place, on utilisation of information and communication technologies, on safety and health at work etc. The procedure that is provided for the implementation of this operation includes the establishment of criteria for the participation of companies, the submission of expression of interest in order to establish a relevant registry of suitable companies which will accept the placement of trainees, the corresponding call for the submission of applications by interested persons (whether they have or have not benefited from the other actions of the measure).
During the whole period of the placement/ training of the person,
monitoring and guidance is carried out in relation to the progress of
implementation of his/ her training programme. The duration of the
placement/ training is about 3 months, according to the complexity of
activities of the company in which he/ she is placed.
040603 – LEARNING OUTCOMES

Accelerated Initial Training Scheme

After the completion of the practical training at the industry, the employer
and the instructor assess the participants and the assessment form of the
participant is given to the Human Resource Development Authority, HRDA
(Archi Anaptyxis Anthropinou Dynamikou, AnAD) together with the
training logbook.
The participants who successfully complete the programme are granted a Training Certificate, which specifies the subject of specialisation, the duration and the content of the training and it certifies that the person who possesses the certificate has successfully completed the requirements of the training. In order to be granted a certificate, the person has to: • Complete the institutional part with acceptable absences. • Complete a minimum of 40 days of full employment in a company approved for practical training. • Cover the syllabus for practical training in the company. • Be evaluated by the employer at the end of the enterprise training with an acceptable range of evaluation grades. In the event that the certificate is for some reason misplaced, the trainee can apply for a written certification of his/her attendance. Certificates are only issued once. A ceremony is held once a year during which an official from the Ministry of Labour and Social Insurance, MLSI (Ypourgeio Ergasias kai Koinonikon Asfaliseon, YEKA) awards the certificates to successful trainees. In the event that the participant does not successfully complete the whole programme, a Certificate of Attendance is granted, provided that the person has attended at least 70% of the total duration of the programme. After the completion of the programme, the trainee may continue to work in the company or find employment elsewhere.
Enterprise-Based Initial Training Scheme

These programmes do not provide a certificate or a recognised
qualification since the knowledge received is specific to the requirements
of the trainee, the occupation and the needs of the enterprise concerned.

Schemes Co-Financed by the ESF
The participants who successfully complete the training programmes receive a Certificate of Attendance. 0407 – VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING AT TERTIARY
LEVEL

Public general tertiary education is provided at the University of Cyprus, UCY (Panepistimio Kyprou, PK) and two more state universities, which have recently been established and commenced their operations, namely the Technological University of Cyprus (Technologiko Panepistimio Kyprou, TEPAK) and the Open University of Cyprus (Anikto Panepistimio Kyprou, APKy). In addition to the public provision of tertiary education, there are several private institutions. Vocational Education and Training, VET (Epangelmatiki Ekpaidefsi kai Katartisi) at tertiary level is provided at a number of institutes/colleges, which come under the jurisdiction of various ministries. All public education in Cyprus is free of charge, including studying at the UCY and public institutes/colleges. Education in accredited private institutions is subsidised in the form of a grant, as is tertiary education abroad.
Public Institutions of Tertiary Education
There are seven public tertiary level education institutions offering programmes in Engineering, Forestry, Hotel and Catering, Nursing and other vocations. The length of study in these institutions is usually three years. These institutions by ministry are the following: • Ministry of Labour and Social Insurance: - Higher Technical Institute. - Higher Hotel Institute of Cyprus. • Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment: - Cyprus Forestry College. • Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism: - Tourist Guides School. • Ministry of Justice and Public Order: • Ministry of Health: - School of Health Inspectors. The main aim of these institutions is to provide tertiary education and produce high-calibre professionals in each field. The objective is to provide education and training according to the needs of the Cyprus labour market. The student tuition fees range from £2 200 (€3 759) to £5 000 (€ 8 543) per year. Cypriot students receive a government grant for their tuition and therefore pay no fees. Foreign students pay tuition fees. The academic year in most public higher education institutions starts in September of each year and ends in July of the following year.
Statistical Data

Table 1 shows the number of students by field of studies and gender
during 2005/2006. The proportions of young people in VET are presented
in Table 2, which show a decrease in 2005/2006 compared to 2000/2001.
Tables 3-6 show that, the number of participants in VET at tertiary level
by school and gender, have decreased over the years. It has to be noted
that, since the establishment of the UCY in 1992 the Pedagogical Academy
has been incorporated into the UCY.
Finally, the number of full time students in VET at tertiary level by age and gender is presented in Tables 7 and 8 for the years 2000/2001 and 2005/2006 respectively. Table 1: Number of students by field of studies and gender, 2005/2006 Field of study
Male Female
Engineering and engineering trades Architecture and building Agriculture, forestry and fishery Personal services Security services Source: Education Statistics, Statistical Service of Cyprus Table 2: Proportion of the young people in VET Gross participation rates
considering population
considering population
aged 19-25(1)
aged 18-25(2) (most
relevant age group)
(1) Total number of students in VET at tertiary level irrespective of age is divided by the population in the age group 19-25 (2) Total number of students in VET at tertiary level irrespective of age is divided by the population in the age group 18-25 Source: Education Statistics, Statistical Service of Cyprus Table 3: Number of participants in VET at tertiary level by school and gender, year 1990/91
Institution Male Female Total
Pedagogical Academy
Higher Technical Institute Hotel and Catering Institute Forestry College Source: Education Statistics, Statistical Service of Cyprus Table 4: Number of participants in VET at tertiary level by school and gender, year 1995/96
Institution Male Female Total
Higher Technical Institute
Higher Hotel Institute Forestry College Total 903
Source: Education Statistics, Statistical Service of Cyprus Table 5: Number of participants in VET at tertiary level by school and gender, year 2000/01
Institution Male Female Total
Cyprus Police Academy
Higher Technical Institute Higher Hotel Institute Forestry College Total 863
Source: Education Statistics, Statistical Service of Cyprus Table 6: Number of participants in VET at tertiary level by school and gender, year 2005/06
Institution Male Female Total
Cyprus Police Academy
Higher Technical Institute Higher Hotel Institute Forestry College Total 737
Source: Education Statistics, Statistical Service of Cyprus Table 7: Number of full time students in VET at tertiary level by age and gender, year 2000/2001 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 >25
253 1 185 125 200 120 101 94 86 72 269
Source: Statistical Service of Cyprus Table 8: Number of full time students in VET at tertiary level by age and gender, year 2005/2006 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 >25
133 60 258 135 155 89 76 85 79 63 133
Source: Statistical Service of Cyprus 040701 – ACCESS REQUIREMENTS

The basic admission requirement for public institutions of tertiary
education is the completion of 12 years of primary and secondary
education, which is certified by the lyceum or technical school leaving
certificate (apolytirio). The number of students admitted to these
institutions is limited and therefore the selection of candidates is based on
the applicants' success in the common entrance examinations conducted
by the Ministry of Education and Culture, MoEC (Ypourgeio Paideias kai
Politismou, YPP) for placement in the Institutions of Tertiary Education of
Greece and Cyprus. The number of students to be admitted each year is
determined by the competent authorities of the individual institutions.
There is a limited number of places for overseas students who wish to
study at the public institutions of tertiary education. Usually G.C.E. or
G.C.S.E. credentials are taken into consideration but it must be noted that
it is required that the prospective student is competent in the language
the courses are taught in. Entrance criteria in the case of international
students who want to apply may also be set by the particular department
the student is interested in. The University of Cyprus, UCY (Panepistimio
Kyprou, PK) may set special examinations for international students.
040702 – CURRICULA

The public tertiary education institutions offer specialised programmes in
various fields ranging from engineering to nursing, hotel and tourism
management, forestry and other professional disciplines. The programmes
are technically-vocationally oriented, and they are designed to offer
students the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes, which will enable
them to work either in the public or private sector.
The public tertiary education institutions, which offer Vocational Education
and Training, are the following:
• The Higher Technical Institute of Cyprus, HTI (Anotero Technologiko
Institouto, ATI) that operates under the supervision of the Ministry of Labour and Social Insurance, MLSI (Ypourgeio Ergasias kai Koinonikon Asfaliseon, YEKA). It offers three-year programmes, which lead to the acquisition of a Higher Diploma in Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering Mechanical Engineering, Marine Engineering and Information Technology. The language of instruction is English. The Human Resource Development Authority, HRDA (Archi Anaptyxis Anthropinou Dynamikou, AnAD) subsidises the enterprise-based practical training of students. The selection of companies and the placement of students for practical training as well as the follow-up and evaluation of their progress are done by the organisers of the programmes, in consultation and with the HRDA's subsidisation. • The Higher Hotel Institute of Cyprus, HHIC (Anotero Xenodocheiako Institouto Kyprou, AXIK), which operates under the supervision of the MLSI. It offers three-year programmes, which lead to the acquisition of a Diploma in Hotel and Catering Management and a Diploma in Cooking. It also offers one-year programmes that lead to the acquisition of a Diploma in Hotel Reception and a Diploma in Hotel Economy. The language of instruction is English. The HRDA subsidises the enterprise-based practical training of students. The selection of companies and the placement of students for practical training as well as the follow-up and evaluation of their progress are done by the organisers of the programmes, in consultation and with the HRDA's subsidisation. • The Nursing School of Cyprus (Nosileftiki Scholi), which operates under the supervision of the Ministry of Health, MoH (Ypourgeio Ygeias). It offers three-year basic programmes in General Nursing and in Psychiatric Nursing. It also offers a transitional twelve-month programme in Hospital Management, Midwifery, Intensive Nursing and other specialised fields. The language of instruction is Greek. • The School of Tourist Guides (Scholi Xenagon), which operates under the supervision of the Cyprus Tourist Organisation, CTO (Kypriakos Organismos Tourismou, KOT). It offers a one-year programme, which leads to the acquisition of the Diploma of Tourist Guides. The language of instruction is Greek. • The School of Health Inspectors (Scholi Ygeionomikon Epitheoriton), which operates under the supervision of the Ministry of Health and offers courses whenever there is a need for qualified public health inspectors. • The Cyprus Forestry College (Dasiko Kollegio Kyprou), which operates under the supervision of the Department of Forests of the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment MoA (Ypourgeio Georgias, Fysikon Poron kai Perivallontos, YGFPP). It offers a two-year course, which leads to the acquisition of a Diploma in Forestry. This course is designed to provide the proper theoretical and practical training at technical level in the general principles of Forestry and Forestry Practice. Theory is combined with practical training acquired through demonstrations, project work and field experiments and work. In addition, the Cyprus Forestry College offers a six-month post diploma course, which leads to the acquisition of the Higher Diploma in Forestry and also a short training course leading to the Certificate in Forestry. The language of instruction is English. • The Cyprus Police Academy (Astynomiki Akadimia Kyprou), which operates under the supervision of the Ministry of Justice and Public Order, MJPO (Ypourgeio Dikaiosynis kai Dimosias Taxis, YDDT). The language of instruction is Greek. The Academy is divided into three Schools: - The Officers School: It organises a number of programmes, specialised courses, seminars and workshops providing Senior Police Staff, Chief Inspectors and Inspectors with training in management issues. - The School for Sergeants and Constables: Training for Sergeants lasts for eight weeks and consists of supervisory subjects, operational subjects and subjects of wider interest. Moreover, this school organises special programmes such as traffic and criminal investigation courses. As far as recruits are concerned, training lasts for three years and is alternated between theory and practice. During their three-year training, all trainees are on probation. The theoretical component lasts for one academic year and consists of Penal Law, Legislation, First Aid, English, Physical Education, Sociology, Psychology etc. The practical component lasts for two years and recruits are posted to their Divisions, Units and Departments where they put theory into practice, under the supervision of skilful mentors. - The School of Foreign Languages: It provides police officers with training in foreign languages, according to the needs of the Service. Studies are organised in diploma programmes, which include different specialisations. The competent ministry of each institution has to approve each programme, but, to a large extent, the institutions themselves design the curricula. The diploma programmes consist of basic vocational studies and practical training. Programmes of study are organised on a full-academic-year basis of 36 weeks, including examinations, Christmas and Easter holidays. They are divided into two semesters with compulsory attendance. The academic year commences in mid-September or early October and ends in June/July of the following year. It often consists of two semesters, with significant time spent on practical training. Teaching methods involve lectures on the theoretical level, extensive practical training and student participation in projects. Industrial training often completes institutional training at the end of each academic year. Educational guidance is offered individually by the institutions and centrally by the Ministry of Education and Culture, MoEC (Ypourgeio Paideias kai Politismou, YPP) through its guidance and counselling educational service. Guidance and counselling very often lead to the placement of the graduates in appropriate positions in their particular field in either the public service or the private sector. 040703 – LEARNING OUTCOMES

Students are assessed by sitting mid-semester and semester
examinations. However, coursework and lab-work are also evaluated and
comprise a percentage of the final mark in the particular subject. Project
work and industrial training are also assessed and taken into consideration
when assigning final marks. Examinations are the responsibility of the
faculty. No comprehensive government examinations are offered.
Successful completion of the programme, which lasts 2-3 years, leads to
the acquisition of the Institutions´ Diploma or Higher Diploma. Each
institution awards its own diploma to graduates.
Following law 67 (I)/96, which regulates the procedure for the recognition
of higher education qualifications, the diplomas awarded by the public
tertiary education institutions are recognised by the competent authorities
of the state. An amendment of "The Institutions of Tertiary Education
Laws of 1996 to 2004", which includes the requirement for the adoption of
the ECTS system and of the diploma supplement by all public and private
institutions of tertiary education, is at present under discussion.
The Human Resource Development Authority, HRDA (Archi Anaptyxis
Anthropinou Dynamikou, AnAD) subsidises the enterprise-based practical
training of students of the Higher Technical Institute, HTI (Anotero
Technologiko Institouto, ATI) and of the Higher Hotel Institute of Cyprus,
HHIC (Anotero Xenodocheiako Institouto Kyprou, AXIK). The selection of
companies and the placement of students for practical training as well as
the follow-up and evaluation of their progress are done by the organisers
of the programmes, in consultation and with the HRDA's subsidisation.
0408 – BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCE AND WEB SITES

SOURCES

ETF (2002), "Vocational education and training and employment services
in Cyprus-Monographs for candidate countries".
Eurydice/CEDEFOP (2000), "Structures of Education, Initial Training and
Adult Education Systems in Cyprus".
Eurydice/CEDEFOP (2004), "The Education System in Cyprus National
Dossier 2003-2004".
Eurydice/CEDEFOP (2006), "The Education System in Cyprus National
Dossier 2006".
Human Resource Development Authority (2006), "Annual Report 2005".
Human Resource Development Authority (2007), "The Vocational
Education and Training System of Cyprus: A Thematic Overview 2006".
Ministry of Education and Culture (2007), "Interim Report on the
Implementation of the Programme "Education and Training 2010"".
Ministry of Finance (2005), "National Lisbon Programme".
Ministry of Finance (2006), "National Reform Programme of Cyprus –
Progress Report".
Planning Bureau (2006), "National Strategic Reference Framework for
Cohesion Policy 2007-2013".
Planning Bureau (2007), "Strategic Development Plan 2007-2013".
Statistical Service of Cyprus (2006), "Statistics of education 2005".
WEB SITES

Cyprus Productivity Centre, www.kepa.gov.cy
Cyprus Youth Board, www.youthboard.org.cy
ETF www.etf.eu.int
Eurydice, CEDEFOP www.eurydice.org
Forestry College of Cyprus – Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources
and Environment www.moa.gov.cy/fc
Higher Hotel Institute of Cyprus – Ministry of Labour and Social Insurance,
www.mlsi.gov.cy/mlsi/hhic
Higher Technical Institute – Ministry of Labour and Social Insurance
www.hti.ac.cy
Human Resource Development Authority www.hrdauth.org.cy
Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment,
www.moa.gov.cy
Ministry of Education and Culture of Cyprus www.moec.gov.cy Ministry of Labour and Social Insurance, www.mlsi.gov.cy Ministry of Finance www.mof.gov.cy Nursing School, www.moh.gov.cy Open University of Cyprus www.ouc.ac.cy Planning Bureau, www.planning.gov.cy Police Academy – Ministry of Justice and Public Order www.police.gov.cy Statistical Service of Cyprus www.mof.gov.cy/mof/cystat Technological University of Cyprus www.cut.oc.cy University of Cyprus www.ucy.ac.cy Youth Board of Cyprus www.youthboard.org.cy ANNEX 1: TABLE OF ACRONYMS

ACRONYMS DEVELOPMENT
TRANSLATION ACRONYM
Open University Cyprus Institouto Kyprou Cyprus Development Authority Cyprus Forestry Cyprus DTEE Defterovathmia DYA Dimosies Public Institutes of the Technikis Ekpaidefsis ACRONYMS DEVELOPMENT
TRANSLATION ACRONYM
EGE Eparchiaka District Labour Grafeia Ergasias Labour Advisory Cyprus Technical School National Lisbon Cyprus Stratigiki tis Lissavonas EKT Evropaiko European Social ESF Koinoniko Tameio Fund Programmatismou Bureau Productivity Centre KOT Kypriakos Cyprus Tourist Nosileftiki Scholi ONEK Organismos Cyprus Youth Scholi School of Development Plan ACRONYMS DEVELOPMENT
TRANSLATION ACRONYM
SM Systima Apprenticeship Scholes Technical TEPAK Technologiko Technological YDDT Ypourgeio Ministry of YEVT Ypourgeio Ministry of Viomichanias kai YGFPP Ypourgeio Ministry of Georgias, Fysikon Agriculture, Poron kai Resources and Environment Ypourgeio Ygeias Ministry of ACRONYMS DEVELOPMENT
TRANSLATION ACRONYM
Education and Culture Vocational Education and Training Vocational Education and Training Initiative Programme "EQUAL" ANNEX 2: MEMBERS OF THE CYPRUS CONSORTIUM
1. NATIONAL
COORDINATOR
1.1. Human Resource Development Authority of Cyprus (www.hrdauth.org.cy) 2. MINISTRIES/GOVERNMENT
DEPARTMENTS
2.1. Planning Bureau (www.planning.gov.cy) 2.2. Ministry of Labour and Social Insurance/Department of Labour (www.mlsi.gov.cy/dl) 2.3. Ministry of Education and Culture (www.moec.gov.cy) 2.4. Statistical Service of Cyprus (www.mof.gov.cy/cystat) 2.5. Cyprus Academy of Public Administration (CAPA) (www.mof.gov.cy) 2.6. Pedagogical Institute (athena.pi.ac.cy/pedagogical/index.html) 2.7. Cyprus Productivity Centre (www.kepa.gov.cy) 3. SOCIAL
PARTNERS:
EMPLOYER AND TRADE UNION
3.1. Cyprus Employers and Industrialists Federation (www.oeb-eif.org) 3.2. Cyprus Chamber of Commerce and Industry (www.ccci.org.cy) 3.3. Cyprus Workers´ Confederation (www.sek.org.cy) 3.4. Pancyprian Federation of Labour (www.peo.org.cy) 3.5. Democratic Labour Federation of Cyprus (www.deok.org.cy) OTHER ORGANISATIONS/NON-PROFIT MAKING
ORGANISATIONS

4.1. University of Cyprus (www.ucy.ac.cy) 4.2. Cyprus Institute of Technology (www.technology.org.cy) 4.3. Research Promotion Foundation (www.research.org.cy) NATIONAL AGENCIES/UNITS FOR MANAGING EUROPEAN
PROGRAMMES/INITIATIVES

5.1. Leonardo Da Vinci National Agency (www.kepa.gov.cy/leonardo) 5.2. Socrates National Coordination Unit (www.moec.gov.cy) 5.3. National Eurydice Unit (www.eurydice.org)

Source: http://www.hrdauth.org.cy/images/media/assetfile/VocTrainingInitial2006_en.pdf

ucp.pt

Copyright 2007 by the American Psychological Association 2007, Vol. 7, No. 4, 745–754 Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Responses Relate to Differences in Real-World Social Experience Naomi I. Eisenberger, Shelly L. Gable, and Matthew D. Lieberman University of California, Los Angeles Although neuroimaging techniques have proven powerful in assessing neural responses, little is knownabout whether scanner-based neural activity relates to real-world psychological experience. A jointfunctional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)/experience-sampling study investigated whether individ-ual differences in neurocognitive reactivity to scanner-based social rejection related to: (a) moment-to-moment feelings of social rejection during real-world social interactions ("momentary social distress")and (b) the extent to which these momentary feelings corresponded with end-of-day global assessmentsof social disconnection ("end-of-day social disconnection"). Individuals who showed greater activity inregions associated with affective and pain processing (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala,periaqueductal gray) during scanner-based social rejection reported feeling greater momentary socialdistress during their daily social interactions. In contrast, individuals who showed greater activity inregions associated with memory and self-referential memory encoding (hippocampus, medial prefrontalcortex) showed a stronger correspondence between momentary social distress and end-of-day socialdisconnection, such that greater momentary social distress was associated with greater end-of-day socialdisconnection. These findings complement previous work showing a dissociation between momentaryand retrospective reports of affect and suggest that these processes rely on dissociable neural systems.

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