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An udder with weak attachments and suspension. A pendulous udder with poorly spaced teats that The unevenness of quarters and teats will cause are thick and prone to ballooning. These udders calf sucking problems and mortalities. Poor shape result in poor suckling and possibly increased calf and texture leads to injury causing scar tissue and reduced milk flow.
We would like to thank Alex Ashwood of the Australian Brahman Breeders' Association for permission to reproduce this article. Die Raad en Personeel BloemfonteinBeste vriende,Ons het reeds bedank as Lid van die Genootskap maar nog nie ons dank teenoor julle uitgespreek nie.
Dit is bloot as gevolg van die feit dat ek nie weet wat om te sê nie.
Hoe staak mens iets wat jy 20 jaar mee besig was en persone wat al die tyd jou bygestaan het. Hierdie 20 jaar was van die mees opwindenste van ons lewe.
Maar soos die Woord ons leer "Daar is ‘n tyd om klippe bymekaar te maak en om klippe weg te gooi" Ons is nou daar - alles het ‘n tyd. Dit was vir ons n groot plesier en voorreg om met die Brahmanbees betrokke te wees. Om hulle te kon teel, mee te werk en mee te speel.
Ons wil dan nou ook die Genootskap (dit sluit julle almal in) van harte bedank vir al die jare se belangstelling, ondersteuning, goeie raad, vriendelikheid en diens. Ons is dankbaar en sal dit nooit vergeet nie.
Ons wens julle voorspoed toe en mag die Brahman Beestelers- genootskap steeds van krag tot krag gaan.
Vriendelike groete Koos & Bets Grobler B R A H M A N JoeRNAAl • JouRNAl • oK T oBeR/oCT oBeR 2013




head, reverses, lies down or sticks it's tongue out the side of it's mouth, resisting teat presence. These calves are NOT Poor Sucking Reflex (PSR) syndrome, otherwise known dummies! These calves are severely traumatized and in pain. as Dummy Calf syndrome, has been debated for decades. Their tongues may only be slightly swollen, hardly visible to Theories ranged from genetics to nutrition, to climate, a trained eye, but the result is that, not only is the tongue neurological disorders, maternal rejection and abnormal extremely painful to pressure, but it cannot fold to latch milk production. However, even though mentioned, the role around the teat, hence pushing the tongue out the side of it's that dystocia plays in the syndrome, seems to have been mouth. These calves also have extremely painful heads and jaws. Suckling is impossible at this stage. The hungry calf will resort to nudging the neck skin or navel skin of the mother, An abnormal, or dystocic birth, is caused by factors that or even the udder, but cannot latch. Sometimes, the cortisol disrupt, either the foetal system or maternal system, during depletion is so severe that the calf cannot stand. Left unaided, these calves will die.
The birth process, that the foetus initiates, involves a series Tongue length also seems to play a role in PSR syndrome. The of hormonal, or endocrine, events. Approximately nine days longer the tongue, the weaker the sucking reflex. Brahman before birth, the foetal adrenal gland secretes an increased cattle generally have longer jaws than Bos Taurus cattle. amount of cortisol (stress hormone). The foetal cortisol Longer jaws equal longer tongues. Calves with broader heads stimulates the placental function, and the birth process begins. and shorter jaws suckle a lot easier than those with longer, Maximum levels of cortisol are reached within 3 hours of narrow heads, even if the broader headed calf is dystocic. birth. Should the birth process be disrupted and prolonged, the newborn calf could present with ‘Dummy Calf Syndrome'. Calves that are slow to stand and suck, should routinely be Bull calves are affected more often than heifer calves, simply given Predef immediately, to help restore the cortisol levels, because they are larger at birth.
and a painkiller after 24 hours, in extreme cases. Finadyne, or Pyroflam given at the recommended safe dosage will reduce The cortisol continues to be secreted until it becomes pain and inflammation. Within 36 hours, 1ml of Multimin with depleted, in a prolonged birthing process. This all important Selenium. After treating the calf with Predef, wait for about 2 hormone is responsible for the vitality of the newborn calf. hours, then gently try to give the calf one litre of colostrum, It provides the energy for the calf to start to shiver, thereby milked out of the mother. Avoid putting too much pressure kickstarting it's own body temperature, or thermo-regulation. on the head or jaw. Do NOT force the calf to drink. If It also enables the newly born calf to stand and suckle. necessary, a vetenarian may need to tube feed the calf. Once Another contributing factor towards this ‘Dummy Calf ', is the calf is sucking the bottle teat, try and let it drink on the the physiological trauma that a dystocic birth causes. The udder, with the mother in a crush. Colostrum is no longer as continued, extreme pressure on the soft bones of the head, effective after 24 hours after birth so it is important to get eye and jaw area, results in ruptured blood vessels in the eye, the dystocic calf treated for pain and swelling as soon after brain and spine, and the lack of oxygen, or hypoxia, due to a birth as possible.
compressed umbilical cord, causes the tongue and sometimes In the ever increasing desire to produce fast growing calves, the head, to start swelling. In severe cases, the liver may also and text book performance statistics, larger foetuses are rupture and the calf will die within 24 hours after birth.
also being created. There are other causes for Weak Calf Sometimes, all the dystocic calf needs is a little assistance Syndrome, but the major cause of Dummy Calf Syndrome to enable it to suck, but most times, the calf drops it's seems to be the cortisol depletion in a dystocic neonate.


KI PROJEK • AI PROJECT Hierdie projek vind plaas as gevolg van samewerking tussen die Genootskap, die bul se eienaar, en Taurus. Die Genootskap help met identifisering en bemarking van Brahman bulle wat by die KI stasie moet wees. Die eienaar verskaf die bul, en Taurus het die infra-struktuur om top kwaliteit, siektevrye semen te tap en binne en buite Suid-Afrika te versprei.
Taurus is die enigste geregistreerde uitvoer KI stasie in Suid-Afrika! Hulle het die kundigheid en personeel beskikbaar om die bulle se gesondheid en semen kwaliteit te evalueer, asook die infra-struktuur om die verspreiding te bestuur. Die bulle spandeer ongeveer 3 maande in pre-kwarantyn waar ‘n reeks gesondheidstoetse uitgevoer word, nie net om te verseker dat hulle nie siektes in die KI stasie inbring nie, maar ook omdat daar verskeie geslagsiektes is wat deur bevrore semen oorgedra kan word.
Dit is as gevolg van hierdie siektes dat dit onwettig is om semen, wat nie onder streng kwarantyn toestande getap is nie, te verkoop. Taurus het ook ‘n uitvoerdepartement wat semen uitvoere hanteer na lande waaraan die protokol voldoen.
Die eerste twee bulle waarvan semen beskikbaar is vanuit hierdie projek is die rooi bul BR3391 Mr Bafana (Damview Mr Bafana DVB08129) geteel deur TR Braithwaite van Bergville en grys bul BR3393 Gibson (Jabulisa Sir Gibson SWP094) geteel deur SW Prinsloo van Bethal.
NAVRAE: Taurus - 012 667 1122/8 B R A H M A N JoeRNAAl • JouRNAl • oK T oBeR/oCT oBeR 2013 DAMVIEW MR BAFANA 129 08
Sex: Male
Birth Date: 26/08/2008
Computer Number: 501106213
Type: RED
HerdBook: SP Inspection Date: 25/02/10
Registration Status: Registered
Breeder: BRAITHWAITE TR
Current Owner: BRAITHWAITE TR
Price semen: R120 dose
Senior & Breed Champion Royal
Show 2013

ADAMBRAHM AA 92 121 COTE MR BAFANA 872 COTE MISS RIO 494 Sire: DAMVIEW BAFANA 51 01
ZEBU-RABA MR27 86 DAMVIEW ZEBU 91 4 DAMVIEW MR BAFANA 129 08
Dam: DAMVIEW MISS MASBRA 199 04
DAMVIEW BUXTON 151 98 OJALA MUSCLE LADY JABULISA SIR GIBSON
Sex: Male
Birth Date: 31/01/2009
Computer Number: 501094203
Type: GREY
HerdBook: SP Inspection Date: 29/06/11
Registration Status: Registered
Breeder: PRINSLOO SW
Current Owner: PRINSLOO SW
Price semen: R90 dose
JDH MR GIBSON MANSO 94/8 JDH MR MANSO 130 1 JDH LADY MANSO 343 9 Sire: LORIZA KEMM 14 00 80
LORIZA HENRY 3DE 78 LORIZA MARSHA 3 42 83 LORIZA MICHELLE 76 JABULISA SIR GIBSON
LORIZA DELROY 3 95 97 LORIZA SAYLO 4 00 141 Dam: LORIZA SHIRI 3 75/06
LORIZA RENZO 3 95 270 LORIZA RUDA 2 99 280 LORIZA SEQUENTO 5 B R A H M A N JoeRNAAl • JouRNAl • oK T oBeR/oCT oBeR 2013 Pachystigma pygmaeum (hairy Cestrum parqui (ink berry) Dichapetalum cymosum (gifblaar) of poisonous plants in South Africa Historical perspectives South Africa is inherently rich in fauna and flora Devastating outbreaks of poisoning have been and the native plant life is the richest temperate recorded in history. During 1926 - 1927 about flora in the world. Table Mountain, which is 600 000 sheep died of geeldikkop (yellow located in the western Cape peninsula, alone is thick head) in the Northern Cape. In the years said to have a greater variety of plants than the 1929 - 1930 as many as a million sheep died in United Kingdom. In South Africa the habitat and Griqualand-West of vermeersiekte (vomiting climatic conditions range from arid or semi-arid disease). More recently in 1966, 5 000 head of conditions in Namaqualand, the Kalahari and cattle died of gousiekte in the Ventersdorp area Karoo to lush sub-tropical greenery in Kwazulu/ and during 1969 - 1970, 70 000 sheep died of Natal and the Lowveld of Mpumalanga. geeldikkop in the Karoo. Paraclinical Sciences, There are more than 24 500 taxa (species, Faculty of Veterinary subspecies and varieties) of flowering plants Science, University of Plant poisonings result in mortalities which in itself indigenous to South Africa. Needless to say with have a huge economic impact, but there are also such diversity in plant life there are numerous indirect or hidden costs such as: potential poisonous plants as well. Exotics such as Lantana camara and Cestrum laevigatum (ink berry) have • diminished production (decrease in mass, ill-thrift, loss of become naturalized in South Africa. To the best of our knowledge some 600 potential poisonous plants have been • reproductive failure (poor conception, still-births, abortions, birth defects, protraction of gestation periods) • veterinary fees Factors contributing to plant poisoning • the cost of temporary or permanent non-utilization of Only about 11,4 % of South Africa's surface area is suitable for cultivation. Livestock are reared in the remaining part • expenses incurred in eradicating poisonous plants and are traditionally kept under extensive grazing conditions. • the decrease in value of infested land. About two-thirds of the country is arid or semi-arid. Rainfall Important poisonous plants is unreliable and the country as a whole is subject to severe recurrent droughts. Overstocking and uncontrolled fires are Although there are over 600 indigenous and exotic also contributing factors and livestock are thus forced to poisonous plants known, not all are equally important. A consume poisonous plants that they would usually avoid. short synopsis of the more important plant poisonings occurring in the country is presented. Knowledge of the distribution of plant poisonings is particularly important when stock is translocated to new environments. This is necessary because animals learn to Poisoning by plants containing specific heart toxins (cardiac avoid some of the poisonous plants in the areas where they glycosides) is the most important plant-associated poisoning grow up. As a result of this acquired aversion, poisoning in South Africa and occurs throughout the country. Plants usually occurs only in naive animals, newly introduced from of economic importance include the various tulp (Moraea) non-infested veld. A stockman wishing to move cattle from species, such as yellow-, blue and red tulp. Slangkop (Drimia one area to another should, therefore, be mindful of the sanguinea) in the Northern Cape and North West provinces dangers of plant poisoning. B R A H M A N JoeRNAAl • JouRNAl • oK T oBeR/oCT oBeR 2013 and witstorm/vaalstorm (Thesium species) in the Karoo also contains similar compounds and cause several deaths per year. Krimpsiekte is a chronic form of this poisoning and is a nervous and muscular affliction. This poisoning can be a limiting factor for small stock production in the little Karoo and southern fringes of the great Karoo. The term "krimpsiekte" refers to the tucked-in, shrunken posture of the affected animal. Gifblaar or poison leaf (Dichapetalum cymosum) is the scourge of the bushveld. In cattle acute heart failure is observed early in the season (August to October) before the rains. Cattle are often found dead next to the drinking trough. "Gousiekte" means "quick disease", so called because ruminants die suddenly of heart failure 6 - 8 weeks after ingesting any one of 6 different plants namely hairy and smooth gousiektebossies, wild date, tonnabos and poison bride's bush. Affected stock typically drops dead without any warning signs during mild exertion or stress. 1. Senecio retrorsus (ragwort)2. Moraea pallida (yellow tulp)3. Fadogia homblei (wild date) a cause of gousiekte4. Lantana camara5. Geigeria ornativa (vermeerbos)6. Tylecodon wallichii (nenta or kandelaarsbos) an important cause of 7. Tribulus terrestris (devils thorn or duwweltjie) B R A H M A N JoeRNAAl • JouRNAl • oK T oBeR/oCT oBeR 2013 result in large mortalities. In this intoxication the wall of the fore stomachs (eg. the rumen wall) are damaged resulting Geeldikkop occurs in small stock grazing on wilted devils in fluid filled stomachs. Other signs are gait abnormalities, thorn (Tribulus terrestris), predominantly in the Karoo. The difficulty in swallowing and the animal is severely dehydrated. liver toxins actually cause a blockage in bile flow in the liver Kikuyu poisoning can occur in cattle and sheep. which then causes the skin to become very sensitive to sun rays (photosensitization). Diagnosis and advice Ingestion of various Senecio plants (ragwort, staggers bush) It should be remembered that a veterinarian should always causes an acute or chronic liver disease of horses, cattle and be consulted to rule out several other types of poisonings, sheep. Poisoning mainly occurs along the eastern provinces. such as organic poisonings (eg. pesticide dips, etc.) and inorganic poisonings (such as lead and urea intoxication), as Lantana and Cestrum poisoning are two other very well as a range of other infectious and metabolic diseases, important intoxications resulting in liver damage and with nutritional deficiencies, etc. The veterinarian can also advise Lantana poisoning a photosensitization reaction of the on preventative measures. skin is seen. These are exotic plants which have become naturalized in large areas of the country.
1. Kellerman TS, Coetzer JAW, Naudé TW & Botha CJ 2005 Plant Poisonings and Mycotoxicoses of Livestock in Southern Africa, 2nd "Vermeersiekte", directly translated as "vomiting disease", Edition. Cape Town: Oxford University Press.
is a major intoxication especially of small stock, grazing on 2. Kellerman TS, Naudé TW & Fourie N 1996 The distribution, Geigeria species, mainly in the Northern Cape Province. diagnosis and estimated economic impact of plant poisonings and Vomition is actually due to paralysis of the oesophagus mycotoxicoses in South Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 63:65-90.
(gullet) which results in the stomach (rumen) fluid flowing 3. Vahrmeijer J 1981 Poisonous Plants of Southern Africa that cause back through the mouth and nose. This can also cause stock losses. Cape Town: Tafelberg Uitgewers.
choking and pneumonia. Other signs are stiffness and paralysis. For more information, e-mail Prof Christo Botha atchristo.botha@up.ac.za Even plant pastures can cause problems. Outbreaks of Recognition: Red Meat/Vol 4, Nr 3, August 2013 kikuyu poisoning, mainly in the Eastern Cape Province, can Breedplan Landboudal Hoërskool Op 15/16 Augustus 2013 het personeel van die Breedplan Genootskappe by die Universiteit van die Vrystaat bymekaargekom vir opleiding wat o.a. die volgende onderwerpe ingesluit het: Diereteelt Beginsels, Meet van Eienskappe, Dienslewering aan die Bedryf, Seleksie Indekse, Beginsels van Genomika, Diagnostiek en Verslae. Aan die einde van die kursus is die student se kennis getoets. Brahman personeel wat die kursus bygewoon het, is Tersia van Heerden, Jan van Zyl (Jnr) en Theresa Steenekamp.
B R A H M A N JoeRNAAl • JouRNAl • oK T oBeR/oCT oBeR 2013 Maandag 5 Augustus het 5 Brahmanlede die Middagete by "The Local Grill" in Parktown, Johannesburg bygewoon.
Die eienaar, Restauranteur by name, Steve Maresh hou elke maand so'n Vleisras bekendstelling. Die Brahmanras was die sesde ras aan die beurt. Hy het ‘n groep gaste wat elke maand kom proe aan die betrokke ras se beeshaas.
Al die snitte is verouderd, 28/32dae, slegs kruisskyf, fillet en beeshaas/lende is voorgesit om ge-evalueer te word in terme van sagtheid en smaak. Elke deelnemer het sy telkaart elektronies voltooi per ‘i pad'.
Die karkasse waarvan die snitte verkry is, word verskaf deur Karan Beef. Die ras-tipe wat aan die beurt kom word vooraf in hulle voerkrale geselekteer, geslag en dan verouderd.
Jan de Jongh het ‘n kort inleidende gesprek gegee, oor die rol van kruisteling, verskaffing van voerkraal tipe diere, ook dat die variasie binne ‘n ras soms groter as tussen rasse kan wees wat verskeie eienskappe soos bv, vleissagtheid kan wees.
Die eienskappe wat Brahman beeste onderskei van ander rasse, asook hul SÓ SÊ DIE KENNER oorsprong en bydrae tot die ontwikkeling van ander sintetiese-rasse is gedoen deur Sietse Smit.
Steve Maresh is ‘n beesvleis connoisseur, eienaar van The Local Gril steak-restaurante in Johannesburg en ‘n Uitnodiging is ook gerig na die komende Wêreldkongres 2014 te Parys.
die meesterbrein agter die Ultimate Beef Chal enge.
Steve antwoord ons vinnige vrae: Almal is trakteer met sappige Brahmanskof as voorgereg.
Die beste ding van beesvleis is?Dat daar elke dag van die week ‘n ander snit is om Die volgende lede het bygewoon.
te geniet.
Wat is jou gunsteling manier om steak gaar te Riaan en Helena Theron (Vrystaat) Bines en Ronel Schoeman (Limpopo) Gaargemaak op eikehoutstawe wat met Cabernet Sauvignon deurweek is.
Frik en Adriaan Venter (Vryheid, Natal) Jou gunsteling snit om mee te kook? Marinus van Jaarsveld (Limpopo) Rib-oog steak.
En om te eet? Baie dankie vir u opoffering om die geleentheid weer ‘n Brahman sukses te maak.
Ek kan nie regtig een uitsonder nie. As iemand dit vir my vra, antwoord ek altyd net: Beesvleis. Want ek glo, soos met baie ander oomblikke in die lewe, steve@localgrill.co.za • www.ultimatebeef.co.za bepaal ons bui ook waarvoor ons lus is om te eet op ‘n spesifieke tyd.
Maar ja, ek is lief vir ‘n goeie rib-oog steak, partykeer ‘n lendeskyf met ‘n lekker sous of eier (in die Portugesestyl).
In die winter, klop niks ‘n heerlike beesvleisbredie, potpastei of bobotie nie.
En op ‘n Maandagaand, tuis saam met my familie – spaghetti bolognaise met beesmaalvleis! B R A H M A N JoeRNAAl • JouRNAl • oK T oBeR/oCT oBeR 2013 'n Beeskarkas word in 'n voor- en agterkwart verdeel, gewoonlik tussen die tiende en elfde ribbebeen. word. Jy kan ook maalvleis maak van dunlies.
Die snitte uit die agterkwart is sagter, bevat minder bindweefsel en bene en is duurder. Lê langs die primarib en is soortgelyk, 1. Skenkels (shin) maar het 'n groter oogspier. Klub- Een van my gunstelingsnitte wat erg onderskat word. steak en riboog-steak word uit dié Beesvleis-skenkels het 'n heerlike geur. Dit moet lank en stadig gestowe word tot die murg sag is. Jy kan ook die murgbene Snitte uit die voorkwart bevat meer uitsny en dit alleen gaarmaak en been en bindweefsel (wat dit taaier die res van die skenkelvleis gebruik maak). Maar dis ook baie geurig en vir stowegeregte of sop.
meer bekostigbaar as agterkwart-snitte. Met die regte gaarmaakmetodes kan jy Dy het 'n growwe tekstuur en min die lekkerste geregte met voorkwart- vet. Dis die snit waaruit prego-steaks vleis maak – verál in die winter. Omdat meestal gesny word. Jy kan dit ook die snitte hou van lang, stadige klamhitte- gebruik om blindevinke te maak of die gaarmaakmetodes, is dit die vleis wat jy hele snit potbraai. vir bredies, kasserolle, stowegeregte en pasteie moet inspan. Voorkwartvleis maak ook geurige maalvleis.
Ek ken binneboud as biltongvleis, maar dit kan ook gepotbraai, gesmoor of (in steaks gesny) gepanbraai word. Lê langs die voorrib en bestaan uit 'n Dit het 'n lekker, dik vetlaag aan die paar ribbebene en 'n oogspier. Dit kan buitekant en 'n redelik growwe heel (of ontbeen en gerol) in die oond gerooster word. Primarib-steaks of riboog-steak word uit dié snit gesny.
Stertstuk vorm deel van die dy – die tekstuur is ook grof en Dié snit bevat baie bene en min daar is nie veel vet in nie. Dit vleis. Sny dit in stukkies en gebruik in word algemeen gebuik om bredie of stowegeregte – dis lekker soutvleis mee te maak. Diklies is sag en word Borsstuk is die voorkwartsnit waarvan dikwels in dun skywe gesny pastrami gemaak word. Jy kan dit vir kits-steak (minute steak) ook ontbeen en rol, stowe, smoor of verkoop as blokkies. Dis of kook, soos vir soutvleis.
waarmee jy bredies of goelasj sal Diklies word ook gebruik om maer maalvleis mee Dikrib is 'n groot stuk vleis met baie bene en baie spierlae. Ek sny dit meestal in blokkies vir stowevleis en gebruik die bene vir aftreksel of sop. Die vleis is 'n Sagte snit wat ook 'n deel van die filet bevat. Die ook goed vir maalvleis.
hele kruisstuk kan geoondrooster word, kruis-steaks word daaruit gesny en die vleis kan ook in blokkies 'n Geurige, beenlose snit wat gereeld vir maalvleis, gesny word vir sosaties of in repies vir roerbraai. stowe of soutvleis gebruik word. Die sagste, delikaatste snit van die bees is been- en Beenloos en laag in vet. Dit word gereeld gebruik om vetloos. Filet kan heel of in porsies gesny word en ekstra-maer maalvleis mee te maak en is ook die vleis moet liefs gerooster of gebraai word. wat (dun gesny) vir blindevinke gebruik word. Dis 'n veelsydige snit wat gepotbraai, gesmoor of gestowe T-been, met 'n stuk filet aan die een kant en 'n oogspier aan die ander kant. T-been steak of heel lendestuk kan in die pan gebraai of gepotbraai word. Porterhouse- Bevat baie been en heelwat senings, maar is uiters steak word uit die ontbeende lende gesny.
geurig. Verwyder die senings en sny die nek in blokkies vir stowegeregte of gebruik vir maalvleis. Bevat 'n paar ribbebene, maar is dikker as platrib. Dit kan ontbeen en gerol en geoondbraai of gestowe - Met vergunning van Landbouweekblad B R A H M A N JoeRNAAl • JouRNAl • oK T oBeR/oCT oBeR 2013 uittog Oplaai van meubels by Chris Botha Straat Wat ‘n vooruitsig, om te mag trek in ‘n gebou wat ons ons eie kan noem. Geen meer huurgeld of verhuurder wat kla oor een of ander ding waarmee hy ongelukkig is nie. RUS en VREDE, uiteindelik! Die pak van bokse het vinnig begin en toe tot stilstand gekom, wag vir daardie laaste dag om alles wat deurentyd gebruik word, in te pak. Die laaste dag by Chris Botha. Jy kon ter selfde tyd die Kartonne – dit is maar net die begin van die uitpak opgewondenheid en onsekerheid aanvoel – nuwe begin, nuwe gebou, nuwe omgewing . . Die dag van die trek en uitpak. Ai, dit was lekker. Almal het gehelp en mekaar gehelp. En vinnig vinnig was alles opgepak en afgepak. Uitpak het vinnig gegaan maar om alles gou in plek te kry sodat die kantoor weer kan funksioneer soos voorheen was ‘n uitdaging. Ek het nou en dan teruggesit en met dankbaarheid geglimlag, oor alles van die afgelope tyd. Die Alles staan rond, plekke moet gekry word vir alles tyd wat die Raad daarin bestee het om die regte gebou te soek, hoe ons maar gesukkel het met te min kaste om alles in te pak in die ou gebou. Nou het ons kaste en kaste en kaste. Tot "Rosie" het "fancy" laaie waarin sy haar liassering kan doen – geen bokse vir haar nie! Vir baie is die nuwe kantore heelwat nader en kan hulle lekker laat slaap! So ons behoort beter te funksioneer omdat meer as die helfte van die personeel langer kan slaap, die ander helfte sal maar soos altyd funksioneer . .
Rakke word vasgeskroef vir die promosie items (Jan se rug wou by tye nie meer nie) Graag wil ek al die personeellede bedank vir julle positiewe gesindheid en dat ons almal mekaar gehelp het om alles gou in plek te kry.
Dank ook aan die Raad en telers vir al die oproepe om ons sterkte toe te wens vir die verhuising.
Dis lekker om deel uit te maak van so ‘n span! Uit die pen van die kantoorbestuurder, Bernadine Rosy se nuwe kantoor Ek sien uit na die trek, hierdie keer is daar nie so baie "huis skoonmaak" soos 2 jaar gelede nie.
Dit gaan ‘n baie makliker "trek" wees en hopenlik in my tyd nog by die Genootskap se laaste eenKitty Le Roux Raadskamer nog baie deurmekaar B R A H M A N JoeRNAAl • JouRNAl • oK T oBeR/oCT oBeR 2013 Die tydskrif vir die veeboer
Bemark jou veiling en stoet by ons.
Tref die regte teiken!
Kontak my vir 'n kwotasie en advies Noëlin du Plessis • 082 803 9993 • noelin@veeplaas.co.za Weet die koper werklik van jou?
Promoveer jou stoet in Veeplaas.
SPESIALE TARIEF vir 'n 11-maande bespreking.
Kontak my vandag nog Tiny Smith • 079 768 1599 • tiny@veeplaas.co.za Slim, ingeligte boere lees Veeplaas
Tel: 087 808 9776 / 012 348 3509 Fax: 012 348 5893/1406 Private Bag X2010, Menlyn 0063 B R A H M A N JoeRNAAl • JouRNAl • oK T oBeR/oCT oBe enue, Lyttelton, Centur 53 LS = Long Sleeve SS = Short Sleeve Description
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Boys/Girls vector BOYS VECTOR BLK/WHT, LIME/NAVY, BOT/GOLD, ORANGE 3-4 BOYS VECTOR BLK/WHT, LIME/NAVY, BOT/GOLD, ORANGE 5-6 BOYS VECTOR BLK/WHT, LIME/NAVY, BOT/GOLD, ORANGE 7-8 BOYS VECTOR BLK/WHT, LIME/NAVY, BOT/GOLD, ORANGE 9-10 BOYS VECTOR BLK/WHT, LIME/NAVY, BOT/GOLD, ORANGE 11-12 BOYS VECTOR BLK/WHT , LIME/NAVY, BOT/GOLD, ORANGE13-14 GIRLS VECTOR BLK/WHT, LIME/NAVY, BOT/GOLD, ORANGE 3-4 GIRLS VECTOR BLK/WHT, LIME/NAVY, BOT/GOLD, ORANGE 5-6 GIRLS VECTOR BLK/WHT, LIME/NAVY, BOT/GOLD, ORANGE 7-8 GIRLS VECTOR BLK/WHT, LIME/NAVY, BOT/GOLD, ORANGE 9-10 GIRLS VECTOR BLK/WHT, LIME/NAVY, BOT/GOLD, ORANGE 11-12 GIRLS VECTOR BLK/WHT, LIME/NAVY, BOT/GOLD, ORANGE 13-14 LEGACY LOUNGE LS PINE/BLACK - M LEGACY LOUNGE LS PINE/BLACK - L LEGACY LOUNGE LS PINE/BLACK - XL LEGACY LOUNGE LS PINE/BLACK - 2XL LIBERTY KALAHARI SS - M LIBERTY KALAHARI SS - L LIBERTY KALAHARI SS - XL LIBERTY KALAHARI SS - 2XL Legacy Lounge Liberty Kalahari MEN AMBASSADOR KHAKI SS - M MEN AMBASSADOR KHAKI SS - L MEN AMBASSADOR KHAKI SS - XL MEN AMBASSADOR KHAKI SS - 2XL MEN SHOULDER STRIPE BLACK - M MEN SHOULDER STRIPE BLACK - L MEN SHOULDER STRIPE BLACK - XL MEN SHOULDER STRIPE BLACK - 2XL MEN SHOULDER STRIPE BOTTLE - M MEN SHOULDER STRIPE BOTTLE - L MEN SHOULDER STRIPE BOTTLE - XL MEN SHOULDER STRIPE BOTTLE - 2XL Shoulder stripe Black/Bottle MEN TWILL ROYAL SS - M MEN TWILL ROYAL SS - L MEN TWILL ROYAL SS - XL MEN TWILL ROYAL SS - 2XL CAMIES-XXL SWEATER ESSENTIAL CAMEL - XXL (Only 3 left) CAMIESN-M SWEATER ESSENTIAL NAVY - M CAMIESN-L SWEATER ESSENTIAL NAVY - L CAMIESN-XL SWEATER ESSENTIAL NAVY - XL CAMIESN-XXL SWEATER ESSENTIAL NAVY - XXL JACKET SHERPA NAVY-L Sweater essential JACKET SHERPA NAVY-XL JACKN-XXL JACKET SHERPA NAVY-XXL JACKN-XXXL JACKET SHERPA NAVY-XXXL LADIES TRAIL BLOUSE FOSSIL - S LADIES TRAIL BLOUSE FOSSIL - M LADIES TRAIL BLOUSE FOSSIL - L LADIES TRAIL BLOUSE FOSSIL - XL Jacket Sherpa Orders: 051 446 4619
B R A H M A N JoeRNAAl • JouRNAl • oK T oBeR/oCT oBeR 2013 karin@brahman.co.za • www.brahman.co.za
B R A H M A N JoeRNAAl • JouRNAl • oK T oBeR/oCT oBeR 2013 Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR)
In the beef industry FCR has always, and still is, the most popular measure of efficiency used worldwide. It is defined as the units of feed required for one unit gain in body weight. Unfortunately, FCR has strong correlations with size and weight traits. Reduced FCR will lead to an increase in mature size, which in turn will lead to an increase in maintenance requirements of the breeding herd if not included in a proper selection index limiting the genetic change in undesirable traits. Larger animals will not only consume more feed, but might also have reduced reproductive performance if sufficient feed is not available. FCR is also a ratio trait, which makes an improvement in FCR difficult to interpret and does not necessarily indicate an improvement in efficiency. A unit improvement in FCR could be due to either a decrease in feed intake or an increase in weight gain.
Residual Feed Intake (RFI)
The cost of feed is by far the largest expense (55-75% of total costs) in the beef cattle Over the last few decades a promising measure of feed efficiency has sparked industry, with 75% of feed energy used for interest from both researchers and the beef industry. This measure is residual maintenance. Selecting for more efficient feed intake (RFI), also called net feed intake, and is defined as the difference usage of feed could either decrease the between an animal's expected feed intake for its body weight and rate of cost of feeding by decreasing intake without growth, and its actual feed intake. Expected feed intake is calculated by decreasing growth, or increase income by regressing average daily gain against metabolic mid-weight. Some animals increasing growth without increasing intake. consume less feed while still growing at the same rate as those consuming This will in turn increase profit. Efficiency more feed. These animals have low RFI values and are more efficient. The can be improved genetically through the concept of RFI has been proposed for beef cattle in 1963, but has not received choice of breed, use of crossbreeding and much attention until the 1990's. Heritability estimates range between 0.14 and selection within breed. Traits that have 0.58, with most estimates higher than 0.25, showing sufficient genetic variation been used in an attempt to improve feed in beef populations to justify the inclusion of RFI in a selection programme.
efficiency include feed conversion ratio Residual Feed Intake vs. Feed Conversion Ratio
(FCR), Kleiber ratio, maintenance efficiency, Unlike FCR, RFI is not correlated to weight and size traits but highly correlated relative growth rate (RGR) and partial with feed intake, and is a linear trait. Selecting for low RFI can therefore efficiency of growth (PEG). It has been said decrease feed intake without reducing growth rate or increasing mature size. that after many years of selection, there has RFI is also not correlated to reproductive traits such as scrotal circumference, been little improvement in true efficiency, pregnancy rates and calving rates. Cows with low RFI values have, however, partly due to increased emphasis on weight been reported to calve 4-5 days later in the calving season, but have shorter traits and inconsistent selection goals. post-partum intervals and less calf deaths (partly due to a lower twinning rate). More efficient cattle should have lower dry Most studies have found no delay in puberty. Carcass fatness is unfavourably matter intakes, less manure production and correlated to RFI, with more efficient animals having less subcutaneous fat. less methane emission, while maintaining Carcasses still have adequate levels of fat and meet market specifications and weights similar to that of less efficient cattle. should therefore still be profitable. There is a method available to calculate RFI It is a challenge to select for animals that in such a way as to eliminate this effect, if the industry desires to do so. These are efficient in feedlots without increasing correlations with RFI show that using this measure as a selection tool has the the mature size of the breeding herd, which ability to improve profitability in more than one segment of the beef industry, will lead to an increase in maintenance cost.
as shown in Table 1: B R A H M A N JoeRNAAl • JouRNAl • oK T oBeR/oCT oBeR 2013 B R A H M A N JoeRNAAl • JouRNAl • oK T oBeR/oCT oBeR 2013 Table 1: Advantages of Residual Feed Intake (RFI) in different segments of the beef industry Decrease in costs due to reduced feed intake Maintain income since growth performance is not influenced A decrease in costs due to reduced feed intake and maintenance requirements No or little effect on reproductive performance No change in weaning and mature weights No remarkable effect on carcass value, especially if carcass fatness is adjusted for in the model Residual Gain (RG)
RFI is an exciting measurement of feed efficiency, however, trait should select for animals that grow faster and spend is has been criticised by some researchers and breeders, less time at the feedlot, without increasing their intake or especially for its independence of average daily gain (ADG). mature weight. It will therefore increase profit by increasing RFI selects for animals that eat less than expected without growth, while the expense of feed or maintenance cost of increasing size or growth, while not giving any indication of the breeding herd will not be increased. This measure of the size and level of growth, nor preference for large or feed efficiency has been adopted by the American Angus small animals. In other words, small, slow-growing animals can have a favourable RFI. Similarly a large, fast-growing Residual Intake and body weight gain (RIG)
animal can also have a favourable RFI. Small-growing animals with a favourable RFI eat less than expected for Residual intake and body weight gain (RIG) has been its growth, seemingly saving on feed costs, however, these proposed recently to combine RG and RFI and reap the animals will spend more time at the feedlot, which would benefits of both. Selecting for this trait has the purpose of lead to higher overall cost in feeding. A different measure selecting for animals that both consume less than expected of feed efficiency, residual gain (RG) was also proposed in and grow faster than expected without increasing mature 1963 but did not receive nearly as much attention as RFI. size. It is correlated to both growth and feed intake but not Residual gain is defined as the difference between actual to metabolic mid-weight. This trait is highly correlated to growth and expected growth for an animal's body weight FCR, implying that they might essentially be the same.
and feed intake. Expected growth is calculated by regressing To summarise, the properties of RFI, RG and RIG are feed intake over metabolic mid-weight. Selection for this presented in Table 2.
Table 2: Properties of residual feed intake (RFI), residual gain (RG) and residual intake and body weight gain (RIG) • Linear trait – easily interpreted • Ratio trait – difficult to interpret • Linear trait • Decreases feed intake • Increases mature weight • Increases growth • Increases growth • No effect on size weight • Increases maintenance • No effect on feed intake • Decreases feed intake • No, or little effect on • No, or little change • No effect on growth performance • Little or no effect on reproduction weight and size in weight and size • Little or no effect on reproduction • Reduces methane emission to a • Reduces methane emission lesser extent than RFI • Reduces manure production• Decreases carcass fatness What to use?
intake. Taking both RFI and ADG into consideration for a Which measure to use depends on the breeding objective selection decision can increase growth, while still decreasing and current genetic level of the herd. The use of RG or RIG feed intake and avoiding large animals.
as selection criteria is not the only way to overcome the Is smaller really better?
possible disadvantages of RFI or FCR. It is important, as with any selection, not to only use a single trait. Selection based Many researchers and breeders have hammered on the on RFI does not have to result in small, slow-growing animals dangers of selecting for larger animals, and they have very if ADG or/and height traits are also taken into consideration valid points. However, it is not necessarily fair to label an when making selection decisions. If the current level of animal as inefficient and undesirable because it is bigger. growth and weight in the herd is satisfactory, selecting for Environments with abundant food can sustain larger RFI has the potential to keep it that way while decreasing animals without decreasing reproductive performance. B R A H M A N JoeRNAAl • JouRNAl • oK T oBeR/oCT oBeR 2013 They receive enough feed to meet energy requirements for maintenance, growth, reproduction and the raising of Feed efficiency is an important factor to take into heavier calves. Yes, larger animals have higher maintenance consideration for selection in the beef industry since the requirements, but when compared to smaller animals, they cost of feeding is the largest expense. Many measures have require less energy per kg body weight. The increased been proposed and used, each with their own advantages expense of feeding costs can be justified if the increase and disadvantages. The most widely used measure, FCR, is a in income from more meat outweighs it. There is also a ratio trait, leading to less predictable results, and can lead to difference between biological efficiency and economic the increase in mature size. RFI is a linear trait and overcomes efficiency. If the net result is still profitable, why not have this disadvantage by improving efficiency without increasing bigger animals? Smaller animals in good environments can mature size and maintenance costs of the breeding herd. Its be economically less efficient. The surplus available food will independence from growth has been criticised as leading to be converted to fat, which is less efficient. Although all the slow-growing animals that spend more time in feedlots and animals will meet their requirements, these smaller animals alternative measures and approaches have been proposed, don't have as much genetic potential to produce more milk such as RG and the inclusion of ADG with RFI in a selection and raise heavier calves than larger animals. The opposite index. The measure of feed efficiency to use depends on is true when environments are harsh, with less available the breeding objective and the environment, as small animals feed. In such areas larger animals will struggle to meet their are not necessarily more desirable in certain environments requirements for maintenance, reproduction and lactation. compared to larger animals.
Fertility can decrease and the cost of supplement feed can be high. Smaller animals would suit this environment better as fertility won't be compromised and less (or no) supplement feeding will be required. B R A H M A N JoeRNAAl • JouRNAl • oK T oBeR/oCT oBeR 2013 with youth & EXPERIENCE - ANNELIE COLEMANFarmer's Weekly Heinrich Bruwer (27) started breeding stud cattle in 2001 while still at school. He had been Agri North West's 2013 Young Farmer of the to the USA for a youth show to learn about judging cattle, an experience that left its mark on Year, Heinrich Bruwer believes that it makes him and charted his future.
"I always loved cattle and started breeding economic sense to increase individual animal Santa Gertrudis on my parents' farm. I saved what I could and borrowed from my dad in the productivity as this will be reflected in optimum beginning. The first year I kept only one heifer and a bull, sold the other calves and bought a income per hectare.
top in-calf cow.
"After school I worked for well-known Vryburg stud breeder Jan van Zyl of Kroonvee Brahmans, who taught me the basics of breeding stud cattle. I soon realised I couldn't run my own animals by remote control!" Heinrich farms about 60km north of Vryburg on a spread of three farms, Lovedale, Grandview and Excelsior. He bought Lovedale farm in partnership with his parents Bokkie and Amanda two years ago and runs Brahman, Santa Gertrudis and Simbra studs, a commercial Braford herd and a flock of 50 indigenous speckled goats.
The three farms provide 2 400ha of veld grazing in the Kalahari thornveld of the far North West. Deep, sandy soils are typical of this arid area and the dominant tree species is the camel thorn (Acacia erioloba).
Cattle eat the nutritious pods of this acacia in winter. Annual rainfall is between 450mm and 550mm.
Grazing consists mainly of bushman grass (Aristida uniplumis), black-footed signal grass (Brachiaria nigropedata), Kalahari Sand Quick (Schmidtia pappophoroides) and wool grass (Anthephora pubescens). The wool grass occurs naturally on undisturbed sandy soils and Heinrich, like other farmers in the area, collects seed and plants old maize lands to wool grass.
"It is a hardy species with nutritional value that provides quality roughage," he says.
The Santa Gertrudis and Brahman herds consist of 50 animals each, while there are 30 animals in the Simbra herd and 70 animals in the commercial Braford herd.
B R A H M A N JoeRNAAl • JouRNAl • AugusTus 2013

Source: http://www.brahman.co.za/Media/Journals/2013/2013%20October/Brahman%20Oct%202013%2003.pdf

Notes

2016 LIST OF RELIGIOUS HOLY DAYS 1. The Ontario Public Service allows up to two days paid leave under the Special & Compassionate Leave provision for OPS regular employees, and for OPSEU and PEGO Fixed Term employees with access to this leave. 2. The AMAPCEO collective agreement provides Fixed Term employees with up to two days unpaid leave for religious holiday accommodation

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