HM Medical Clinic

Therefore, it is necessary to see your doctor about any defects priligy australia but also by those who experience temporary dip in sexual activeness.

Microsoft word - document









National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago NATIONAL POLICY ON
GENDER EQUALITY AND D
DEVELOPMENT
REPUBLIC OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
NATIONAL POLICY ON
National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago GENDER EQUALITY ANDDEVELOPMENT
REPUBLIC OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
DRAFT WORKING DOCUMENT
MINISTRY OF GENDER, YOUTH AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT
June 2012
National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Table of Contents
Abbreviations


List of Tables and Figures
Glossary of Gender Terms and Concepts

Foreword
Executive Summary
Introduction

Section 1
Context and Rationale
Gender Dimensions of the Status of Men and Women in Trinidad and Tobago The International Normative Framework The Legislative Framework Section 2
ThePolicy Framework
Section 3
Policy Measures and Institutional Framework
Transformational Leadership and Governance Domestic and Family Life Health and Well-being Education, Literacy and Human Capital Development Personal Autonomy, Safety and Security Macro-Economy and Trade Labour and Employment Poverty Alleviation Agriculture and Food Security Climate Change and Natural Resource Management National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Vulnerable Groups (Youth, Elderly, Disabled) Coordination and Implementation of the Policy Conclusion
References
National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago AsDB Asian Development Bank Board of Industrial Training British Petroleum of Trinidad and Tobago CAFRA Caribbean Association for Feminist Research and Action CARICOM Caribbean CBO Community-Based Community Development Fund Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women CGDS Centre for Gender and Development Studies International Development Agency Inter-American Commission on Women COMSEC Commonwealth COSS Country Operational Strategy Study College of Science, Technology and Applied Arts of Central Statistical Office Department for International Development ECIAF Eastern Caribbean Institute of Agriculture and Forestry Early Childhood Services Fourth Basic Education Programme FPATT Family Planning Association of Trinidad and Tobago FTAA Free Trade Area of the Americas GATE Government Assistance for Tertiary Education Gender Focal Points Gender Management System Immuno-deficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome HYPE Helping You Prepare for Employment Inter-American Development Bank International Labour Organization Institute of Business Initial Social Assessment Ministry of Food Production and Marine Resources NEDCO Ltd. National Entrepreneurship Development Company National Energy Skills Centre/Trinidad and Tobago Network of Non-Governmental Organisations for the Advancement of Women in Trinidad and Tobago National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago NGO Non-Governmental National Institute of Higher Education, Research, NUDE National Union of Domestic Employees Organization of American States PAHO Pan American Health Organisation PBL Problem-Based Poverty Reduction Programme Modernization Programme SGI/PGI Strategic Gender Interests/Practical Gender Interests Strategic Gender Needs/Practical SHARE Social Help and Rehabilitative Efforts Survey of Living Conditions UNDP United Nations Development Programme United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean United Nations Development Fund for Women USAID United States Agency for International Development University of the West Indies World Health Organisation Women in Development YMCA Young Men's Christian Association YTEPP Youth Training and Employment Partnership Programme National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago GLOSSARY OF GENDER TERMS AND CONCEPTS
Sex
refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define male and female.
Gender refers to the roles and responsibilities, attitudes and behaviours, and attributes and
expectations associated with being male and female, which are denoted by the terms masculine
and feminine. In most societies there are differences and inequalities between women's and
men's roles and responsibilities, access to and control over resources, and participation in
decision-making. Gender determines what is expected, allowed and valued in a man or woman a
given context. It is socially constructed and learned through socialisation processes. It is context-
specific, time-bound and therefore changeable. Gender is part of the broader criteria for socio-
cultural analysis including race/ ethnicity, class, poverty, age, (dis)ability and sexual orientation.
Gender analysis refers to the application of a gender perspective to the development issue which
is being addressed. It requires an analysis of the gender division of labour, the identification of
the needs and priorities of women and men, the identification of existing opportunities and
constraints to the achievement of development objectives, and the choice of an intervention
strategy to address these. Gender analysis refers to the impact assessment of development
policies and programmes on women and men respectively.
Gender aware refers to recognition of the different roles, needs and interests of women and men
in society, and how this results in differences in power, status and privilege. Gender awareness
also refers to the ability to identify problems arising from gender inequity and discrimination.

Gender aware policies
seek to transform existing gender relations, where necessary, to build a
more equitable society. These policies may be redistributive and/ or transformative, andinvolve
altering the balance of power between men and women, and addressing both their practical
gender needs and strategic gender interests.

Gender blind
refers tothe inability to perceive that there are differences between men's and
women's situations, roles, responsibilities, needs and priorities, and consequently, the failure to
take these into account in designing a policy, programme or project. Gender blind policies,
programmes or projects tend to be biased in favour of males because they presuppose that those
involved and affected are males with male needs and interests.

Gender concerns/ issues
arise where an instance of gender inequality is recognised as unjust.
The fact that women are paid less than men for the same job or work of equal value is a gender
concern, and would need to be taken into account in labour legislation and practice. Other
examples of gender-specific issues are violence against women, and discrimination against men
in family planning services.

Gender equality
means that women and men enjoy the same status. It means that women and
men have equal conditions for realising their full human rights, and for contributing to and
benefiting from economic, social, cultural and political development. Gender equality is
National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago therefore the equal valuing by society of men and women, and their roles and responsibilities. It
is based on men and women being full partners in the home, community and society. Gender
equality starts with the equal valuing of girls and boys.
Gender equity means fairness of treatment for women and men, based on their respective needs.
This may include equal treatment or treatment that is different but which is considered equivalent
in terms of rights, benefits, obligations and opportunities. In the development context, a gender
equity goal often requires measures to compensate for the historical and social disadvantages
faced by women. In the current Trinidad and Tobago context, it may require measures to address
male gender gaps in health and education.
Gender mainstreamingis the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any
planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes, in all areas and at all levels. It is a
strategy for making women's as well as men's concerns and experiences an integral dimension of
the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all
political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is
not perpetuated. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality (Agreed conclusions of the UN
ECOSOC, 1997/2).

Gender relations
refers to social relations between women and men, and girls and boys, as well
as relations between women (e.g., mother/daughter, sisters, a girls' cricket team) or men (e.g.,
father/son, brothers, a men's football team) that are informed by gender-based values,
entitlements, responsibilities and identities. Gender relations are often based on power
differences between women and men in social processes.

Gender sensitivity
refers to being conscious of the different situations, needs, perceptions and
priorities of women and men throughout the policy-making, planning and programme delivery
process. It entails the ability to recognise the differences in women's and men's needs and
interests arising from their different gender roles and social positions.
Practical gender needs/ interestsrelate to those emanating from women's and men's actual
condition due to their differential gender roles and responsibilities. Often women's practical
gender needs are related to their roles as wives, mothers, homemakers, and community
managers. The relative position of women to men in society is not necessarily changed when
practical gender needs are met, such as providing child care facilities for single female heads of
households.

Sex-disaggregated data
: the collection, collation and analysis of information on the basis of sex,
e.g., data on the status and socio-economic roles of different groups of men and women,
including employment status, job classification, income and sectors, and educational attainment
of boys and girls.
Strategic gender needs/ interests consider the measures required to overcome gender inequality
in society. Such needs vary according to the economic, social, cultural and political context. The
right to vote and to be recognised in public life improved women's position of women in the
society relative to men's, and the right to equal pay for work of equal value will have similar
results.
National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Empowermentrefers to achieving control over one's life through expanded choices. It
encompasses self-confidence and self-reliance,the pursuit of one's own goals, and being able to
influence – both individually and collectively – the decisions that affect one's life. For women
and men to be empowered, conditions need to be created to enable them to acquire the necessary
resources, knowledge, organisational capacity and political voice.
National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago FOREWORD
The Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is committed to building a nation that is free of gender discrimination, based on the principles of human rights and guaranteeing equal access to progress for all. In furtherance of this goal, the Government shall promote the full participation of women, men, girls and boys by involving the public and private sectors and civil society as agents of development. The mission of the Ministry of Gender, Youth and Child Development is to mainstream the equitableadvancement of women and men and girls and boys in all areas of national development, and ensure the protection, development and participation of all children in preparation for meaningful adult life. Trinidad and Tobago, as a member State of the United Nations, has signed and ratified various international instruments, treaties and conventions without reservation. These instruments mandate member States to put in place the mechanisms needed to eliminate all forms of gender-based discrimination, and ensure equality and human dignity for men and women, boys and girls. In Trinidad and Tobago, the Government has a longstanding commitment to eliminating gender-based discrimination, despite the persistence of discrimination and gender stereotyping in some laws, traditions, customs and religious practiceswhich prevent women's and men's full enjoyment of rights and equal participation in national development. The National Policy on Gender Equality and Development aims to eliminate all such barriers and advance measures to promote gender equality.The Policy is aligned to the rights of the individual in Trinidad and Tobago's 1976 Republican Constitution, and the Government's national development framework as articulated in the seven Interconnected Pillars for Sustainable Development. In addition, the Policy is consistent with the Government's commitments and obligations under a number of international instruments including the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the International Conference on Population Development Plan of Action (ICPD PoA),the Beijing Platform for Action (BPfA), the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and the Commonwealth Plan of Action for Gender Equality (CPoA). These international instruments represent goals in themselves and include tools for setting standards towards the achievement of gender equality, women's empowerment and child protection. The National Policy has been developed through extensive consultation and research. The thematic areas selected and policy measures presented are supported by research and analysis, evidence and data gathered through national and regional consultations with a wide range of stakeholders, sector studies, interviews, and existing documents. The process revealed regional and community differences, which are addressed by specific policy measures. A National Action Plan (NAP) accompanies the Policy, to ensure effective implementation. The NAP is an accountability mechanism which presents explicit guidelines for the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the Policy, including measurable targets for advancing gender equality and women's empowerment. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago The Ministry of Gender Youth and Child Development is responsible for coordinating the implementation and monitoring of the National Policy. All Government ministries and agencies are responsible for delivering on the measures articulated in the thematic sections of the Policy. Additionally, civil society organisations provide complementary services to advancing gender equality on the ground, and exercise vigilance in monitoring the delivery of gender sensitive public services. The Policy aims to equip stakeholders in the public and private sectors and civil society with the information and skills required to facilitate the empowerment of all men and women, boys and girls in the society.This approach is cognisant of the fact that effective policy development and implementation must integrate the needs and concerns of multiple actors within a society. I am delighted that this National Policy on Gender Equality and Development is being adopted by the Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago in 2012, a momentous year in which we celebrate our nation's 50th anniversary of independence. While we have seen significant advances over the past 50 years in the status of women, I believe that this National Policy provides the impetus for us to strive for the achievement of full equality between men and women, and their equitable participation in political, economic, social, cultural and family life. Honourable Verna St. Rose- Greaves Minister of Gender, Youth and Child Development Members of the Cabinet Appointed Committee to review public comments and finalise the National Policy, and its Technical and Media Sub-Committees Ms. Sandra Jones, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Gender, Youth and Child Development Ms. Monica Williams, Director and Staff of the Gender Affairs Division, Ministry of Gender, Youth and Child Development National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Over the last fifty years, in keeping with the constitutional imperative of equality, the worst
forms of discrimination against women have been eliminated in Trinidad and Tobago. A
significant number of women have entered the labour force in a wide range of occupations,due to
the enlarged access to educational opportunity in the post-independence period. Women
generally have greater autonomy in making sexual and reproductive health decisions and
participate in politics and governance. And these changes have begun to transform men's lives,
enlarging their roles and responsibilities in the private sphere, and leading to a cultural shift
towards greater equality in inter-personal relations in families, communities and national life.
Yet gender inequality and negative gender stereotypes persist, and indeed new challenges have
emerged. Pay inequality to women's detriment is a feature of the labour market, as is women's
continued concentration in low paid sectors of the economy. In many households women bear
the disproportionate burden of care for children, which heightens their vulnerability to poverty.
Despite their active involvement in political processes, women have not attained equal
participation in politics, governance or corporate decision-making. Gender-based violence such
as domestic violence,rape and other forms of sexual abuse, and sexual harassmentat the
workplace constrain women's enjoyment of personal safety and liberty. And aspects of popular
culture perpetuate sexual stereotypes that demean women and girls.
Gender norms also limit the range of choices and opportunities for men and boys. Over the last
twenty years, trends have been observed in boys' educational under-achievementwhich may limit
theirparticipation in the labour market as well as national and community life.Other male gender
gaps have emerged in areas of health and well-being. In addition, many men are still not equal
partners in housework, child care and family life and many children do not benefit from the
active involvement of fathers in their lives. These gender-based deficits in education, labour
force participation and family life when combined with other social inequalities are no doubt
related to the higher vulnerability of some young men to being pulled into webs of anti-social
behaviour including violence, substance abuse and crime.
Thus, the agenda of transforming gender relations towards full equality between women and men
at the family, community and national levels, remains incomplete.
The National Policy on Gender Equality and Development is an instrument whose primary
objective is the acceleration of the achievement of gender equality. It documents the national
consensus on the actions that must be taken by the state, private sector, labour andcivil society to
ensure that women and men benefit equitably from opportunities and resources, and are equally
empowered to contribute to decision-making and governance. The Policy builds on past national
achievements in eliminating gender-based discrimination and responds to contemporary realities
and challenges. It is informed by the fundamental rights and freedoms guaranteed by the
Constitution, as well as by state obligations under international treaties signed and ratified by
Trinidad and Tobago.
National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago The National Policy on Gender Equality and Development is designed to achieve gender equality and advance national development.It is consistent withthe Government's development strategy outlined in the "Framework for Sustainable Development",which aims to promote people-centred development based on seven inter-connected pillars: Fostering people-centred development; Moving towards poverty eradication and promoting social justice; Ensuring national and personal security; Expanding the use and availability of information and communication technologies; Building a more diversified, knowledge intensive economy; 6. Entrenching good governance; and 7. Presenting an accommodating foreign policy. The National Policy provides a framework for ensuring: The full and equal participation of men and women inthe development process; ii) Through gender analysis, an understanding of the different realities, opportunities, needs and interests of men, women, boys and girls; iii) Through gender planning, taking into account the gaps between women's and men's access to economic, social, political and cultural resources, and putting in place policies, plans and programmes to correct these imbalances; iv) Through gender-responsive budgeting, allocating the necessary financial and human resources to address these imbalances in all sectors and at all levels; and Equitable, effective and sustainable outcomes of state action.
Gender norms and relations influence the private sphere as well as the full range of sectors
addressed by public policy. Thus, ensuring equality of opportunity as well as equitable outcomes
must be a priority of state and non-state action. The key sectors in the economy – industry,
agriculture, labour and trade, as well as the environmental, political, justice, social, cultural and
other spheres, will be expected to adopt and implement frameworks that take into account the
differential needs, opportunities, interests and responsibilities of men and women, boys and girls,
to ensure that they participate and benefit equitably in national development.

As such, this National Policy promotes gender mainstreaming which has been defined as:

The process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes, in all areas and at all levels. It is a strategy for making women's as well as men's concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality (UN ECOSOC, 1997). The Ministry of Gender Youth and Child Development is responsible for co-ordinating the implementation and monitoring of the Policy. All Government ministries,statutory bodies and other state agencies are responsible for delivering on the measures articulated in the thematic National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago sections of the Policy. It is thus expected to guide decision-making on: the formulation of gender aware sector-specific policies, plans and programmes; the allocation of human, financial and technical resources; the delivery of public services; and the monitoring and evaluation of outcomes. Additionally, the Policy may be used as a guide by private sector institutions in engaging in gender aware and socially responsible entrepreneurial development, and by civil society organizations that provide complementary services to advance gender equality, and provide a platform for state/civil society dialogue and mutual accountability. The National Policy on Gender Equality and Development is informed by extensive consultation, research and analysis. The process included: a National Stakeholder consultation; seven (7) Community Consultations held in Trinidad; ten (10) Interest Group Consultations held in Trinidad; an island-wide Consultation held in Tobago; six (6) Interest Group Consultations held in Tobago; and a Roundtable for Government Gender Focal Points to provide feedback on seven (7) sector studies conducted on Health, Education, Agriculture and Natural Resources, Social and Community Development, Law and the Judiciary, Trade, and the Economy and Labour. The Policy was developed in partnership with civil society, the private sector and labour, and calls for mutual responsibility and accountability in achieving its objectives. This approach is cognisant of the fact that effective policy development and implementation must integrate the perspectives and actions of multiple actors within society. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago This National Policy on Gender Equality and Development, in accordance with the Trinidad and Tobago Republican Constitution of 1976, acknowledges the "equal and inalienable rights" of all citizens, and the "recognition and protection of their fundamental human rights and freedom without discrimination by reason of race, origin, colour, rreligion or sex." The National Policy is an integral part of national development policies and is a framework for redressing gender disparities as well as a guide to stakeholders in the public sector, private sector and labour, and civil society. The Policy is based on the premise that women and men must particiipate and benefit equitably in national development if sustainable development for all is to be realised. It is botth developmental and rights-based in approach. It seeks to ensure that the State provides the enabling environment for building capacities for self-development and social progress, wh while meeting its national and international obligations to respect, protect and fulfil human rights.

This three-fold dimension of State obligation means that the Government will:
Refrain from interfering with the enjoyment of rights; Prevent rights abuses by third parties; and Pro-actively engage in activities that strengthen each person's access to and realisation of rights, i.e., take measures necessary to ensure that individuals may obtain basic rights whenever they, for reasons beyond their control, are unable to realise these rights through the means at their disposal.
This National Policy should guide all levels of planning, resource allocation and implementation of development programmes with a gender perspective, to ensure the elimination of discriminatory laws, policies and practices as well as the creation of equal opportunities for empowerment. The Policy is a call to action and a demand for accountability for the use of national resources to achieve both substantive and formal gender equality as a core contributing factor to and indicator of national development. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago The core role of Government and development actors is to endow citizens with the necessary
capacities and opportunities for self and national development, what Martha Nussbaum, building
on Amartya Sen, refers to as "central human capabilities."2 Economic, political, legal, and other
social arrangements should be evaluated according to how they expand people's capabilities and
freedoms. This Policy on gender equality and development is informed by social justice and
respect for human rights, and is underpinned by a shared commitment to arriving at the basis for
a good quality of life and well-being for all.

Historically, due to the severe gender disparities between men and women, dialogue and actions
under the heading of ‘gender' have focused necessarily on the elimination of all forms of
discrimination against women. With the removal of the most egregious aspects of discrimination
against women being realised, there is a growing appreciation that men must be partners in
gender equality and that traditional male gender roles may constrain and restrict men's quality of
life and opportunities, particularly in the private sphere.
Men's gender concerns and their capacity to function effectively in society were repeatedly
voiced in the consultations held throughout the country for the preparation of this document.
Among the recurrent themes were those pertaining to the high levels of incarceration of men in
prisons, the under-performance of males in the education system in general, and the rigid
expectation of the man as primarily the breadwinner.
This Policy calls on actions to address the gender-related disadvantages that women face, and
aims to ensure the engagement of men in this agenda as well as in actions that address men's
gender-related vulnerabilities.
The concerns which gender analysis highlights may have been perceived as limited to the private
sphere of life. In reality, what a policy on gender and development serves to do is to bring into
sharper focus the ongoing interactions between the public and private spheres to ensure that each
individual is best prepared to fulfil aspirations in both spheres.
The priority areas addressed by this National Policy contain great potential for gender-based
transformations by targeting the limits to development if these priority areas remain unaddressed
in a society. They also represent strategic choices which channel resources effectively for gaining
the requisite impact on the ground, in the short, medium and long term.
National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago SECTION 1:
CONTEXT AND RATIONALE
GENDER DIMENSIONS OF THE STATUS OF MEN AND WOMEN IN
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

The equal rights of men and women in Trinidad and Tobago are guaranteed under the 1976
Republican Constitution and the country's overall state of gender equity compares favourably
with other medium-income developing countries with respect to such indicators as life
expectancy, maternal mortality and the level of education. The Human Development Index
(HDI)1 ranking for 2000 was 50 out of 174 countries, with a Gender-related Development Index
of 48. Trinidad and Tobago is ranked 14thamong the 195 nations of the world in the United
Nations' 2009 Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), and is positioned 19th on the Global
Economic Forum Report's 2008 and 2009 Gender Empowerment Index.

Demography

The CSO's 2000 Population and Housing Census placed Trinidad and Tobago's population count
at 1,262,366. The population is projected to grow to 1,310, 888 by the year 2015. Women and
men comprised almost equal amounts of the population, each at approximately 50%. This is less
so for Tobago where women represent approximately 50.5% of the population. Approximately
40.3 % of the population is East Indian, 39.6% African, 18.4% mixed, 0.6% Caucasian, 0.4%
Chinese, 0.1% Syrian/Lebanese, and 0.6% noted as other.
The age breakdown by sex in 2011 was as follows:
0-14 years:19.5% (male 122,044; female 116,859); 15-64 years: 72.1% (male 455,148; female 429,990); 65 years and over: 8.4% (male 44,439; female 59,025). Approximately 69.2% of households or 212,403 are male headed, while 30.8% of households or 91,468 are female headed. However a closer examination of the structure of these households will reveal that women headed households are more often than not likely to be single parent households with higher levels of dependents. 2000 census
Extended
1HDI - A composite index constructed by the UNDP since 1990, which measures average achievement in basic human development using life expectancy at birth, adult literacy rates, combined educational enrolment ratios and adjusted per capita income per person in $US (UNDP 2000, 147). National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Person Parent
Leadership and governance

Trinidad and Tobago has achieved an appreciable level of participation and representation of
women in politics and governance decision-making processes.
Women's participation as elected parliamentarians has never exceeded 30%, although sustained
upward movement is evident.
Women in Lower House
Women in Upper House
Women have held many non-traditional portfolios, including Deputy Speaker of the House of Representatives; Attorney-General and Minister of Finance. The United Nations Human Development Report 2009 indicated that women comprised 53% of professional and technical workers. The May 2010 General Election saw the nomination of 26 female candidates (31% of the total slate), and the election of the country's first female Prime Minister. Health

The average life expectancy in Trinidad and Tobago is 69.2 years, with female life expectancy
being 72.8 and male life expectancy 65.6 (UNDP/ HDR, 2009). The last decade has seen
significant increases in state spending on health and social service delivery. Health sector reform
has been ongoing with the provision of increased numbers of health facilities and resources, and
measures to improve access to quality health care and drugs, especially for chronic diseases.

Sexual and reproductive health
Fertility levels have fallen from 5.3 in 1960 to approximately 1.6 for the period 2000-2008. The
2000 Population and Housing Census indicated declines in the number of persons in the 0-4 and
5-9 age groups by as much as 34.7% and 28.9 % respectively, when compared with 1990.
Contraception is widely available through Government health clinics at the local level, the
Family Planning Association, and through the private sector. During 1985-1990, contraceptive
use among married women was 58%, however in the 15-19age group 22 births occurred per
1,000 women (United Nations, 2000:48). According to a Family Planning Association report,
oral contraceptives were the main method used, accounting for 49.5% in 1998 (FPATT, 2000).
However the Ministry of Health reported that condom use was almost twice that of oral
contraceptives in 2004-2005.
National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Teenage pregnancy rates are high in urban areas, with 13.5% of all live and stillbirth deliveries to
teenagers, with an age-specific fertility rate of 45.9% (PAHO/WHO, 2001: 3). The incidence of
STIs is also relatively high among teens and young adults. Significant strides have been made in
the development of Health and Family Life (HFLE) curricula and the training of teachers;
however this is not universally implemented. The Family Planning Association has been
involved in community and school outreach programmes on sex education, but this does not
have universal reach. Special programmes have been established for young women and men
visiting the offices of the FPATT.
The infant mortality rate in 2000 was 16.2 per 1000 live births. Breast cancer mortality rates
have been on the increase (17.6 per 100,000 in 1990, to 19.5 in 1994) while cervical cancer rates
have been on the decline (9.1 in 1990 to 7.7 in 1994). Specific men's reproductive health issues
are also significant, central among these being the prevalence of prostate cancer and the tendency
for men to visit health institutions infrequently for preventative screening.
Complications due to abortion can be said to be the leading cause of maternal deaths within Latin
America and the Caribbean (UNICEF, 2008). In Trinidad and Tobago, although it may be
difficult to assess the situation of abortion as a significant cause of maternal mortality due to
under-reporting, it is evident that it affects maternal health and morbidity in Trinidad and
Tobago. There has been a dramatic decrease in non-spontaneous, non-medical abortions from 4,
326 in 1994 to 607 in 2005.However, a Situational Analysis of Abortion for Trinidad and Tobago
conducted by the Family Planning Association reported that 96% of pregnancies were unplanned
and of these pregnancies, 31.9% of the women attempted termination through self-selected
methods including the use of tablets, hormones, Misoprostol, herbs, backyard and self-
administered means (FPATT, 2004). The Offences against the Person Act, Chap 11:08, Sections
56 and 57, makes it illegal to procure an abortion. However, a termination of pregnancy
performed in the interest of preserving the physical and mental health of the pregnant woman is
not unlawful.
The issue has arisen of the need for a protocol to ensure equitable access to safe terminations in
state institutions where the physical and /or mental health of the pregnant woman are
jeopardised. It is now recognised that such access is compromised by the lack of a clear
procedure in the public health sector for the carrying out of safe and lawful terminations,
especially where poor women's and girls' lack of financial resources restricts their access to
terminations in private health facilities.

Diseases and disorders

HIV/AIDS has become a major cause of mortality in Trinidad and Tobago over the last two decades. The prevalence rate in 2009 was 0.5 (NACC, 2010). In 1996, the female to male infection ratio was 5:1. In 2008, women accounted for 49% of all new cases, while men accounted for 43%, with 8% being unknown. Within the age group 20-34, the male female ratio is 1:1.9, almost twice as many females. Young women in the 20-24 age grouprepresent the largest number of new HIV cases, while the highest number of new cases among males was in the 45-49 age group.The incidence of mother to child transmission of HIV has decreased significantly, with over 75% of women being screened during pregnancy. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
Non-communicable diseases such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, cerebrovascular disease and
hypertension are the main causes of death. Death from external causes was especially significant
for males, where the tendency for at-risk behaviour results in higher levels of injury and
accidents. There is increasing concern about the increasing incidence of old and new
communicable diseases, such as tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS.

Education

Trinidad and Tobago has attained a relatively high level of educational achievement. By 2000,
99.9% of the population was recorded as enrolled at the primary level (UNDP, 2000), and
opportunities were expanded to include all secondary age children. School attendance however
does not necessarily result in achievement for all, as studies on functional literacy indicated that
an estimated 12.6% of the population 15 years and over was illiterate (ALTA, 1994; St. Bernard
and Salim, 1995: xi). Among younger persons aged 15-24 years and 25-39 years, there were
higher levels of illiteracy among men than women. With respect to older persons aged 40-54
years and 55 years and older, the situation is reversed with women having higher levels of
illiteracy than men.
There has been much concern over the perception of male under-achievement in education. In
particular, the lower levels of secondary school enrolment are one manifestation of this situation.
In 2000, of the 163,206 children enrolled in primary education 50.9% or 83,051 were boys and
49.1% or 80,155 were girls.At the secondary level, however, 51% of students were female and
49% were male.In 2008, boys constituted 68.5% of candidates who failed to attain the passing
grade of 30% in the Secondary Entrance Examination (SEA), and 56.5% of students scoring
between 30% and 60%. Conversely, girls dominated the higher percentiles constituting 56% of
candidates scoring between 60% and 90%, and 61% of candidates scoring higher than 90%.
In the academic year 2007/2008, females constituted 66.2% of graduates of UWI, St. Augustine
Campus. The percentage of females graduating outnumbered males in all faculties except for
Engineering where females comprised 31.2% of graduates, representing an increase of 2.3% over
the 2006/2007 academic year. Much attention has been given to the lower numbers of males
among UWI graduates and other tertiary academic institutions. It must be noted that the
university-educated population is an extremely small proportion of the national population.
Educational attainment levels of most women,as with most men, leaves much room for
improvement. Males still dominate the broad range of technical/ vocational education, which is
an advantage, bearing in mind the energy and industrial base of the economy. In 1999/2000, of
the 1,101 students enrolled in technical/ vocational education 74.4% were male.2 Overall,
therefore, taking allforms of tertiary education into consideration, in 2000, the ratio of female to
male tertiary students was 72%, and female tertiary science students comprised 38.2% of all
female tertiary students (UNDP, 2000:255).
Labour and employment

2The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Central Statistical Office, Annual Statistical Digest, 2000, pp. 64-65. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Participation rates in the labour force in the 1st Quarter of 2010 stood at 52% for women and
72% for men respectively (United Nations, Statistical Division and CSSP, CSO). Unemployment
in 2009 stood at 5.3% overall, representing 4.6% for men and 6.3% for women, with a
male/female ratio of 1.40 (United Nations, Statistical Division and CSSP, CSO). Women's
nominal average income grew at a rate of approx. 8.1% per annum during the 2000 to 2008
period (UWI Centre for Health Economics, 2010). The majority of women are still employed in
Community, Social and Personal Services Industries (41%), followed by Restaurants and Hotels
(25%), Wholesale and Retail Trade (16%), Financial Services (10%) and the Construction
Industry (8%). Women have been showing increased participation in more highly paid
occupational groups, as professionals, legislators, senior officials and managers.
Women comprised 31% of own-account workers in 2000 (CSO). The Survey of Living
Conditions 2005indicated that women comprised 55% of the working poor. Youth
unemployment is serious for both sexes, for males this persists until age 30, while for females it
continues until ages 31-40.While women have made progress in the labour market over the last
decade, they continue to comprise more of the unemployed, receive less remuneration in every
sector of employmentand in every occupational group, except when employed by the State. The
options for young men are still greater than for young women who do not successfully complete
formal education.

While there is no specific legislation on sexual harassment, redress is available under criminal
law if the harassment takes the form of a criminal assault. Additionally, sexual harassment is also
addressed in some collective bargaining agreements. The Ministry of Labour, and Small and
Micro-Enterprise Development (MLSMED) has established a Steering Committee on Sexual
Harassment with a view to developing policy and other strategic approaches to dealing with this
issue.
Apart from the provisions guaranteeing women paid maternity leave in the Maternity Protection
Act, the MLSMED advanced a proposal to increase the paid leave within from 13 to 14 weeks in
2012. Cases of women, especially temporary and casual workers, being fired when pregnant still
surface, as well as cases of workers not being paid full benefits especially in small
establishments and private homes. There is no legislative provision for paternity leave,although
in some collective agreements provisions are made for 2-4 days paternity leave for fathers.
Additionally there may be classes of workers who are particularly vulnerable to work place
exploitation. The plight of domestic workers continues to be one of concern, as they are not
included under the definition of worker within the Industrial Relations Act. Both women and
men continue to grapple with reconciling work and family responsibilities, and more so women
given their traditional role as carer within the family.
Citizen security
While social exclusion and inequalities as manifested in poverty are part of the cause of crime
and violence, there can be no doubt that gender relations are central to the understanding of
dimensions of the problem. The majority of those who appear before the courts for criminal
activity are young men, with the prison population being predominantly male. The majority of
homicides are committed by men against men. And men are the main perpetrators of gender-
National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago based violence in its various forms – domestic violence, sexual offences, child sexual abuse and
sexual harassment.
In Trinidad and Tobago, gender-based violence has been addressed consistently from the
perspective of violence against women. Responding to the need to address violations of women's
rights to equal protection, legislation was enacted to better prevent, protect and punish sexual and
domestic violence. Major achievements were the Sexual Offences Act, 1986 which criminalised
rape within marriage in its 2000 amendment, and the Domestic Violence Act, 1991.
During the early years of the Domestic Violence Act, a total of 8,297 applications for protection
orders were made from August 1991 to April 1994 (Report to CEDAW, 2000: 320). Between
2005-2006 and 2010-2011, on average 9,533 applications were made annually, a dramatic
increase in the use of the Act. In 2008, 2,565 serious calls were made to the National Domestic
Violence Hotline, 800-SAVE. Of the 940 reports made to the Police 68.2% were for the offence,
"Assault by Beating." 687 sexual offences including rape, incest and serious indecency were
reported in 2010.
Despite these provisions, levels of domestic violence and sexual offences appear not to have
decreased, suggesting the need for better monitoring of the implementation of legislation,
improved capacity for the administration of justice, and importantly transformation of the culture
towards equal and respectful gender relations. Concerted action must continue to address the
fundamentally entrenched attitudes and behaviours that promote unequal gender relations
between men and women, and which perpetuate gender-based violence.
A World Bank study on crime and violence in the Caribbean, referring to the use of guns to in
Trinidad and Tobago, suggested that disadvantaged, disenfranchised, dispossessed young men
are influenced by a constructed stereotype of masculinity and may feel empowered by the
possession of a gun. Crime prevention policies must therefore address the gender dimensions
related to masculinity that create vulnerability to the use and experience of violence.
Personal autonomy andintegrity of the person
The Constitution guarantees rights to liberty, privacy, family life and equal protection of the law,
amongst other fundamental rights and freedoms. There are laws and policies that constrain the
enjoyment of these freedoms, and generally those restrictions are justified by reference to public
policy such as in the interest of public health or public ethics/morality. In this context, case by
case reviews of existing legislation that restrict personal autonomy are needed and the role of the
state in intervening in private lives of adults ought to be clarified and made consistent with
constitutional guarantees as they are understood in a modern democracy.
Under existing legislation in Trinidad and Tobago, a number of human rights are restricted in
areas which have significant implications for gender equality. These include:
Allowance of marriage of persons under the age of majority. The Marriage Act of 1923 inherited from the English common law which governs civil and Christian marriages, stipulates the age of consent as 14 for boys and 12 for girls. The Marriage and Divorce National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Act governing Muslim marriages stipulates 16 years for boys and 12 for girls; the Hindu Marriage Act stipulates 18 years for boys and 14 for girls; and the Orisha Marriage Act stipulates 18 years for boys and 16 for girls. The Acts are in direct violation of the Sexual Offences Act which establishes 16 as the age of consent to sexual activity, and thus legalise child marriage in the context of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child which defines a child as being under the age of 18. The Central Statistical Office reported that over 8,400 girls and 1,300 boys under 19 years old were married between 1997 and 2007 (Clyne, 2011). Uncertainty in the policy and administrative interpretation of 56 and 57 of the Offences against the Person Act related to termination of pregnancy. Criminalisation of same sex intimacy between consenting adults: under the Sexual Offences Act 1986, such intimate sexual relations are criminalised.
Conclusion

Sex-disaggregated data on the range of issues across the sectors point to two key underlying
factors that affect men and women differently.
Persistent patterns of discrimination against women and girls resultin women's vulnerability to
gender-based violence and poverty, their disproportionate burden of care and unequal integration
into the labour market, and their unequal representation in decision making.
The data indicate that boys are less likely to attend or complete secondary and tertiary levels of
education,men and boys have an increased likelihood of being both victims and perpetrators of
violent crime, and sectors of men are being de-linked from families. With regard to health and
well-being, a significant number of adult males are experiencing alcoholism, lifestyle related
non-communicable diseases, homelessness, depression and suicide. These challenges which men
and boys experience in Trinidad and Tobago are less related to systemic discrimination on the
basis of sex or gender, than the expression of harmful or restrictive male gender norms which
interplay with other socio-economic inequalities.
The National Policy on Gender Equality and Development therefore identifies different priorities
and strategies for addressing specific gender inequalities and disparities, taking into
consideration factors such as age, class, ethnicity, disability, geographical areas and religion.The
systems of data gathering, collation and analysis need to be substantially revised and upgraded so
that sex-disaggregated data required for strategic decision-making and implementation are
available in a timely, reliable and consistent fashion.
National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago NORMATIVE FRAMEWORK
CEDAW – A Rights-Based Framework
The central importance given to gender equality within the international human rights system can be traced to the Charter of the United Nations and to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This commitment has been repeated in all major human rights instruments at international and regional levels. Specifically, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1979. The Convention was the culmination of over thirty years of work by the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, a body established in 1946 to monitor the situation of women and to promote women's rights. The Commission has brought to light all the areas in which women are denied equality with men, adopting a human rights based framework. The number of countries that have ratified the Convention stands at 177. Among international human rights treaties, the Convention has an important place in bringing the female portion of humanity into the focus of human rights concerns. The spirit of the Convention is rooted in the goal of the United Nations: to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women. The Convention addresses, among other issues, civil rights, the legal status of women, human reproduction and the impact of cultural factors on gender relations, and suggests temporary special measures (e.g., quotas) to address gender inequality. CEDAW has been instrumental in guiding states in addressing laws and policies as well as
cultural change needed to advance equality. Trinidad and Tobago signed the Convention in 1985
and ratified it without reservation in 1990. By ratifying the Convention, states commit
themselves to undertake a series of measures to end discrimination against women. Countries are
also committed to submitting to the CEDAW Committee, national progress reports on these
measures at least every four years. Trinidad and Tobago reported to the CEDAW Committee in
December 2001.
In addition, the Policy is informed by the provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the
Child, the Belém do Para Convention, the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, the
Commonwealth Plan of Action for Gender Equality, the CIM Plan of Action, the CARICOM
Plan of Action on Gender and Development, and the United Nations Millennium Development
Goals.
The Beijing conference and the regional climate for gender policy formulation
The Beijing Platform for Action, the outcome of the United Nations Fourth World Conference on
Women held in 1995, is intended to accelerate the achievement of gender equality, and gives
special attention to groups that are the most disadvantaged. It recognises that women face
barriers to full equality and advancement because of factors such as race, ethnicity, age,
National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago language, culture, religion or disability, because they are indigenous women or because of other
status. Many women encounter specific obstacles related to their family status, particularly as
single parents; and to their socio-economic status, including their living conditions in rural,
isolated or impoverished areas.
Currently, as a consequence of the Beijing Platform for Action (1995), the Beijing+5 (2000) and
Beijing+10 (2010) conferences held at the UN in New York, and as signatories to the CEDAW
convention, Caribbean countries have been engaged in a process of developing national gender
policies and strengthening their national gender machineries. The following Caribbean countries
and territories currently have national gender policies andaction plans:Bahamas, Belize, British
Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Guyana, Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, and Turks and
Caicos Islands.
Inter-relationship of the international and national contexts
The United Nations, recognising the global subordination of women, designated 1975-1985 as
the Decade of Women. This decade saw the proliferation of agencies and organisations at
international, regional and national levels. The process has been led by the United Nations
system including UNIFEM – United Nations Development Fund for Women (now UN Women),
UNDP – United Nations Development Programme, and UNECLAC – United Nations Economic
Commission for Latin American and the Caribbean. It also includes regional agencies, e.g., the
CARICOM Secretariat, Inter-American Commission on Women (CIM), Organization of
American States (OAS), European Union, and Commonwealth Secretariat; bilateral agencies
such as the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and the United States Agency
for International Development (USAID); and international and regional financial agencies such
as the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB).
It is often the responsibility of departments in various line ministries (such as the Human Rights
Division of the Ministry of Legal Affairs, and the Foreign Affairs Ministry), to represent,
negotiate and report on gender-related international conventions that the Government has
ratified, or into which they may be entering. It is important for Trinidad and Tobago's
representatives, men and women, to have a working knowledge of the concept of gender and the
various issues involved. Based upon past experience in such matters, there is need for
strengthening of these line ministries through gender training and sensitisation of the staff.
National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Table 1: International instruments signed, ratified and/or acceded to by the Government
of Trinidad and Tobago, which have gender policy implications
Date of Signature/
Entry in Force
Instrument
Adoption
Accession
Charter of the United 18 September, 1962 International Covenant 7 December, 1978 on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Convention on the 11 February, 1990 Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women The Beijing Platform for Action Declaration on the 23 February, 1994 Elimination of Violence Against Women Declaration on the 14 December, 1974 Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict Convention on the 5 December, 1991 Rights of the Child Charter of the Organization of American States Inter-American Declaration on the (Upon signing the Rights and Duties of Charter of the OAS) Man Inter-American 3 November, 1995 Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence Against Women – "Convention de Belem do Para" Source: Adapted from Gender Affairs Division, Divisional Brief, 2003 and Confirmed on: www.oas.org; www.unhchr.ch/html; www.un.org/womenwatch National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago SECTION 2:
THE POLICY FRAMEWORK
THE POLICY GOAL
The overall goal of the National Policy on Gender Equality and Development is to promote gender equality and equity, social justice and sustainable development in Trinidad and Tobago. The National Policy aims: To improve the quality of life of men and women and boys and girls at all levels of society, through the promotion of gender equality and equity. To reinforce the inextricable links between gender equality and sustainable development goals in national development. To promote gender mainstreaming in all Government sectors and within civil society, to ensure the achievement of gender equality and gender equity in all spheres of national life.
The Policy outlines strategies and actions that are needed to strengthen the capacity of policy-
makers, planners and implementers to meet societal commitments to eliminating all forms of
discrimination against women and respond to harmful gender disparities, consistent with the
intention of the Constitution and the international human rights obligations.

2.2 STRATEGIC

OBJECTIVES
Specifically, the National Policy will: Incorporate gender equalityand development measuresin all policies, programmes and projects within Government and the wider society; Strengthen the institutional capacity to reduce vulnerabilities resulting from gender gaps in society and foster improved gender relations in all development spheres; Foster networking and collaboration with key stakeholders including local, national, regional and international agencies to advance gender equality initiatives; and Foster public awareness and sensitization to facilitate positive individual and societal changes in attitudes and behaviours to advance gender equality at all levels.
2.3 OBJECTIVES


Objective 1

To incorporate gender equalityand development measuresin all policies, programmes and projects within Government and the wider society. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Implement the National Policy and develop sectoralgender policies in critical areas of concern; Establish a gender management system and develop and disseminate tools to facilitate gender mainstreaming; Establish gender focal points in all Government ministries and state agencies, and build their capacity to promote gender equality and equity; Implement gender-responsive budgeting measures at all levels of government: national, sectoral, regional and local; Collect and collate sex-disaggregated data, conduct gender aware research, develop gender sensitive performance indicators within the national planning framework, and conduct gender audits to ensure compliance; Conduct gender training of relevant personnel in the public and private sectors and civil society to advance gender equality and equity.
Objective 2

To strengthen the institutional capacity to reduce vulnerabilities resulting from gender gaps in society and foster improved gender relations in all development spheres. Develop capacity in gender analysis and planning across all Government ministries and state agencies; Institutionally strengthen mechanisms to support gender equality initiatives including efficient and effective service delivery,and performance management; Strengthen community-based organisations and collaborate with relevant stakeholders to reach vulnerable women and men within communities.
Objective 3

To foster networking and collaboration with key stakeholders including local, national, regional and international agencies to advance gender equality initiatives. Establish a governmental-civil society advisory mechanism to advise on gender equality concerns of national import; Conduct institutional strengthening and capacity building among gender related civil society organisations to strengthen their capacity to advocate and advance gender equality initiatives at the community level; Provide support to relevant civil society organisations engaged in gender equality advocacy and outreach; National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Collaborate with other ministries, regional and international agencies in the execution of gender-related initiatives. Objective 4
To foster public awareness and sensitisation to facilitate positive individual and societal changes in attitudes and behaviours to advance gender equality at all levels. Strengthen institutional capacity to engage in gender aware public sensitisation; Produce and disseminate targeted gender aware publications; Commemorate significant days and observances including International Women's Day, and International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women; Expand the digital library for the dissemination of secondary gender-disaggregated data; Develop gender-sensitive media and advertising guidelines; Conduct media monitoring to identify gender issues and related matters requiring urgent attention; Host and collaborate with relevant stakeholders to implement public education programmes including panel discussions, street theatre, distinguished lectures and exhibitions. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago ng in Govern
nment and Society
National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago SECTION 3: POLICY MEASURES AND INSTITUTIONAL
FRAMEWORK
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP A
AND GOVERNANCE
Transparent and accountable governance are dependent on the equal participation of men and women in power and decision-making (Beijing Platform for Action, 1995). Women's and men's equal participation in decision-making is now recogniised internationally as a key element in building genuine democracy and fostering social progress. Transformational leadership refe the use of individual and collective power to mobilise others around a shared agenda of political, economic, social and cultural change for the realisation of the human rights of all. Achieving greater equity in the participation of women and men in decision-making thus provides a more realistic basis for the realisation of national development goals related to equality and social justice. In Trinidad and Tobago, women and men each comprise approximately half of the electorate, and attained universal adult suffrage and the right to hold public office since 1946. However, they continue to be unequally represented in political decision-making at the national and local levels. Women represent less than one third of legislators in Parliament; they hold 28.60% of seats in the House of Representatives, and 25.80% of seats in the Senate. The 2010 lo elections resulted in women's representation as follows: 30% of councillors, 21% of mayors, and 38% of aldermen. Similar trends may be seen at the level of the boardroom both in the public and private sectors and in trade unions. A 2009-2010 survey by the Network of NGOs for the Advancement of Women in Trinidad and Tobago examined all categories of entities (statutory bodies, state enterprises, special purpose companies, listed private companies, credit unions and trade unions). Women comprised an average of 29% of board members. Their representation on statutory boards was 39% due to the fact that senior public servants, the majority of whom are women, often represent their ministries. Women comprised 34% of boards of credit unions, 31% each of special purpose companies and trade unions, and 17% of listed private companies. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Both women and men have demonstrated considerable leadership at the level of community and
informal organisations. However, despite the significant impacts made by women in the fields of
business, industry, finance, law, the media, sport, religion, art and culture, socialisation and
negative stereotyping reinforce the tendency for leadership and governance at the highest levels
to largely remain the domain of men. The traditional working patterns of political parties, the
high cost of seeking and holding public office, familial and care-giving roles and responsibilities,
perceptions of political power, as well as discriminatory attitudes and practices tend to
discourage many women from actively pursuing leadership positions at the highest level. It is
necessary to promote women's empowerment, autonomy and the improvement of their social,
economic and political status in all areas of national life, based on the recognition that the power
relations that often prevent women from leading fulfilling lives operate at many levels of society,
from the most personal to the highly public.
The National Policy on Gender Equality and Development will therefore seek to address the
inequality between men and women in the sharing of power and decision-making at all levels,
including national and local governance, the public and private sectors, and the community. It
will provide a framework for the implementation of active and visible measures to significantly
increase the number of women in power and decision-making, utilizing their talents and skills as
politicians, top-level managers, policy-makers, diplomats and leaders in all areas of political,
economic, social and cultural life.
AREAS OF CONCERN

The need for increased equity in the participation of women and men in power and decision-making as a means of promoting equitable, transparent and accountable governance, and sustainable development. Measures need to be put in place to remove the barriers to women's and men's equitable participation in power and decision-making, including the nature of existing power structures, and discriminatory and stereotypical attitudes and practices. The need to review legislation, systems and structures including electoral reform, campaign funding, and code of ethics of political parties to advance transformational leadership and governance. The responsibility of the majority of women for family and child care must be adequately supported to enable them to participate more equitably in power and decision-making at all levels. Women are largely portrayed in the media as sex objects, and in traditional stereotypical roles of housewives and mothers, which influence the society's perception of their capacity for leadership and add to the challenges experienced by women who occupy positions of leadership. The need for inter-generational mentorship, training and support to equip women and men to pursue transformational leadership and governance. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago The need for further research and analysis on the barriers, limitations and circumstances that prevent women'sequal involvement in power and decision-making at all levels.
POLICY OBJECTIVE

To foster measures to ensure women's and men's equal access to, enhanced capacity for, and full
participation in power and decision-making as a means of transforming leadership and
governanceat all levels.
POLICY MEASURES TO BE INSTITUTED

Promote gender balance in power and decision-making positions at all levels and in all sectors, including, inter alia, parliament, governmental bodies, the judiciary, political parties, the private sector, national corporations, employers' organizations, trade unions, research and academic institutions, among others, in order to achieve transformational leadership and democracy, transparent and accountable governance, and social justice. Collect, analyse and disseminate sex-disaggregated data on decision-making at all levels, with a view to promoting women's increased access to the full range of positions of power and decision-making. Promote the equal recruitment of women and men and the sustained examination of structures and procedures, in order to remove all barriers that directly and indirectly discriminate against their full participation in decision-making and governance across all sectors. Promote transformational and inter-generational leadership through the development of gender aware, career enhancement and personal development programmes for women and men that include career planning, tracking, mentoring, coaching, training and retraining to equip them to achieve equitable access to leadership, managerial, entrepreneurial and technical positions. Recognize and promote shared work and parental responsibilities between women and men in the family (in all its forms) to enable women's increased participation in positions of power and decision-making, and implement appropriate measures that support the reconciliation of family and public life. Encourage the positive media portrayal of women as leaders, creative and innovative human beings, and key contributors and beneficiaries of the development process, rather than as sexual objects and inferior beings. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago DOMESTIC AND FAMILY LIFE
This National Policy recognises the family as an important institution of socialisation, representing the smallest unit of affinity and security in the society. It endorses the principle of equality in the development of the family by advocating that men and women share equallly in the responsibilities of housework and care for family members, and benefit equally from access to and control over family resources. Interactions within the family and household are pivotal to interpersonal life and to community and national well-beeing. The historical and contemporary factors influencing the construction of family life in Trinidad and Tobago have given rise to a myriad of family forms that do not conform to the nuclear structure. These varying family forms include increasiing numberrs of single female heads of households and single male heads of households, grandparent-led extended families (including aunts, uncles, cousins and others), and adaptations of the north Indian joint family, among others. The incidence of female headed households is approx x. 30% according to the last census and generally, female headed households are single parent ones without the presence of a residential male partner. Male headed households tend to be nuclear with the responsibility for child care shared with a residential partner. These families must be acknowledged and supported d, as many of them are experiencing vulnerabilities and are in need of social protection. There is no doubt that families are also undergoing transformations and many are experiencing high levels of stress. These transformations are caused b by migration, increasing participation of women in the labour force, changes in gender roles and relations, ass well as the influence of the National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago media. The stressors include poverty, the unequal sharing of the burden of care, violence and insecurity, the drug trade and community fragmentation. In addressing domestic and family life, the National Policy on Gender Equality and Development is concerned to: Encourage equal gender relations; Enhance child development; Combat poverty and social exclusion; and Support family life. Mainstream neo-classical economic theory based on the experience of industrialised economies, assumes that all economies are fully monetised and market-oriented. Within such societies, labour is considered to be of economic value only if it attracts a wage on the market, and no significance is attached to all other forms of labour in the functioning of the economy. Such work does not form part of conventional growth-centred economic policy. 3 Gender analysis of mainstream economics has brought to the fore the value of women's invisible unwaged work to the operation of the economy and the ways in which the productive waged economy is facilitated by the reproductive unwaged economy. The recognition of women's unwaged work in the home, family (in all its forms) and community is fundamental to creating gender sensitive, people-centred, holistic economic development policy. Historically, the different and complementary roles and responsibilities of men and women led to a gendered division of labour between productive activities that generate income and are subject to market forces, and reproductive activities linked to unwaged work in the home, such as housework, caring for the young and elderly, and subsistence agriculture. It is in fact women's and to a lesser extent men's management of reproductive work that makes productive work possible. Although reproductive activities have been traditionally associated with ‘women's work',over time women have moved beyond the home. Development has seen shifting gender roles and women have become more visible in the productive spheres of the economy. The importance of the domestic environment in establishing values of productivity, discipline in the workplace and harmony within society underpins the country's economic strategies. Women's increased educational opportunities and work-life options outside the home have been accompanied by an ongoing ideological shift with regard to gender roles within the family. There has also been a distinctive shift over the last decade in societal perceptions of male roles in parenting, and a growing emphasis on the need for men to be actively engaged in the child rearing process. This is to be encouraged. However, there are many complex gender issues in domestic and family life in relation to the use of time, accumulation of savings, distribution of food, access to and control over money and 3The impact of neo-classical economics on the productive and reproductive spheres has been most visible in the implementation of structural adjustment policies where governments sought increased efficiency in services like the health sector. Increased efficiency within the hospital system meant shorter patient time in the institutions, which resulted in a shift from the paid economy to the unpaid. While the cost of hospital care per patient fell, the unpaid work of women in the household increased (Sparr et al, p. 16). National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago other resources, and the violence perpetrated on those who are most vulnerable. In setting the
tone for the conditions under which men and women participate in households and engage in
social and family life, social and economic policies must be informed by gender sensitive intra-
household data, including information on the unpaid work of women and men in the care of
children, the sick and the elderly, and their unwaged work in agriculture and other sectors.
.
AREAS OF CONCERN

There is a lack of recognition of unpaid reproductive activities carried out by women/ girls and men/ boys in the family, including as unwaged workers on family farms and in family businesses. There is need to promote the principle of equality within families, recognising women and men as leaders and decision-makers within households, with shared responsibilities for housework and the care of children and family members as well as equal access to and control over family resources. Unpaid work in the home affects the time which women have to effectively participate in waged work in the labour market, pursue opportunities for education and training, and make other personal and life choices. Fathers need to be encouraged to provide care and support for their families and children in addition to their traditional role of financial maintenance. There is need to review the systems in place at the Magistrates' Court to improve women's access to child support. There is need for parenting education for parents, including for secondary and out-of-school teenagers. Family life/ sex and sexuality education in primary and secondary schools need to inculcate a culture of respect and trust between women and men, and girls and boys, to reduce the transmission of rigid stereotypical and harmful gender roles. There is need for extension of social protection of low income families. Volunteerism or the voluntary contribution of women and men to community affairs needs to be recognised. There is need to put in place supportive measures to facilitate adoptive and foster parents, e.g., access to parental leave. POLICY OBJECTIVE
To promote the recognition of unpaid reproductive work, unwaged labour in family farms and
businesses, and domestic and family arrangements, based on their immense contribution to social
protection and national development, and to ensure that increased value and resources are
ascribed to the improvement of this sector.
POLICY MEASURES TO BE INSTITUTED

National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Collate, analyse and disseminate the findings from census data on unremunerated household work, consistent with the requirements of the Counting Unremunerated Work Act of 1996 to provide statistical evidence on the contribution of unpaid household work to national development. Collect and analyse sex-disaggregated data on unwaged work in various sectors including agriculture and family businesses within the formal and informal economy, as a basis for allocating resources for skills training and capacity building of unwaged workers. Raise public awareness of the value of reproductive work to social cohesion and national development, and encourage male participation in housework, the care of children and the family, and other forms of unremunerated work. Provide increased opportunities for women and men engaged in unpaid housework to access information and communications technologies, lifelong learning, and part-time, short and long-term income earning possibilities. Create innovative employment strategies that allow persons to work from home, or take extended work leave to care for young children and the elderly, and return to the job market without penalty and loss of opportunities. Provide gender aware facilities in public, private and education sector buildings equipped for breast feeding, extraction and storage of breast milk, attending to the needs of babies and young children, and child care. Institutionalise gender sensitive parent support programmes including promoting non-violent approaches to discipline and child development, fostering gender equity in the upbringing of boys and girls, and providing informal opportunities for learning, affirmation and support. Foster gender equality and social justice principles among children and youth, with a view to promoting mutual respect and partnership between boys and girls in their childhood, youth and eventual adult relationships. Encourage fathers to provide care and support for their children's development that are not limited to income, including collecting children from school, reading, and assisting with homework. Engage communities in working together to support parents, protect children, and promote gender equity in domestic and family life. Support and strengthen domestic and family life, and increase the participation of men and women in shared family responsibilities, including the ratification of the ILO Convention on Shared Family Responsibilities. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago HEALTH AND WELL-BEING
The World Health Organization constitution states that "the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of f every human being."Good health4 is a pre-condition for the nation's socio-economic development, which is fundamental to every citizen's ability to realise their potential. It is a critical development input as it raises the productiivity of the work force, and increases the attracctiveness of a country to investors. Good health is thereforea cornerstone of Trinidad and Tobago's quest to attain progress for all, as articulated within the Seven Interconnected Pillars for Sustainable Development. Consistent with Government's ratification of international agreements on health, increased focus will be given to gender as a social determinant of health conditions, health status, health care and delivery of care. Gender differencess in health challenges and outcomes are evident. Men and women often have differential access to health care information and health care services. They also exhibit differences in the incidence of disease including HIV/AIDS, and may be affected by health concerns in different ways. Gender equity approaches acknowledge these differences at every level and aim to contribute to beetter health and well-beeing for men and women and men throughout their life cycles. Continued efforts by Government to strengthen the primary health care services will focus on the users of the health services and their needs, particularly those asso ociated with gender roles and responsibilities and how these affect health outcomes. This requires that health promotion strategies take a broad view of social and gender factors, as well as biological factors contributing to these trends. To contribute to better health and wellness for women and men across the life cycle, strategies for community health participation will be complemented by approaches and programmes targeted to both women and men. As such the policies of the Regional Health Authorities will embrace more gender responsive approaches including g gender health budgeting, and gender sensitive programmes in all areas of health and well-being.Trainiing and retraining of health professionals in gender awareness and analysis will include all aspects of heaalth and wellness, e.g., sexual and reproductive health, breast and cervical cancer, male reproductive heealth, prostate cancer, sexually transmitted diseases, non-communicable diseasesand mental health. The National Policy aims to expand notions of women's health beyond the narrow focus on obstetrics and gynaecology to encompass the wide array of health challenges experienced by women. The area of sexual and reproductive health requires particular attention in order to 4WHO defines ‘good health' as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of infirmity or disease. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago significantly reduce the incidence of maternal mortality and morbidity, and the high prevalence rates of HIV/AIDS and STIs, especially among young women aged 15-24 years. Specific initiatives are required to foster greater involvement of fathers during pre-natal, birthing and post-natal stages, in order to encourage men's involvement in nurturing roles and closer bonding with their children. The acceptance of illness and disease by males is often viewed as a sign of weakness, and men are reluctant to seek preventative testing or monitoring of health conditions particularly in areas related to male reproductive organs and sexual and reproductive health. Male resistance to prostate cancer screening is one of the serious male health-seeking behaviours that needs to be addressed. The high incidence of male morbidity and mortality due to knife and gun violence, motor vehicle accidents, drowning and homicide establishes male risk-taking behaviours as a critical issue to be addressed. This Policy recognises HIV/AIDS as a critical development problem, with the potential to reverse developmental gains. It is a quality of life and labour issue that greatly affects individuals, employees and their families, businesses and the national economy. It also has the potential to impact negatively on population growth, and in turn the future accumulation of human capital. Both men and women therefore have a critical role to play in the prevention of and protection against HIV infection,the care of persons infected with HIV/AIDS, and the mitigation of the spread of the disease. In addressing the gender dimensions of HIV/AIDS, power relations between men and womenmust be understood especially adolescent girls' unique vulnerability in sex relations and their greater their risk of being infected with HIV. The National Policy provides a gender responsive framework to improve health and well-being
in the country. It seeks to enhance access to health care by girls/women and boys/menthroughout
their life cycle, by ensuring the use of gender aware approaches in all aspects of health care.
Gender aware reforms will thus promote greater equity in access to and delivery of health
services at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels.
AREAS OF CONCERN

As a result of sex and gender differentials, women and men suffer different forms of morbidity across their life cycle. Women and men exhibit differential health and well-being outcomes related to diet, nutrition, physical activity, and the incidence of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Based on sex and gender differences, women and men show differential experiences of health problems and exposure to health hazards. However, health promotion approaches, strategies, budgeting and research do not sufficiently include gender considerations. Health sector reforms that seek to address issues of access and equity must include gender as a variable, in order to address the differential health needs of poor women and men. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Information used in health promotion and communication initiatives needs to be gender sensitive, in order to target women and men effectively. Women and men are differentially affected by market-driven privatised health services including insurance, both in terms of cost and coverage provided. The relatively high rates of maternal morbidity and mortality are serious cause for concern as they are related to the high incidence of teenage pregnancy, many pregnant girls' and women's lack of access to information on the importance of pre-natal health care, and the occurrence of unsafe and/or illegal abortions. There is an urgent need to establish a mechanism at all levels of the health system for mandatory reporting of cases of sexual intercourse with minor girls and boys under the age of consent including incest, child sexual abuse and teenage pregnancy. Inter-related gendered factors are fuelling the HIV/AIDS epidemic and other STIs, including inadequate sex education, unprotected sex with multiple partners, poverty, transactional sex, unequal power relations in sex, and women's lack of power to demand male condom use, and the high cost, limited access and perceived difficulty associated with female condom use. There is a need for social and labour policies and services toaddress the increasing numbers of women infected and/or caring for persons living with HIV/AIDS, and their need for care or support for their role in providing care. Accidents and injuries, including those caused by gender-based violence, have different manifestations and consequences for women and men, and need to be appropriately treated in the provision of health care. Women and men exhibit mental health illness and its impacts differently, with more women living with chronic depression, and more men experiencing homelessness and suicide. Efforts to reform the health care system at all levels from a gendered perspective, must be informed by the participation of women and men and civil society. There is need for an ongoing programme of gender aware health research, in order to inform the delivery of health care to women and men. POLICY OBJECTIVE
To foster men's and women's equitable access to gender responsive, appropriate, affordable and
quality health care, information and related services throughout their life cycle, advancing their
potential for enhanced personal, social and productive lives.
National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago POLICY MEASURES TO BE INSTITUTED

Disaggregate and analysis health statistics by sex, in order to identify the gender differences on
the status of health and to develop policies and programmes to improve the health and well-being
of both men and women.
Promote increased gender equity in the numbers, titles, training, classification and remuneration
of care professionals at all levels in the health sector as long as the tasks can be performed by
both sexes.
Utilise gender-responsive budgeting in the health sector to promote greater equity in resource
allocation, planning and delivery of health services to meet the gender-specific needs of women/
girls and men/ boys.
Promote men's and women's equitable access to appropriate, affordable and quality health care,
information and related services throughout their life cycle, ensuring that health facilities
including those in rural communities are fully equipped to educate and treat the leading causes of
morbidity and mortality among men and women.
Undertake a comprehensive assessment of the gendered impacts of an increasingly privatised
health system, and promote gender equity in health insurance coverage to increase women's
access which is currently less favourable than men's.
Promote gender sensitivity in the delivery of sexual and reproductive health care, including
breast and cervical cancer, prostate cancer, male reproductive health, and sexually transmitted
diseases through curricula review, enhancement of medical education, and ongoing training and
retraining of all categories of health professionals.
Introduce public education and information programmes aimed at increasing contraceptive use,
and reducing maternal morbidity and mortality, teenage pregnancies, unwanted pregnancies, and
unlawful and unsafe terminations of pregnancy.
Institutionalise family-friendly hospital practices including women-friendly birthing procedures,
fathers' involvement in pre-natal, birthing, and post-natal activities, and the ability of both
parents to stay overnight with sick children.
Promote male health-seeking behaviours through increased numbers of men's clinics and early
screening and detection, in order to improve their health and well-being and reduce the impact of
debilitating diseases on men and their families.
Introduce public awareness programmes that discourage risk-taking behaviours among men,
including media campaigns, public health forums, and men's health promotions.
Utilise gender aware approaches in promoting societal understanding of and attention to the
issues associated with the spread of HIV/AIDS, bearing in mind that unequal power relations
contribute to low condom use within heterosexual, gay and MSM relationships.
National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Promote respect for the rights of people living with HIV/AIDS, and strategies to increase behaviour change among women, men and young adults to take responsibility for HIV prevention and protection. Promote awareness raising initiativesto enable adult and young women to successfully negotiate sexual relations including their right to abstain from sexual activity or engage in safe sex, and to educate men and boys to respect the rights of women and girls and prevent the incidence of date rape, forced sex and gender-based violence.
Introducegender aware approaches aimed at reducing alccoholism and other forms of drug abuse, and promoting controls in alcohol and tobacco advertising, especially marketing targeted at minors and young adults. Increase the number of substance abuse treatment faciliities for men and introduce facilities for women, which are cognisant of their gender roles and reesponsibilities for the care and nurturing of children. Promote public education and sensitisation on the heaalth risks associated with gender-based violence, including road deaths, injuries and disabilities.
Provide men and women across the country with access to subsidised or low-cost psychological counselling, respite and healing centres, and preventative psychiatric health care, in keeping with the ideal of providing holistic health care. Promote community participation and inclusion in health care reforms, ensuring that diverse groups of women and men and civil society organisations are consulted in shaping approaches to health delivery. EDUCATION AND HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT
National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago The aim of education is to develop the full potential of all individuals in a society, regardless of differences due to sex, ethnicity, class, creed, disability or geographical location. At any point in its history and development, a society's most valuable resource is its human capital. Its capacity to compete globally and to devise innovative ways to meet challenges in a rapidly changing technological environment is dependent on how it educates and trains its population, both young and old. The National Policy views education as fundamental to realising the potential of each individual not only from childhood to early adulthood, but as a continuous process over his/her lifetime. The Government is committed to the development of the capabilities of girls and boys and women and men through high quality, affordable education and training opportunities in a wide range of fields. The Policy stresses the centrality of education as formal and informal sites of gender socialisation. A major challenge is to promote societal acceptance of the importance of gender equity in access to education and narrowing the gender gaps in educational outcomes. The ways in which gender inequality inhibits access, involvement, choices and retention of males and females in formal and non-formal education is of particular importance. The Policy recognises the increasing dropout rates of boys and girls, based on differential gender issues. Boys dropping out of secondary school may be seeking economic livelihoods, and there is evidence that a significant number are gravitating towards criminal activities such as theft, the trade in drugs, arms and ammunitions, kidnapping, gang violence, etc. Girls dropping out of secondary school may be due to pregnancy, early marriage, or the need to assist in the care of the home and family. This phenomenon has wide implications for the protection of the rights of children and young people, and the development of the society. Violence, especially among boys, and gender-based violence are growing problems in schools. The Policy aims to provide the framework for proactive as well as restorative approaches to these issues. Of paramount important is the provision of age-specific and relevant health and family life education for boys and girls throughout primary and secondary school. Collaboration with communities, youth organisations, and institutions responsible for socialisation from early childhood to adolescence, is critical in formulating solutions to these issues. Gender is viewed as one of the critical issues that needs to be incorporated into the Government's education plan. The school is an important agent of socialisation. Together with the family, it shapes the relations between boys and girls and influences their career paths. Reforms in the education system provide entry points for addressing gender biases in areas including curriculum development, pedagogy and teacher training. This includes the development of gender aware curricula, teaching materials and textbooks, and the need for gender sensitisation of teachers. The Policy is committed to redressing gender imbalances that impact on human resource development and the attendant social relationsthat result from such imbalances.Of concern is the phenomenon of declining numbers of male teachers and trainers at all levels of the education system, particularly at the primary level. The negative consequences include inadequate numbers of male teachers, mentors and role models for young boys, and male under-performance and National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago unwillingness to stay in school at the secondary level. Various teaching strategies best suited to learning among boys and girls also need to be explored to ensure their retention in the education system. The Government is committed to universal education at the tertiary level. Facilities for tertiary level training already exist and there will be further expansion of these facilities to enable greater participation by women and men. The under-performance of boys at the secondary level and low participation rates of young men in universities is cause for concern, although they exhibit higher participation rates in post-secondary technical/ vocational institutions. The Policy will advance strategies to better understand and mitigate this situation. Despite the country's focus on industrial development, girls and women demonstrate low participation rates in technical/ vocational training and occupations. The Policy recognises the need to train greater numbers of girls and women in these fields to contribute to and benefit from the nation's industrial development. Collaboration will be encouraged among public and private sector training institutions to foster innovative design and marketing, so as to increase the relevance of the curricula to industry and economic activity, integrating gender concerns to increase the sustainability of such programme areas. In order to address the training needs of women and men in technology related skills, the Policy supports the expansion of secondary and post-secondary education in science and technology, including agricultural technology, as well as ICT development within rural communities. The latter will reduce the disadvantage faced by rural women and men, and will enable them to use modern technologies without having to leave their domestic responsibilities and communities. The National Policy aims to set gender equality objectives and indicators for the performance of the education sector, and to influence relevant legislative and policy reforms. Further, the Policy will complement ongoing inter-ministerial collaboration on human capital needs, ensuring gender sensitivity in the design of training, asset building, and access to the use of ICTs or other initiatives to meet the skill and information needs of women/girls and men/ boys. It is envisaged that, while addressing the gender gaps in employment, collectively these strategies will also redound to more appropriately trained and skilled persons, who will be available for more equitable absorption into the productive sectors of the economy. AREAS OF CONCERN
There is need for equal access to education and training programmes, including in non-traditional fields, based on gender, class, age, geography (urban/rural)and other social factors, in order for the country to achieve a fully functioning human resource capacity for analytical thinking, design and innovation, creative problem solving, and entrepreneurship and wealth generation, among others. Gender differentials affect the attendance, learning styles, completion rates and achievements of boys and girls, and impact on the country's social and economic development. There is need for effective monitoring of attendance of boys and girls at all levels of the education system. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Recent institutional requirements create barriers to educational access by the most vulnerable children and young people, e.g., electronic birth certificates and immunisation documents, and the re-entry arrangements for teenage mothers. Gender bias and stereotypes in education and training policy, planning, standards and delivery, as evidenced in school curricula, training materials and textbooks, and teacher interactions in classrooms, perpetuate traditional gender roles and impact on the attainment by girls/women and boys/ men of their fullest potential. The genderdistribution of teachers by subject and qualification, which reflect and reinforce the gender occupational segregation in the wider society, has resulted in the under-representation of male and female teachers in certain fields and levels of education and trainingand the overall under-representation of male teachers, which may be affecting the learning, academic achievement and dropout rates among boys. The high incidence of teenage pregnancy, which prevents many young girls from completing their education and training,thus reducing their ability to attain sustainable livelihood strategies and affecting their life chances. There is need for a mechanism at the primary and secondary levels, for criminal reporting on the incidence of pregnancy among girls under the age of sexual consent. Violence in school, including gender-based violence is a growing problem, especially among males.
POLICY OBJECTIVE
To promote gender equality in education and training, through equitable access to lifelong learning, and the use of gender sensitive materials and approaches to achieve a level of human capital development in which men/boys and women/girls can attain their fullest potential. POLICY MEASURES TO BE INSTITUTED
Institutionalize gender mainstreaming in the education sector at all levels from early childhood to the tertiary level, including compulsory gender sensitization in education and training. Conduct capacity building in gender analysis and research for educational policy-makers and planners to identify and resolve gender issues in education such as attitudes and behaviours, participation and drop-out rates, and educational attainment and outcomes. Develop indicators and set standards for attaining gender equity in educational access, achievement and outcomes, from early childhood to tertiary levels and continuing and informal education, to transform education into an instrument of gender equality in the society. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Engage in gender aware content analysis throughout the education system including curricula, textbooks, educational resources, teaching attitudes and classroom interaction, with a view to eliminating gender bias and contributing to values of equality and social justice. Identify the differential gender issues affecting boys and girls within the education system with particular emphasis on the factors that contribute to performance and school dropout, and put in place mechanisms to address these issues including more equitable exposure to male/female teaching and mentorship from early childhood to secondary level education. Promote mechanisms to equitably educate and train men/boys and women/girls in rural and underprivileged communities, utilising distance learning as a means of increasing access to quality education and information and communication technologies. Identify and analyse the gendered attitudes and factors which facilitate or hinder young men's and women's continuing education and training, including pre-tertiary qualification and matriculation requirements, and rates of re-entry into tertiary education. Conduct gender analysis on the relationship between educational attainment and employment patterns of women and men, with a view to removing the obstacles and barriers to converting educational qualifications into sustainable employment. Adopt strategies to remove sex-stereotyping in current technical/vocational/IT education and training programmes in order to promote equitable access to young women and men, and develop a more knowledge-based, innovative and entrepreneurial society. Establish mechanisms to ensure that girls who become pregnant and boys who are fathers can complete their education and training in order to attain sustainable livelihoods for themselves and their dependants. Develop innovative and effective modules and methodologies for teaching health and family life education (HFLE) in schools, which, in the context of a multi-religious society, would be responsive and respectful to different institutions and student levels, with a view to promoting positive life choices, reducing teenage pregnancy and the incidence of HIV/AIDS and STIs. Develop gender sensitive strategies aimed at eliminating bullying and violence in schools, including gender-based violence. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago PERSONAL AUTONOMY, SAFETY AND SECURITY The State has the obligation to respect, protect and fu ulfil the rights of all citizens to security. Under this framework, the State is called upon to desist from restricting personal liberties, particularly in the private sphere, unless there is a public policy interest and such restrictions are a proportionate response to harms that should be objectively measured. In addition, the State is called upon to protect persons from violations whether perpetrated by state actors or non-state actors in families, communities or in the w work place and to take actions that will ensure that persons can access and enforce their human rights. Violence is significantly destabilising of individual and community security. It is both caused and is a consequence of gender inequality and harmful and stereotypical gender roles. Given that the majority of those who commit crimes and violence are male, the state is called upon to better understand and respond to gender socialisation practices in homes, schools, media and communities that encourage acceptability of male use of Gender-based violence is also linked to the unequal power relations between men and women and explains the high incidence of domestic violence and sexual assault which are crimes expressing the values of male power and control and w women's subordination.Notwithstanding the Government's commitments under Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the Conv vention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), reports of domestic violence continue to increase despite legislattive measures, social service responses, and advocacy. Other forms of gender-based violence such as incest and child sexual abuse,rape, sexual harassment and forced prostitution continue to b be under-reported and present similar challenges to development. Adequate sex-disaggregated data are not available to demonstrate the true extent to which gendeer-based violence or thee threat of such violence is a problem which affects the population. Mechanisms are required to promote increased reporting of gender-based violence and strategies to assist victims to pursue their matters in court. The nature of the courtroom, prompt hearing of National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago the matter, and the attitudes of the police,lawyers and court clerks must all be conducive to assisting victims to receive prompt protection and judgements.Thus, the National Policy will seek to have an expanded, coordinated national approach to addressing gender-based violence based on a deeper understanding of gender socialisation, power relations between men and women. The National Policy also seeks to establish a foundation for empowerment and the expression of personal autonomy. Personal autonomy is in part expressed by adults in their choice of intimate partners. However the existing Sexual Offences Act, 1986 criminalises sexual acts between consenting adults, either because of the nature of the sexual act or the sexual identity of the adults, and therefore (without the protection of the savings law clause), is in violation of constitutional guarantees. The State also has an interest in protecting minors and those who because of disability are vulnerable to abuse of their rights. This need to protect children is clear in the sexual offences legislation which makes sexual intercourse with minors a serious criminal offence. Yet inconsistently and without due regard to child development, gender discriminatory laws allow for marriage of minors, in most cases with girls having younger ages of marriage than boys. Such laws, whilst they may have been an expression of the culture at the time they were promulgated, are not consistent with gender equality and human rights. Child marriage laws are also inconsistent with laws related to political participation, and with labour laws which strictly proscribe the participation of minors on the basis of an appreciation of human psychology and development. AREAS OF CONCERN
Youth violence is caused by the interactions of gender socialiation with other bases of social alienation. Violence against women is rooted in historically unequal power relations between men and women, notions aboutsuperiority and inferiority, deeply entrenched cultural notions and gender stereotyping. Public education is necessary to increase societal understanding of the nature, incidence and impact of gender-based violence, access to legal rightsand remedies, and available support mechanisms. Fragmented data and inadequate co-ordination and evaluation of programmes on gender-based violence result in a lack of understanding of its true extent, causes, consequences, and mechanisms necessary to reduce its incidence. The effective functioning of relevant legislation, the judicial system, the police, social service agencies and shelters is critical to just and effective remedies, the indemnification and healing of victims, and the rehabilitation of perpetrators. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago NGO-led mechanisms which address gender-based violence are under-resourced and under-supported. Persons experiencing gender-based violence as a result of their sexual orientation need to be protected from stigma and discrimination. There is need for laws to prevent and punish perpetrators of human trafficking. Personal autonomy must be respected unless there is a compelling and objectively measured public policy interest in restrictions. Child protection laws must consistently protect children from sexual, physical and emotional harm, and be based on the fullest understanding of child development. POLICY OBJECTIVE

To ensure full access to personal autonomy, safety and security in keeping with Constitutional human rights guarantees. POLICY MEASURES TO BE INSTITUTED
Review the education system to ensure that teaching practices and materials do not perpetuate stereotypical and harmful notions of masculinity and femininity, including a review of disciplinary methods. Review the detention and prison policy on the treatment of minors to avoid reinforcement of harmful gender stereotypes and practices. Promote equality and mutual respect between men and women and boys and girls within the private and public spheres, as a means of curbing gender-based violence. Conduct gender awareness training for key personnel in relevant agencies to reduce the incidence of gender-based violence including the media, judicial system, the police, social services, schools, and institutions for children, the elderly, the disabled and the poor. Conduct public education to improve understanding of gender-based violence including domestic violence, incest, child sexual abuse, rape, buggery, sexual harassment, forced prostitution and human trafficking, including legal rights, access to redress and support services. Create legislation, policies and awareness raising programmes on sexual harassment that seek to prevent its incidence, and provide effective redress for victims. Amend existing legislation and/or their supporting mechanisms in order to improve legal remedies for all forms of gender-based violence, including the Domestic Violence Act 1999, Sexual Offences Act 2000, and the Children's Authority Act. This includes research and National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago monitoring of the efficacy of these laws and their mechanisms, e.g., protection orders, counselling services and shelters. Establish protocols for collaboration among health and social service agencies dealing with gender-based violence; strengthen their response capacity, ability to collect and analyze data; and facilitate research and policy development. This includes creating a centralised system for data collection on domestic violence, incest and child abuse, and collation and analysis of relevant data for the purpose of defining clear intervention policies and strategies. Undertake ongoing research and analysis of new and emerging forms and circumstances of gender-based violence including the incidence, perpetrators and victims. Institutionalise guidelines for the effective functioning of shelters, crisis centres and temporary safe houses for victims/survivors of domestic violence and their children, including the provision of care for boys over twelve who are often unable to be accommodated in most shelters. Strengthen victims' advocacy and support programmes, and institutional arrangements between law enforcement and judicial agencies, social sector and public health services that empower victims/survivors to access and negotiate all stages of the judicial process, with a view to securing effective remedies. Establish specialised Rape and Sexual Offences Units at all police stations operated by gender trained officers, to ensure that victims/survivors of gender-based violence are assisted with sensitivity and care, and to increase the level and quality of reporting of sexual offences. Incorporate issues of gender-based violence sensitively and appropriately into HFLE programmes in primary and secondary schools, strengthen School Child Support Services, and train social workers and selected teachers in each school to recognise and deal with such cases, in order to reduce and effectively address the incidence of gender-based violence against children and young persons. Conduct public education to ensure that persons do not encounter violence, stigma and discrimination as a result of their sexual orientation, and experience equitable access to services, inclusion and participation in all aspects of national life in recognition of the inherent dignity and equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family. Decriminalise acts of sexual intimacy between consenting adults in the private sphere. Ensure compliance within all administrative practices (immigration, passport, civil registries etc) of the right to choose one's surname regardless of gender or marital status and of the equal right of parents to decide on the name of children. Ensure unified and non-discriminatory age of marriage and guarantee child protection through, inter alia, the prohibition of marriage of minors. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Y AND TRADE
Development strategies should be aimed at improving h human well-being and agency, and men and women must constitute not only the means to economic activity, but also its ‘ends'. The current global approach to economic planning is framed by the neo-classical, market oriented school of thought, which assumes that economics is a a value-neutral, objective science, where society exists outside the economy, which is seen as a self-equilibrating entity. This value-neutral
approach to economic development has produced a geender blind policy framework which is
indifferent to the situation of men and women in the society.

Pursuing gender sensitive macro-economic strategies requires new conceptions of development
which are not limited to economic growth. Rather, dev
velopment is viewed as a multi-faceted process with political, economic, social and cultural dimensions, in which gender is a
fundamental determining factor. It requires data and analysis on where women and men are
positioned within the formal and informal economy, the segregated nature of ttheir occupations,
and recognition of the economic value of their unpaid reproductivee work. The development of
gender-sensitive indicators is therefore integral to analyssing the performance of the economy.

Emphasis on export-led growth and liberalisation of services requires attention to gender
differentials and inequalities in market access, and their specific impacts on women and men.
Recognition of the different perspectives of women and men, both as producers and consumers
of services, will enable better understanding of the impact of investments and infrastructure on
socio-economic development and the environment.

In relation to taxation, there is some concern that taxation schemes may exacerbate the unequal
burden of reproductive care which women carry. Direct taxation measures need to ensure that the
tax burden is shared equitably. For example, the question needs to be asked whether single parent
(most often female-headed) households with the total financial responsibility for children and
other dependents should be paying the same tax rate (25% on their taxable income) as
households with two incomes or companies/ corporation
National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Indirect taxation such as the Value Added Tax (VAT) can also exert a gender bias because of
women's different consumption patterns. Women tend to purchase more goods and services that
promotenutrition,health and education as compared to men. This creates the potential for women
to bear a larger tax burden if the VAT system does not provide for exemptions, reduced rates or
zero-rating.Such indirect taxation can also impede women's economic entrepreneurship.Because
of women's lower income, a tax policy that solely focuses on increasing indirect taxes such as
the VAT instead of also increasing direct taxes (income taxes), can potentially be more
burdensome for women.

The Government recognises macro-economic policies (taxation, monetary and trade policies) not
only as tools for investment and development, but also for establishing the climate and direction
of public policy. The National Policy on Gender Equality and Development therefore aims to
deepen understanding of the links between gender equality, economic growth and human
development. It further recognises the need to apply this understanding to all levels of macro-
economic policy development – from goal setting to impact assessment. This is integral to the
creation of a macro-economic policy framework that is consistent with both accelerated growth
and equity, as articulated by the Seven Interconnected Pillars for Sustainable Development.
AREAS OF CONCERN

Economic planning must incorporate gender analyses in order to include dimensions of equality and social justice, thereby ensuring the more equitable inclusion of men and women in development. A gender-responsive taxation policy should address revenue generation and redistribution, taking into account the gendered burden of care. The need to improve data collection systems and the use of sex-disaggregated data in order to make visible the current and emerging vulnerabilities of different groups of women and men. Although trade negotiations are often seen as gender neutral both in their formulation and implementation, the impacts of trade arrangements are usually gendered and may have unintended outcomes that adversely and differentially affect women and men.
POLICY OBJECTIVE
To promote the equitable sustainable socio-economic development of men and women, forging
links between economic policy and gender planning so as to transform the goals of macro-
economic policy to include dimensions of equality and social justice.
POLICY MEASURES TO BE INSTITUTED

Integrate gender equity and social justice criteria into macro-economic policy development and
implementation, as well as trade negotiations and bilateral, multilateral and technical co-
operation agreements.
National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Include gender analysis as an integral tool in national budgetary and planning processes. Review taxation policies (direct and indirect) to ensure that an equitable sharing of the burden of revenue generation and growth promotion. Introducegender-responsive budgeting 5 and gender audits in the planning, implementation, evaluation and monitoring of the national budgetary process. Review national data collection and collation systems related to the economy to ensure disaggregation by sex, and the inclusion of gender perspectives to inform all economic policy and planning processes. Create and utilise gender-sensitive indicators in economic planning processes to monitor the attainment of gender aware national development goals. Examine the potential differential impacts of trade arrangements and industrial development strategies on women's and men's ability to access possible benefits and mitigate negative fall-out. Promote gender sensitive approaches to development among economists, planners and analysts in the economy and trade sectors through formal training and certification, workshops, specialised short courses, scholarships and the creation of relevant analytical tools and frameworks. Strengthen the social services sectors, especially those weakened by structural adjustment, to improve the delivery of services to the economically affected and emerging vulnerable groups of men and women in the society. Utilisegender aware and inclusive language in national economic planning and public budgetary documents within the public and private sectors. Establish an advisory and accountability mechanism within the short term to set standards on gender and the macro-economy for actors involved in the development process. Actors should include government agencies responsible for Finance, Trade, Planning, Tourism, Agriculture, Culture, Labour, Gender Affairs, Regional Authorities, the Private Sector, and gender-based NGOs. 5Gender Responsive Budgeting refers to fiscal measures which, when designed and implemented, will assess both the financial and budgetary allocations for those who have been designated as disadvantaged in a given society. Gender Responsive Budgeting allows women's NGOs and other members of civil society to hold governments accountable for their fiscal expenditure on issues that are pivotal to questions of equity. It is a procedure that can be implemented nationally, as well as internal to departments. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago LABOUR AND EMPLOYMENT
Employment opportunities for men and women are critical to improving their access to a better quality of life, economic autonomy and sustainablee livelihoodss for themselves and their dependents. Participation rate in the labour force in the 1st Quarter of 2010 stood at 72% for men and 52% for women respectively (United Nations, Statistical Division and CSSP, CSO). Unemployment in 2009 stood at 5.3% overall, representing 4.6% for men and 6.3% for women, with a male/female ratio of 1.40 (United Nations, Statistical Division and CSSP, CSO). While there have been improvements overall, workplace issues such as pay inequity, unfavourable conditions of work, unequal opportunities for promotion and upward mobility, sexual harassment, the vulnerabilities of part time, contract and temporarry workers, and the plight of domestic workers are in need of redress. The National Policy on Gender Equality and Development provides a frameworrk for integrating gender concerns into the enforcement of the decent work agenda, creation of employment opportunities, enhancement of social protection, promotion of social dialogue and labour standards, and entrepreneurial development initiatives. The policy calls for improved monitoring of employment practices from a gender perspective, pay equity and security, and the creation of sustainable jobs for both women and men, as desirab ble outcomes. It advances gender aware approaches to the protection and security of workers including low-income and domestic workers from sexual harassment and abuse, and the protection of workers living with HIV/AIDS from stigma and discrimination. It challenges gender stereotyping in occupations which results in male and female labour being clustered in differing sectors, and limit women's access to opportunities for employment mobility. It espouses the reconciliation of work and family life responsibilities, social reproduction and family friendly policies. Overall, the National Policy shall guide and consolidate gender responsive policy development in labour and employment, and increase equity in acceess to social provisions for women and men. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago AREAS OF CONCERN
Gender differences are significant determining factors in men's and women's access to decent, productive and sustainable employment opportunities and social protection. Domestic workers are not recognised as workers and are in need of protection, certification and access to equal rights in keeping with ILO Convention 189 of 2011. Measures are required to create an enabling environment for women's and men's equitable access to develop and grow small and micro-enterprises. Workers with family responsibilities need support measures to assist them in reconciling work and family life. Workers living with HIV/AIDS need protection from stigma and discrimination. Sexual harassment and other gender based discrimination that impact on the effective participation of women and men in the workplace, are in need of remedy. Gender analysis reveals women's higher levels of unemployment, short term and contract employment and lower unionization, raising concerns of security, protection and sustainability of employment. The gender division of labour impacts on women's and men's career choices, resulting in women's concentration in specific low paying jobs in the service and care related sectors. Women's levels of employment and remuneration need to be commensurate with their educational attainment. Women and men involved in the informal sector need social protection and support services. Men and women exhibit different access to and vulnerabilities from participating in the illegal trade in drugs, arms and ammunitions, and sex. POLICY OBJECTIVE
To foster the equitable participation of men and women in income generation and sustainable livelihood strategies, through removing obstacles and putting in place measures for their effective involvement, while recognizing the contribution of unwaged and reproductive work to national development. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago POLICY MEASURES TO BE INSTITUTED
Revise and create labour laws in Trinidad and Tobago in order to promote gender equality and equity, remove barriers to the equitable participation of women and men in labour and employment, promote the decent work agenda, adhere to labour standards and provide adequate social protection These may include, inter alia: ƒ The Widow's and Orphans' Pension Act, Chap. 25:54; The National Insurance Act, Chap. 32:01; The Industrial Relations Act, Chap. 30:01 (with regard to domestic workers); The Masters and Servants Ordinance (the removal of the Ordinance created a gap for non-unionized, non-contract workers); ƒ Provision of Paternity Protection pursuant to the promotion of shared family responsibility, male bonding and the proper nurturing and care of children; ƒ Equal remuneration for work of equal value including job classification; Sexual harassment in the work place, and its prevention and punishment. Establish institutional mechanisms to promote and monitor equal employment opportunities for men and women in the public and private sectors and the conduct of gender audits to ensure compliance at all levels. Collect, collate and analyse sex-disaggregated data specific to labour and employment, in order to inform decision-making and the implementation of strategies to mitigate existing and emerging vulnerabilities among working women and men. Provide an enabling environment and equitable access to women and men to develop and grow small and micro-enterprises, including access to fair share initiatives in the award of contracts to SMEs. Ratify ILO Convention 189 of 2011, and amend the Industrial Relations Act, Chapter 30:13 and OSHA in order to recognise domestic workers as workers, and develop clear policy guidelines for the treatment of domestic workers, including the establishment of a registry, training and certification. Establish policy guidelines to address sexual harassment including remedy for victims, and public education and training to promote behaviour change and reduce its incidence in the workplace. Promote strategies to address HIV/AIDS in the workplace, including removing gender discriminatory practices against women and men infected or affected by HIV/AIDS, and ensuring adherence to relevant ILO standards and protocols. Promote the decent work agenda in order to give workers a better quality of life. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Enhance educational and training opportunities as a means of reducing the reliance of segments of the population on livelihood strategies related to the illegal trade in drugs, arms and ammunition, and transactional sex. Implement mechanisms to prevent the exploitation of contract, short term, seasonal and migrant workers and ensure their access to benefits and social protection. Promote gender equality at all worksites including gender aware occupational health and safety measures, and the provision of sanitary and changing room facilities for both men and women to ensure that women are not excluded from possible employment opportunities due to the inadequate provision of such facilities, especially in non-traditional fields. Advance gender sensitive institutional arrangements that enable women and men to balance work and family responsibilities. These include, inter alia, increased access to tele-commuting and flexi-time; breast feeding and child care facilities, including work-based models; and after school centres, recreation and ex-curricular facilities for children, on a cost sharing basis and subsidized for lower-income families. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago ATION AND SOCIAL PROTECTION
The Government has established poverty reduction as one of its development priorities, as a prerequisite for economic and sustainable development. Poverty is a multi-faceted6 phenomenon, located at the nexus of other critical development challenges such as unemployment, violence and HIV/AIDS and which, as evidenced by data, has significant gender dimensions. Gender as a determinant of how men and women participate in the economy and have access to and control over resources, is central in assessing poverty as a development chaallenge. Gender inequality is part and parcel of the processes of causing and deepenin ng poverty in a society and must therefore constitute part and parcel of measures to eradicate poverty (Kabeer, 2003). The UN estimates that 70 per cent of the world's poor are women (1995). Poverty among women is linked to their multiple roles and responsibilities: their role in the unpaid work of caring for the family (in all its forms; the undervaluing of occupations within the domestic sphere such as domestic work, low-level service and care sector jobs, and subsistence and unpaid agricultural production. Many single female-headed households are among the country's poorest and most vulnerable. Poverty has also been linked to the lack of care and protection of children. The Government recognises that addressing the issue of child maintenance is related to both the care and protection of children and the alleviation of poverty.

AREAS OF CONCERN

Poverty is experienced differently by men and women, boys and girls according to their life situations and by variations in income, education and employment. Single female heads of households with dependent children are among the poorest in the nation and are in need of strategic interventions to ensure their survival. 6Poverty's dimensions include: deprivation in survival, deprivation in knowledge, deprivation in economic provisioning, and social exclusion (UNDP, 2003, p. 27). National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago The terms and conditions on which social protection and other schemes are offered may be too rigid and generic, and need to be gender aware to address the specific realities of poor women and men. The gender dimensions of poverty need to be addressed in all its complexities, including emerging vulnerabilities of women and men such as victims/ survivors of domestic violence, divorce/ separation, the death of a spouse/ partner; and those experiencing ageing and acquired disabilities. Gender poverty indicators need to be developed to systematically monitor the various dimensions of gender inequity and poverty among women and men, and identify strategies to address them. The erosion of the capacity of communities to implement and monitor poverty alleviation programmes needs to be addressed. POLICY OBJECTIVE
To alleviate the situation of women and men living in poverty, improve their productive capacity, value their contribution to society, and enable them to benefit from economic growth and enjoy an improved quality of life. POLICY MEASURES TO BE INSTITUTED
Integrate gender analysis intonational poverty reduction strategies in order to understand the nature of poverty being faced by women/ girls and men/ boys, ensure gender equity in the distribution of resources, and promote equitable access for vulnerable persons including those in rural communities. Expand current social statistical data sets to include the collection, collation and analysis of sex-disaggregated demographic and socio-economic data. Ensure that social safety nets or social assistance programmes target single parent, low income households as priority beneficiaries. Ensure that active labour market programmes target individual and households with the highest unemployment levels and meet the income needs of those with the highest burdens of care. Establish monitoring and evaluation mechanisms of existing poverty alleviation initiatives to ensure gender equity in the distribution of resources to all vulnerable groups including, inter alia, single female and male-headed households, children, youth, the elderly, the disabled, people living with HIV/AIDS, and victims/ survivors of gender-based violence. Develop gender aware strategies and interventions in order to permanently interrupt the cycle of poverty by targeting causal factors such as traditional notions of femininity and masculinity, poor National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago nutrition, lack of education, illiteracy, and disempowerment and low access levels of vulnerable persons. Establish mechanisms to facilitate inter-ministerial collaboration, networking and partnership with the private sector, NGOs and civil society in order to advance gender sensitive poverty reduction strategies. Increase consultation with and participation of communities in the identification, implementation, coordination, monitoring and evaluation of gender aware poverty reduction initiatives. Foster gender sensitive community approaches to poverty reduction including, inter alia, child care and homework centres, gardening, cooperativism and bulk buying of commodities to reduce vulnerabilities within poor communities. Develop gender sensitive public education strategies to raise awareness among women and men of available resources and how to access them. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY
The National Policy recognises Trinidad and Tobag go's concerns expressed in its wider development framework to increase food sovereignty and security, pursue rural development, and engage in environmentally sensitive physical and industrial development. The Policy will support initiatives aimed at removing the obstacles to women's and men's equal and active participation in, and enjoyment of the benefits of agricultural and natural resource development. It emphasises that equality between women and men is an essential pre-condition for people-centred sustainable agricultural and rural development. In the agricultural sector, the term ‘farmer' is widely understood to mean ‘male farmer' and informs women being written out of agriculture. When women's involvement is affirmed, it is not as ‘farmers' but as ‘housewives and mothers' who produce food for their families in their ‘kitchen gardens'. Where there isthe acknowledgement that women areinvolved in agriculture and farming and contribute to national production and development, policies are directed equally to male andfemale farmers, with the underlying assumption that both benefit equally. But this is often not so since men and women in rural communities tend to play different roles and functions in their households, families and communities (Barrow, 1 Caribbean women have "limited access to and control over the means of production – land and credit in particular (UN Women-Caribbean).""If women had thee same access to productive resources as men, they could increase yields on their far arms by 20–30 per cent" (Government of Guyana, Ministry of Agriculture, 2011).Women in agriculture thus face issues including land ownership, and access to financial assistance, agricultural incentives, education and training. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Although men and women have different and complementary roles in food production at the household and community levels, women often have a greater role to play in ensuring nutrition, food safety and quality, and are generally responsible for preparing and processing food for their households and thus for the nutritional well-being of household members (nutritional needs, e.g., NCDs). Men and women, especially in rural communities, require increased access to agricultural support systems, including credit, rural organization, education, technology, extension and marketing services in order to improve agricultural productivity, and access to food and nutrition. In addition, women have particular needs such as water for household and sanitation, child care and labour support to enable them to exhibit greater agricultural productivity and earnings. The paucity of gender specific research and information on the roles men and women play in achieving food security and rural development has led to the ‘human factor' often being overlooked by policy-makers and planners. Development policy-making and planning processes in agriculture and rural development must promote greater participation of both male and female stakeholders at all levels. AREAS OF CONCERN ƒ The need for gender equality in policy-making and planning processes at all levels in the agriculture and rural development sectors, including strategies to increase the participation of men and women at all levels. ƒ Gender equality must be promoted in men's and women's access to sufficient, safe and nutritionally adequate food. ƒ Recognising men's and women's different and complementary roles in agriculture and rural development, gender equity must be promoted in access to, control over and management of natural resources, the factors of production, and agricultural support and other services. POLICY OBJECTIVE
To integrate gender equality goals into strategies aimed at increasing food sovereignty and security, based on the recognition of the relationship between men's and women's different and complementary roles in agriculture and rural development, their equitable access to productive resources, and the realisation of the nation's sustainable development goals. POLICY MEASURES TO BE INSTITUTED
Collect, collate and analyse national sex-disaggregated agricultural data, to identify the gender differentials with regard to ownership, earnings, enterprise selection, food processing, marketing and other aspects of agriculture, in order to inform gender aware initiatives required to build and strengthen the agricultural sector. Promote equitable access by men and women to the inputs for agricultural production, paying particular attention to gender differences in, inter alia, access to and repayment of credit, land National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago titling and ownership, beneficiaries of land purchase, amenities, extension services and technology, and establishment of cooperatives, taking into consideration the disadvantaged position of the most vulnerable men and women in rural areas. Promote gender equity in agricultural, horticultural and fisheries activities and enterprises in rural communities through the strengthening of gender studies in the curricula and training programmes for Agricultural Extension Officers, in collaboration with ECIAF, UWI and UTT. Promote gender aware policies, plans and approaches that foster equality between men and women in the agriculture and rural development sectors, including strategies to increase their participation in decision-making at all levels. Support increased production, and a better quality of life for men and women in agriculture and rural areas based on research of employment trends, land ownership, wages and earnings, access to credit, investment, and other related variables, giving recognition to the different and complementary roles men and women play in agricultural production. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago CLIMATE CHANGE AND NATURAL RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
Global warming and the climate change have emerged as major issu ues impacting on the nations of the world within recent times, due to the adverse impact of human activity. Caribbean small island developing states (SIDS) exhibit particular risk factors including, inter alia,environmental and ecological vulnerability, high exposure to natural hazards, limited land resources and difficulties in waste disposal management. Sustainable development will be an elusive goal unless men's an nd women's contribution to environmental protection, preservation and management are recognised and supported. The National Policy recognises the need for holistic, multid disciplinary and inter-sectoral approaches to conserving, managing and developing natural resources and safeg guarding the environment. Trinidad and Tobago has ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol. Several national policies and legislation focus on the issue of climate change, including those related to the protection of the environment, forest and wetlands, and waste management and water pollution. The Seveen Interconnected Pillars for Sustain Development commit state action to "increase the energy efficiency of the nation's industries to combat climate change," and to establish an incentive scheme that will support individuals, companies, and heavy industry which engage in energy-saving measures. Despite the fact that the following components of the ‘green economy' all have gender dimensions, i.e., renewable energy, green buildings, clean transportation, water management, waste management, and land management, women are relatively absent from policy-making, planning and development programmes on these issues. Women-specific activities need to be introduced and supported. For example, the area of renewable energy would benefit from the National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago introduction of simple appropriate technologies that respond to women's responsibility for household and reproductive work, e.g., solar ovens, simple wind turbines, roof water collection systems, and the gradual movement to more complex products and technologies based on the same principles, e.g., solar panels, larger wind collection systems, sustainable irrigation systems, etc. With regard to water use, women could be sensitised and trained in household water collection systems, supported to implement them at the household and neighbourhood level, and encouraged to engage in local and national decision-making on water use. AREAS OF CONCERN ƒ The different and complementary roles of men and women must be recognised and fostered in the development of approaches to address climate change, environmental protection, conservation and preservation, and the sustainable utilisation of natural resources. ƒ The differential impact of climate change and natural disasters on women/ girls and men/ boys must be understood in risk management and mitigation activities aimed at planning, responding to and the recovery from such occurrences. ƒ Women's responsibility for household and reproductive work make them particularly important ‘change agents' related to the ‘green economy', and they should be trained and
supported in adopting new practices and technologies.
POLICY OBJECTIVE
To integrate gender equality goals into strategies aimed at climate change and natural resource development, as a means of facilitating men's and women's different and complementary roles in environmental management and the ‘green economy', and the realisation of the nation's sustainable development goals. POLICY MEASURES TO BE INSTITUTED
Increase awareness of the environment and men's and women's roles in the harmonious and sustainable use of the country's limited natural resources, and utilise gender analysis, gender aware approaches and gender impact assessments in assessing environmental issues and utilizing and preserving the natural resources of Trinidad and Tobago. Ensure the equitable inclusion of men and women in efforts aimed mitigating climate change, including adopting energy efficiency strategies such as the use of alternative fuels, renewable energy and cleaner technologies, enhancing natural carbon sinks, and undertaking relevant research. Ensure the equitable inclusion of men and women in communities in developing strategies and mechanisms for coping with and adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change, including assessing sectoral vulnerability, enhancing resilience of natural biophysical, and strengthening institutional arrangements. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago VULNERABLE GROUPS 3.10.1 YOUTH

The Government recognises youth as a period of intensee creativity, aspirations for mobility, and momentum for productivity. It is also a time of embedding values, attitudes and behaviours related to manhood and womanhood, derived from competing social norms. Young people are heavily influenced by gender stereotyping in media portrayals, peer group interactions and wider social relations which impact on young men and women differently with regard to career choices, personal relationships and relations of power. In creating an enabling environment for youth develop pment, attention will be paid the gender- specific ways in which young men and young women are socialized, and addressing the differential needs, experiences and interests of young women and men. Particular groups of young men and women require special protection and care, e.g., those who are orphans and homeless and do not have the benefit of positive role models or supportive adults to guide their belief system and actions related to gender relations, their attitudes to each other, and their future work and roles in society. The National promotes a range of interventions to address the gendeer-specific needs and interests of young men and women, including removing barri riers to their equitable participation, in building a cohesive and productive society. Specific attention will be paid to promoting gender equity within youth initiatives such as on-the-job training, youth internship, entrepreneurship and apprenticeship programmes. The National Policy on Gender Equality and Development espouses the use of gender sensitive approaches in the implementation of the National Yo Y uth Policy and other plans for youth development. It aims to promote strategies to remove gender bias in curricula, course content and delivery of youth-oriented skills training and continuing education programmes. It advocates gender equity in fulfilling the needs of large numbers of male and female youth, including in rural areas, who require incentive programmes, co-curricular activities, sports facilities, career National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago guidance, and peer support and recognition. It promotes gender sensitivity in the design of community and sports facilities in rural and urban communities, including the allocation of resources to support young women's increased participation in sports.
AREAS OF CONCERN

Gender stereotyping often influences young men and women differently, in making choices related to education and training, career development, employment opportunities, and personal relationships. Young men and women exhibit gender differences with regard to risk-taking and its impacts, e.g., young men have a greater likelihood of being exposed to illicit drugs, gang violence, criminality, and death and injury due to road accidents, and young women to teenage pregnancy, HIV infection, transactional sex, and forced prostitution. There is need to ensure equitable access by young men/boys and women/girls to recreation and sport. Youth development policies and plans need to acknowledge the gender-specific needs of male and female youth in designing and implementing incentive programmes, co-curricular activities, sports facilities, career guidance, ‘on-the job training and apprenticeships, and peer support and recognition. There is need to ensure that male and female youth have equitable access to decision-making in community and national life, and especially in matters related to their development. The impact of gender-based violence on young men and women, including male on male violence, rape including date rape, coercive or forced sex, and domestic violence. POLICY OBJECTIVE
To promote the equitable development of young men and women, embracing gender sensitive approaches that are in keeping with their needs and interests, cognizant of their rights and responsibilities, and which maximizes their full potential in building a cohesive and productive society. POLICY MEASURES TO BE INSTITUTED Mainstream gender in youth policies, plans and programmes in order to identify and address gender disparities, and ensure that male and female youth are equal participants in and beneficiaries of youth development initiatives. Disaggregate youth data by sex and other cross-cutting themes, to informgender-aware policy-making, planning and programming for the nation's youth. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Establish gender equity performance indicators in decision-making, distribution of public funds, and investments in youth programming. Promote gender aware youth internship, entrepreneurship and apprenticeship initiatives and incentives to encourage private sector participation, including gender specific interventions and targets to meet the needs and interests of young males and females. Develop gender aware approaches to addressing the situation of young males and females at risk through early identification and social intervention, and intensive capacity building in gender awareness of all persons who interact with children and youth, especially through institutionalised care. Promote gender sensitivity in the design of community recreational and sports facilities to facilitate gender equity and the increased participation of young women. Promote young men's and women's equitable access to ICTs and other community resources that empower them to achieve their full potential and shape productive communities. Promote positive attitudes, behaviours and social influences, especially through popular culture, that break gender stereotypes and promote the equitable aspirations and advancement of young men and women. Promote gender sensitive approaches in the development and implementation of youth-oriented skills training and continuing education programmes, in order to remove gender bias in curricula, course content, access and delivery, and ensure the full and equal participation of young men and women. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago 3.10.2 ELDERLY PERSONS
Women are more likely than men to live alone in old age. Declining fertility rates, women's higher life expectancy, the unprecedented geographical mobility of grown children, and the massive decline in intergenerational co-residence has produced a larger number of elderly persons (especially widows) living alone. General declining fertility rates, and the smaller size of the modern family, indicate that increasingly larger numbers of the elderly will be cared for by fewer off-springs and adult children. Increased costs w will have to be borne in the care of older persons, in the face of decreasing contributions from the working aage population to the national purse. This has the potential to increase dependency and to fuel cycles of poverty among the elderly. The experience of growing old differs for men and women in our society in many ways. There is a distinct double standard related to growing older because physical signs of aging have more severe consequences for women than for men. Media images celebrate young women's beauty and sexuality, casting older women as virtually invisible in society other than as care-givers. Women's primary responsibility for child-bearing and the care of the family often results in removing them from the paid labour force so that they are dependent on the incomes of others, especially in old age, particularly if they have low accumulated pension benefits. The National Policy aims to promote the equitable and sustainable well-being of older men and women. It supports the initiatives of the Division of Ageing, and the National Policy on Ageing, which seek to promote the well-being of the elderly and their social integration into the mainstream of society. This Policy promotes the neeed for gender aware social protection measures for the elderly, which will be more efficient if f the gender-specific risks experienced by National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago women and men are accurately understood. It addresses gender considerations within pertinent
issues, such as social security, income security, participation, social inclusion, standards for care
facilities, health services, housing, education and training, support networks and legislation.
AREAS OF CONCERN

There is need to recognise the differential gender experiences and impacts of ageing, and the physical, psychological and economic implications of ageing for men and women. Many women leave the paid labour force to perform child-bearing, care-giving and other reproductive roles, which result in low accumulated pension benefits, leading to their consequent dependence on the incomes of others especially in old age, and a greater likelihood of poverty than older men. Women often outlive men, and widowhood generally means a drop in income (Rouse 2004). Many grandmothers and some grandfathers are called upon to care for young children and while being in dire need of support, they are often virtually invisible to policy-makers. A large number of older persons are living alone due to the decline in intergenerational co-residence, local and international migration of adult children, younger generations' preference for nuclear family arrangements, and women's increased participation in the labour force. This is producing value dissimilarities between generations, and is likely to alter the time available for looking after the elderly.
POLICY OBJECTIVE
To promote gender equity in the situation of older men and women, and in the provision of measures which meet their current and evolving needs while facilitating their continued contribution to social life and national development. POLICY MEASURES TO BE INSTITUTED
Promotegender aware implementation of ageing policies and programmes, based on the collection and collation of sex disaggregated data, and research and analysis on the differential experiences and impacts of ageing on men and women linked to their gendered roles and responsibilities. Revise national pension schemes to ensure equitable provisions for elderly women and men, determined not only by their contributions made in the productive sector, but also in performing reproductive work within the care economy. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Promote housing policies and programmes that ensure equitable access by older women and men, including allocation of specific portions of housing developments, and suitable building designs and facilities to enhance their quality of life. Conduct gender sensitivity training for those who interact with the elderly, especially within the context of institutionalised care. Create support mechanisms for grandmothers and grandfathers who are responsible for the care of grandchildren and other dependants. Foster the equitable, active inclusion and participation of older men and women in community and national life, including recreation, ICTs, life-long learning opportunities, volunteerism, and leadership and decision-making. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago 3.10.3 DISABLED PERSONS
The National Policy aims to enhance the optimal functioning of men and women with disability, addressing their priority gender needs in education, security, social adjustment and employment. Its primary goal is to promote the specific needs of disabled women and men, and make special provisions to enable them to participate in community and national life. Disabled men and women tend to have gender-specific experiences of many of the challenges of disability. For example, women may be more susceptible to gendeer-based violence and sexual abuse, while men may be perceived as being unable to perform the role of provider or to have full sexual and reproductive lives. While addressing disability as a cross-cutting issue, the National Policy recognises that disabled women and men have special gender needs with regard to education, security, social adjustment and employment, which need to be taken into account to enhance their social and productive lives. The Policy recognises the high incidence of disabilities resulting from acts of domestic violence. This places particular demands on the rehabilitation and counselling services of agencies addressing domestic violence, but also those responssible for the disabled population. The vulnerability of the disabled to gender-based violence and sexual abu use needs to be given critical consideration and factored into this area of work. The Policy supports the efforts of the Disability Affairs Unit, aand the National Policy on Disability, in coordinating, developing and implementing comprehensive programmes to assist the disabled in Trinidad and Tobago. It aims to promote gender awaare approaches to addressing the needs of disabled men and women, to ensure that they are equitably served and enabled to contribute to and benefit from the development process.

AREAS OF CONCERN

There is a dearth of sex-disaggregated data, and gender aware research and analysis on the situation and condition of disabled men and women that could readily inform equitable social provisions and practice. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago The mechanisms in place to address the needs of disabled persons tend to be gender-neutral, and should instead be gender-specific to ensure equitable access by disabled men and women to information, support services and decision-making. Carers of persons with disabilities, especially mothers and fathers, are in need of support. The preponderance of induced disabilities resulting from acts of domestic violence, places particular demands on rehabilitation and counselling facilities. There is need for greater understanding of and response to the vulnerability of disabled women to gender-based violence and sexual abuse.
POLICY OBJECTIVE
To promote gender equity in the provision of mechanisms and services to meet the needs and aspirations of men/boys and women/girls with disabilities, and enable them to be strategic and relevant contributors to national development POLICY MEASURES TO BE INSTITUTED
Promote gender aware interventions to adequately support disabled men and women, based on the collection and collation of sex-disaggregated data, and research and analysis on their differential situations and conditions at the national and local levels. Establish measures to prevent gender discrimination and promote equitable access by disabled men and women to public services and facilities that are sensitive to their specific needs and rights, including health, education, employment and transport. Provide support services for mothers and fathers who are faced with the challenge of caring for disabled children or other dependants. Promote the equitable development of men/boys and women/girls with disabilities, including their protection from gender-based violence and sexual abuse, and the provision of training to relevant personnel and public education to ensure their equitable participation in community and national life. Promote public education and other strategies to reduce the occurrence of induced disabilities, especially as a result of gender-based violence. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Gender Management System (GMS) National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago 3.12 CO-ORDINATION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE POLICY
The framework of the National Policy on Gender Equality and Development comprises a set of
inter-locking structures, mechanisms, measures and processes in order to advance gender
equality and equity in Trinidad and Tobago. The framework aims to facilitate and ensure co-
ordination of the formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of national, sectoral,
local and community-based programmes undertaken in furtherance of the National Policy. The
Policy is underpinned by the gender mainstreaming approach which is recognised globally as an
essential element of good governance, and aims to incorporate gender equality and equity
concerns in all development policies, plans, programmes, projects and activities.
Ministry of Gender, Youth and Children (MOGYCD)

The overall co-ordination and implementation of the National Policy will be led by the Ministry
of Gender, Youth and Child Development,7 which is the Government body responsible for
leading the advancement of gender equality and equity in Trinidad and Tobago. As lead agency,
the Ministry will report annually to Cabinet on progress made in the implementation of the
Policy.
The Ministry of Gender, Youth and Child Development will provide technical support and work
in tandem with Government ministries and agencies with respect to the policy measures and
other provisions outlined in the National Policy. For example, the MOGYCD will collaborate
with the Ministry of Planning and the Economy to ensure delivery on the gender equality goals
and strategies in the Seven Interconnected Pillars for Sustainable Development. It will partner
with the Ministry of Finance to facilitate gender-responsive budgeting at the national, sectoral
and local levels, including gender aware public income, expenditure and investment strategies. It
will and with the Gender Affairs Secretariat, Department of Health and Social Services, Tobago
House of Assembly to ensure a national response to the co-ordination and implementation of the
Policy.
a) The Gender Affairs Division

The Gender Affairs Division will address critical gender equality issues through targeted
research and recommendations on policy and legislation to advance gender equality, providing
technical support to Government ministries and agencies in delivering on the policy measures,
and monitoring and evaluating sectoral gender mainstreaming efforts.
The Division will play a pivotal role in:
Guiding and supporting the gender mainstreaming process; Building a close working relationship with the Ministry of the Attorney-General and the Law Reform Commission, to facilitate legislative review and reforms based on the policy measures in the National Policy; 7Or any ministry designated with responsibility for Gender Affairs in the future. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Facilitating partnerships between Government ministries/ departments and regional municipalities, and non-governmental organisations and community-based organisations; Collaborating with other ministries in addressing conceptual issues, implementing gender-based methodologies, and developing sector specific approaches; Maintaining a national resource centre/ clearing house on gender equality and development, and facilitating the production and dissemination of relevant publications; Liaising with women's and men's organisations, non-governmental organisations, community-based organisations, professional associations, academia, and members of the public in raising awareness and implementing the Policy; Strengthening relationships with the media to implement a communications strategy, including public education and awareness raising of the content and implementation of the National Policy. Gender Management System (GMS)

A Gender Management System will be established by the Ministry of Gender, Youth and Child Development. The GMS is as an integrated network of structures and mechanisms to create an enabling environment for advancing gender equality and equity; to guide, plan, monitor and evaluate the process of gender mainstreaming; and to facilitate collaboration between Government, the private sector and labour, civil society and other stakeholders in implementing the Policy. The Gender Management System will comprise the following components: A Cabinet-appointed Inter-ministerial Committee on the National Policy on Gender Equality and Development, comprising lead ministries (e.g., MOGYCD, Finance, Planning, Attorney-General's Office, Health, Education and Labour) to ensure incorporation of all aspects of the policy into the work of Government; Gender Focal Points (GFPs) will be identified at senior levels in each major Government division, with a support team comprised of representatives from each department. The GFPs mechanism will build on links already established between the Gender Affairs Division and Government ministries/agencies. GFPs will be responsible for promoting gender mainstreaming in the policy-making, planning, programming and service delivery in their respective sectors, and thus have a critical role to play in delivering on the thematic policy measures; An information management system: Implementation of the National Policy must be informed by sound evidence. This requires the consistent collection, collation and analysis of sex-disaggregated data on the thematic areas of the Policy, as a basis for guiding gender-aware policy-making, planning, programming and service delivery in Trinidad and Tobago. National Commission on Gender Equality Council
An independent advisory body will be established to facilitate implementation and monitoring of the National Policy on Gender Equality and Development. With membership drawn from National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago representatives of key Government ministries and agencies, women's and men's organisations, professional, academic and other relevant bodies, it serves to safeguard the Policy by ensuring its alignment with national development agendas, and bringing new and emerging issues and perspectives to the fore. The Commission will monitor gender mainstreaming in all sectors informed by the Policy, assist in the development of gender sensitive indicators and other performance management tools and methodologies, and monitor Government compliance with its ratification of relevant international conventions and protocols. The Commission shall be provided with the necessary support to execute its functions and shall report to the Minster responsible for Gender Equality on an annual basis. The Tobago House of Assembly Gender Secretariat

The Gender Department, of the Health and Social Services Division, in the Tobago House of
Assembly (THA) is responsible for the delivery of gender equality and equity programmes and
activities in Tobago. The Ministry of Gender, Youth and Child Development will foster active
and ongoing partnership and collaboration with the THA to promote the co-ordination and
implementation of the National Policy on Gender Equality and Development. The Gender
Department of the THA will be represented on all inter-agency, inter-ministerial national
structures and mechanisms formulated to co-ordinate, implement and monitor the Policy.
c)
No-governmental Organisations, civil society and academia
Ongoing commitment, involvement, and public education and awareness are central to the successful implementation of the National Policy. Active partnership and collaboration with women's and men's organisations, no-governmental organisations, community-based organisations, professional associations, academia, faith-based organisations and other civil society organisations, is imperative to ensure overall success of this policy and implementation strategy. The Gender Affairs Division will take the lead in facilitating partnerships with these bodies to advance e gender equality and equity in Trinidad and Tobago through dialogue, buy-in, advocacy, critical intervention and promotion of the Policy. It is envisaged that these agencies will comprise a major ‘catalyst' for implementing and monitoring the Policy. Mechanisms for continuous consultation with and feedback to community-based organizations will be established across the country, including in rural areas. Regional and International Relations

Relations will be strengthened with relevant international and regional development agencies, including the UN Women, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Fund for Children (UNICEF), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Commonwealth Secretariat, the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago the Caribbean (UN ECLAC), the Inter-American Commission for Women of the Organization of American States (CIM/OAS), and the CARICOM Secretariat. Partnerships and collaboration with international and regional development agencies will be centred on the provision of technical assistance, and support for the implementation of the National Policy on Gender Equality and Development. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago CONCLUSION

The National Policy on Gender Equality and Development provides a framework for the
strategic and effective integration of a gender perspective in all activities of government, the
private sector and labour, and civil society, thereby promoting the full and equal participation of
men and women in the development process.
The National Policy outlines policy measures relating to transformational leadership and
governance; domestic and family life; health and well-being; education, literacy and human
capital development; personal autonomy, safety and security; macro-economy and trade; labour
and employment; poverty alleviation; agriculture and food security; climate change and natural
resource management; and vulnerable groups, as well as strategies for policy co-ordination and
implementation.
The implementation of the Policy will be pursued through establishing various structures,
mechanisms and processes. These include a Gender Management System and a National
Commission on Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment. Policy implementation will be
underpinned by gender mainstreaming approach to delivering on its policy measures by all
Government ministries and agencies. At the same time, the Government recognises the
importance of building partnerships with the private sector and labour, and civil society
organisations to advance gender equality and equity in the society.
The successful implementation of the National Policy on Gender Equality and Development
requires challenging the status quo at all levels of national life, and calls for a change in how
many aspects of national life are organised, what is rewarded and recognised, how persons think,
work, relate to and support each other. While this shift may be exciting for some persons, it may
be challenging for others. Therefore, the success of the change effort requires strong and deep
commitment to ensure that gender equality is at the forefront of all development efforts, and that
initiatives are executed to promote understanding and acceptance of these new approaches. It
also requires initiatives to create an environment which recognises that realisation of the policy
involves sustained commitment to learning and growth, the utilisation of new skills, and
preparing institutions to manage change.
Recognising the value of the contribution of men and women, individually and collectively to the
achievement of this transformative agenda, it is important to provide them with appropriate skills
and knowledge. As such, the Government will engage in strategic and coherent approaches to
facilitating gender mainstreaming and other gender specific initiatives. Consistent and committed
action will be pursued to build an enabling environment for the execution of the National Policy
on Gender Equality and Development based on a solemn recognition of the importance of gender
equality and equity to national life in Trinidad and Tobago and the realisation of greater levels of
sustainable development in its broadest terms.
National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago ALTA (1994), National Literacy Survey, Adult Literacy Tutors Association, Port of Spain. Andaiye (2003), Plan of Action to 2005: Framework for Mainstreaming Gender into key CARICOM Programmes, Caribbean Community, Guyana. Brathwaite, BraderAdaleine (1998), Experiences from the teaching of AIDS prevention to pre-teens in Trinidad, (Subsequently published in Glenford Howe and Alan Cobley (eds), The Caribbean Aids Epidemic, UWI Press, Kingston, 2000). Brathwaite, BraderAdaleine (2003), "Sector Study: Health and Medicine", Prepared for the National Policy on Gender and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Unpublished. Camara, Bilali et al (n.d.), "Modelling and Projecting HIV in the Caribbean: The Experience of Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica". Campbell, Carl (1985), "Good Wives and Mothers", Paper presented to the Department of History Seminar, UWI, Mona. CARICOM (1997), "Post-Beijing Action Plan and Regional Policy on Gender Equality and Social Justice", Guyana, 6-8 August, 1997. CARICOM Regional Census Office (1990-1991), Population Census of the Commonwealth Caribbean: Volume of Tables of Sixteen CARICOM Countries, CARICOM, Guyana. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), Accessible at: http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/ Central Statistical Office(2003), Annual Statistical Digest 2000, Government of theRepublic of Trinidad and Tobago, Port of Spain. Central Statistical Office (2001), Labour Force Report, 1995 & 2001: Continuous Sample Survey of the Population, Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, Port of Spain. Central Statistical Office (2000), Survey of Living Conditions, Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, Port of Spain. Central Statistical Office (1996), Report on the Trinidad and Tobago National Health Survey, 1994-1995, Central Statistical Office/ Ministry of Health, Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, Port of Spain. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Central Statistical Office (1990), Population and Housing Census Demographic Report, Volume 11, Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, Port of Spain. Commonwealth Secretariat (1999), Gender Management System Handbook, Commonwealth Secretariat, London. Dolly, David (2003), "Sector Study: Agriculture and Natural Resources", Prepared for the National Policy on Gender and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Unpublished. Doyal, Lesley (2000), "Report on Gender and Health", Family Planning Association of Trinidad and Tobago, Accessible at: www.ttfpa.org Forde, Penelope; Michelle Seeraj (2003), "Sector Study – Economy, Labour and Trade", Prepared for the National Policy on Gender and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, with the assistance of the ILO.Unpublished. Frankson, Joan Ross (2000), Gender Mainstreaming in Information and Communications, Commonwealth Secretariat, London. Government of Cayman Islands (2002), "Draft Cayman Islands National Policy on Gender and Development for Equity and Equality", Prepared by Patricia Mohammed and Audrey Ingram-Roberts for the Government of Cayman Islands, George Town, Grand Cayman. Government of Dominica (2005), A National Policy on Gender and Development for Equity and Equality for Commonwealth of Dominica, Prepared by Patricia Mohammed with Deborah McFee for the Government of Dominica, Roseau. Government of the Republic of Namibia (1998).National Policy on Gender and Development and National Plan of Action, Department of Women's Affairs, Windhoek. Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (2005), Social and Economic Framework 2003-2005, Ministry of Planning, Port of Spain. Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (2003), "National Conference on Vision 2020 through a Gender Lens", Pamphlet prepared by Ministry of Community Development and Gender Affairs,Hilton Hotel and Conference Centre, March 12, 2003. Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (2001), Initial, Second and Third Periodic Report of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, Office of the Attorney-General and Ministry of Legal Affairs, Port of Spain. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (2000), Initial, Second and Third PeriodicReports to CEDAW, Office of the Attorney General and Ministry of Legal Affairs, Port of Spain. Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (2000), Population Census, Accessible at: www.cso.gov.tt/statistics. Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (1996), Population and Vital Statistics Report, Port of Spain. Ingram-Roberts, Audrey (2003), Gender Mainstreaming, UNESCO Regional Consultation, Mainstreaming Gender for Development, January 2003. Jahan, Rounaq (1997), "Mainstreaming Women in Development: Four Agency Approaches", In Kathleen Staudt (ed.), Women, International Development and Politics, Temple University Press, pp. 311–329. Johnson, Robert (2002), Belize National Policy on Gender and Development, National Women's Commission. Kabeer, Naila (2003), Gender Mainstreaming in Poverty Eradication and the Millennium Development Goals: A handbook for policy-makers and other stakeholders, Commonwealth Secretariat, London and International Development Research Centre, Ottawa. Lazarus-Black, Mindie (2002), The Rite of Domination: Tales From Domestic Violence Court, Working Paper No. 7, Centre for Gender and Development Studies, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine. Mc Donald, Mandy (1994), (ed.) Gender Planning in Development Agencies: Meeting the Challenge, Oxfam UK, Oxford. Molyneux, Maxine and Shahra Razavi (2003), "Gender Justice, Development and Rights, Democracy, Governance and Human Rights" , Programme Paper No 10, United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD), Geneva. Morris, Jeanette (2003), "Sector Study: Education and Human Resource Development", Prepared for the National Policy on Gender and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, Unpublished. PAHO/ WHO (1999), Document to mark World Health Day, Trinidad Guardian. PAHO/WHO (1998), "Trinidad and Tobago", In Health in the Americas, Volume II. PAHO/WHO (2001), Trinidad and Tobago:Demographic Indicators, 2001. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Pargass, Gaietry; Roberta Clarke (2003), "Sector Study – Law and the Judicial System", Prepared for the National Policy on Gender and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, Unpublished. Reddock, Rhoda (1994), Women, Labour and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago: A History.Zed Books, London. Reddock, Rhoda; Rosalie Barclay; and Roberta Clarke (2000).National Report on Gender Violence Against Women and Girls in Trinidad and Tobago, United Nations Inter-Agency Campaign on Gender Violence Against Women and Girls. Ricketts, Heather (2000), "A Policy on Gender and Development and Gender Development Programme for Tobago: Draft Final Report", UNDP, Port of Spain. Rouse, Jennifer (2004), "Women and Ageing", Centre for Gender and Development Studies Lunchtime Seminar, UWI, St. Augustine. Rowley, Michelle; and Monica Paul-Mclean (2003), "Sector Study – Social and Community Development (including Poverty and Social Security)", Prepared for the National Policy on Gender and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, Unpublished. St. Bernard, Godfrey (1997), The Family and Society in Trinidad and Tobago: The Findings of the National Survey of Family Life, Ministry of Social Development and Institute of Social and Economic Research, UWI, St. Augustine. St. Bernard, Godfrey and Carol Salim (1995), Adult Literacy in Trinidad and Tobago: A Study of the Findings of the National Literacy Survey, Institute of Social and Economic Research, UWI , St. Augustine. The University of the West Indies, Vice Chancellor's Report to Council – 2002-2003, The University Centre, UWI, Mona. United Nations (1995), Beijing Platform for Action, Outcome Document of Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing, China, September 1995, United Nations, New York. United Nations Development Programme (2001), Human Development Report 2000, Oxford University Press, New York. United Nations Development Programme (2000), Human Development Report 2000, Oxford University Press, New York. United Nations Development Programme (1998), Human Development Report 1998, Oxford University Press, New York. UN/ECLAC (2000), "Study on Gender Mainstreaming in the Caribbean", March 15, 2000, CIDA. National Policy on Gender Equality and Development of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago UNIFEM (1990), The Worlds' Women: Trends and Statistics, United Nations, New York. UNIFEM (2000), The Worlds Women: Trends and Statistics, United Nations, New York. World Bank (1995), Source-Report No. 14382-TR, Trinidad and Tobago Poverty and Unemployment in an Oil Based Economy, October 27, 1995.

Source: https://www.guardian.co.tt/sites/default/files/story/TT%20gender%20policy%20draft%20June%202012.pdf

Nhs stop smoking services

NHS STOP SMOKING SERVICES: Service and m NHS STOP SMOKING Service and monitoring guidance 2010/11 DH INFORMATION READER BOX Social Care/Partnership Working Best Practice Guidance NHS Stop Smoking Services: service and monitoring guidance 2010/11 Commissioners and provider leads of NHS Stop Smoking Services PCT CEs, SHA CEs, Directors of PH, Stop Smoking service commissioner and provider leads, Tobacco Control Alliance leads

Suits.ppt

Large Scale Biomolecular Simulation: Blue Matter Molecular Dynamics on Blue Gene/L Frank SuitsBiomolecular Dynamics & Scalable Modelinghttp://www.research.ibm.com/bluegene High Performance Computing for © 2004 IBM Corporation Large Scale Biomolecular Simulation  Blue Gene protein science goals and history  Overview of molecular dynamics  Ways to use power of BG/L for protein science