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Curriculum bds final


CURRICULUM
PAKISTAN MEDICAL & DENTAL COUNCIL
HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION
ISLAMABAD
CONTENTS
Curriculum of B.D.S. Scheme of Studies Details of Courses: Ist Professional B.D.S. Second Professional Third professional B.D.S. Final professional B.D.S. The Pakistan Medical & Dental Council is a statutory body constituted by the Federal Government under the Pakistan Medical & Dental Council Ordinance, 1962. Presently controlled by the Council. One of the main function of the Council is to lay down the minimum standard of basic and higher qualifications in Medicine & Dentistry. The Council has been empowered to: - To prescribe a uniform minimum standard of courses of training for obtaining graduate and postgraduate dental qualification. - To prescribe minimum requirements for the content and duration of courses of studies for the degree of BDS. - To prescribe condition for admission to courses of training for the - To prescribe the standards of examinations method of conducting the For this purpose senior teachers of all specialties were invited & draft curriculum was finalized after due consideration of the comments and suggestions received from the Universities and Colleges where the subject under consideration is taught. The Curriculum prepared by the Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission was duly approved by Council & is being circulated for implementation by the concerned institutions on. This Curriculum is to be followed by all the Dental Colleges and Universities in Pakistan to get registration of the Council for Dental practitioners.
(PROF.DR.ALTAF ALI G. SHAIKH)
(DR.M. SOHAIL KARIM HASHMI)
ADVISER (Academics/R&D)
SECRETARY
CURRICULUM OF BDS
(FOUR YEARS)
A meeting of NCRC B.D.S. was held on 19.8.2003 to restructure the B.D.S. curriculum into four years from five years as decided in the Council Session held on 29th & 30th April 2003. The Committee considered the proposals of subjects specialists in various disciplines of Dentistry and discussed the following:- Nomenclature of various subjects Duration of BDS course Year-wise distribution of subjects Distribution of sub-specialties Examination system restructuring Internal assessment factors Allocation of credit hours First draft curriculum of various subjects taught in BDS. Books recommended Following recommendations were proposed unanimously:- Nomenclature of Oral Surgery should be changed to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Prosthetics should be called Prosthodontics Conservative Dentistry be called Operative Dentistry Dental Anatomy should be renamed as Oral Biology and Tooth Morphology Dental Chemistry should be called Science of Dental Materials It was also proposed that Periodontology, Gerodontology and Paedondontics are the best descriptive terms. YEAR WISE DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS:
Histology and Embryology Physiology General Pathology Operative Dentistry Oral Biology and Tooth Morphology Maxillofacial Surgery Dental Materials Islamiat / Ethics It was felt that Oral Medicine and Periodontology should be independent subjects but till the availability of subject specialists they could be taught together. Those institutions where separate subject specialists are available with developed departments may teach and examine these subjects independently. ?? Where the department of Paediatric Dentistry with qualified staff is available there will be a separate examination of the subject in final year BDS. Examination System
Examination System was restructured as following: - All papers should consist of MCQs and essay type question. Internal evaluation of each subject carries 10% marks of the total to be adjusted in practical marks. The question paper should be according to the table of specification provided in curriculum of that subject. SCHEME OF STUDIES
YEAR AND SUBJECT WISE DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS
FIRST PROFESSIONAL BDS
SUBJECTS
Practical
General Physiology Science of Dental Materials SECOND PROFESSIONAL BDS
SUBJECTS
Practical
Oral Biology and Tooth morphology Community and Preventive Dentistry THIRD PROFESSIONAL BDS
SUBJECTS
Practical
General Medicine Periodontology/Oral Medicine Note: Periodontology/Oral Medicine will share equal weightage of marks in
theory and practical i.e. 50% each. FINAL PROFESSIONAL BDS
SUBJECTS
Practical
Operative Dentistry Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 800 = 1200

ALLOCATION OF CREDIT HOURS
FIRST PROFESSIONAL BDS

LECTURE HOURS
PRACTICAL HOURS
Science of Dental Materials Pakistan Studies/ Islamic Studies Information Technology 900 =1200 hrs
SECOND PROFESSIONAL BDS
SUBJECTS
LECTURES HOURS
PRACTICAL HOURS
General Pathology General Pharmacology Oral Biology and Tooth morphology Community and Preventive Dentistry Junior Operative/Dental Material Medica Junior Prosthodontics Information Technology Total 250
950 = 1200 hrs
Note: Paedodontics will have 25% weightage of Operative Dentistry where ever fully operational department with qualified staff exists. THIRD PROFESSIONAL BDS

SUBJECTS

LECTURES AND PRACTICAL AND
DEMONSTRATION

CLINICAL HOURS
General Medicine Oral Medicine & Diagnosis Operative Dentistry Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Total 330
920 = 1250 hrs
NOTE: - Clinical hour of General Medicine and Surgery may be extended to evening ward duties in addition to allotted hours. FINAL PROFESSIONAL BDS

SUBJECTS

LECTURES AND
PRACTICAL
Complete Dentures Fixed Prosthodontics Maxillofacial Prosthodontics Operative Dentistry

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

Forensic Dentistry
Orthodontia
Radiology(Cephalometry) 1000 = 1250 hrs
DETAILS OF COURSES
FIRST PROFESSIONAL BDS

A. GENERAL ANATOMY

1.
Brief history of Anatomy. Different disciplines of the subject. Anatomical nomenclature-descriptive terms. Skeletal system-bones. ??Axial Skeleton ??Appendicular Skeleton ??Functions of bone ??Classification on the basis of shape, development, region and ??General concepts of development & ossification of bones ??Parts of young bones ??Blood supply of long bones ??Applied Anatomy of bones Joints ??Structural classification ??Regional classification ??Functional classification ??Characteristics and classification of Synovial joints ??Movements of Synovial joints ??Anatomy of joints with reference to dislocation, sprain and Muscle ?? Parts of a muscle ?? Classification ?? Blood supply and nerve supply of muscle ?? Neuromusclular junction ?? Applied anatomy of muscle with reference to spasm, paralysis, atrophy and regeneration. Cardiovascular system ??Introduction to C.V.S ??Types of circulation Introduction to Iymphatic system ??Lymph node ??Lymph capillary Nervous system ??Introduction to CNS ??Different parts of CNS with their brief functions ??Peripheral nervous system (cranial and spinal nerves)- introduction Autonomic nervous system ??Introduction to parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system 10. Skin and Fascia ??Skin, superficial and deep fascia, introduction 11. Techniques to study Anatomy ??Introduction to radiographs ??Radio opaque media ??Special X.Ray techniques like Barium Meal, Angiography, Ultrasound, C.T.Scan and MRI.
GENERAL HISTOLOGY

?? Histology will be taught concurrently with Anatomy throughout the
?? Underlying principles of histology techniques and staining specific tissues should be explained. ?? Most of the teaching will be done on stained and mounted sections and every type of normal tissue will be covered. Cell ?? Cell as a whole ?? Cell Membrane ?? Interior of cell Epithelial tissues Connective tissue Nervous tissue & Nervous system The nervous system ??Cerebral cortex ??Cerebellar cortex Circulatory system
GENERAL EMBRYOLOGY

Embryology should be taught with the object of making students understand and grasp those fundamental principles, which result in better comprehension of the structural organization in the body. Stress should be laid on those developmental processes such as growth and differentiation, which have a direct bearing on clinical subjects. The genesis of congenital malformations should be one of the chief aims. All details should be kept on the essential outline. 1. Male & female reproductive systems. Cell Division and Gametogensis Fertilization, cleavage, blastocyst formation and implantation Development during second week Development during third week Embryonic period Fetal membrane (amniotic cavity, yolk sac, allantois, umbilical cord and placenta) Introduction to Genetics and Teratogenesis
GROSS ANATOMY

During study of Gross Anatomy, emphasis should be given on applied points, radiological anatomy, surface anatomy and cross-sectional anatomy. REGION TO BE COVERED IN EACH PART
PART-I
?? GENERAL ANATOMY
?? GENERAL HISTOLOGY ?? GENERAL EMBRYOLOGY including teratogenesis ?? UPPER LIMB} Introduction ?? LOWER LIMB}Introduction PART – II

?? SPECIAL HISTOLOGY
?? SPECIAL EMBRYOLOGY ?? NEUROANATOMY BOOKS RECOMMENDED Latest editions of the books recommended should be consulted. ANATOMY 1. GRAY'S ANATOMY to be used as a reference book 2. CUNINGHAM'S MANUAL OF PRACTICAL ANATOMY 3. CLINICAL ANATOMY BY SNELL'S 4. CLINICALY ORIENTED ANATOMY BY K.L.MOORE 1. JANCQUERA TEXTBOOK OF HISTOLOGY 2. COLOURD ATLAS OF HISTOLOGY BY DEFIERO 1. LANGMAN'S EMBRYOLOGY 2. CLINICALY ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT ANATOMY BY
RECOMMENDATIONS

Learning in the anatomy should be through dissection/dissected
parts/models.
Evaluation should consist of: - 1. Continuous internal assessment 2. MCQs 3. Short essay questions 4. Viva voce examination SPECIAL HISTOLOGY 1. The digestive system ?? The oral cavity ?? Tongue, Teeth, Gums, Pharynx, Hard palate, Soft palate and lips. ?? Salivary glands 2. The respiratory system ?? Nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, larynx and trachea ?? Bronchi and lungs 3. The endocrine system ?? Thyroid and parathyroid SPECIAL EMBRYOLOGY 1. Development of Head & Neck ?? Upper respiratory system ?? Development of face and palate The digestive system The respiratory system The cardiovascular system The musculo-skeletal system ?? Development of skeleton ?? Development of muscles Development of nervous system During study of Gross Anatomy, emphasis should be given on applied points, radiological anatomy, surface anatomy and Cross-sectional anatomy. HEAD & NECK (In detail) Brain, limb, Thorax, Abdomen & Pelvis. (General consideration) B - PHYSIOLOGY
Clinical / Applied Concepts General Physiology / Cell Functional organization of human Abnormalities of the cell & Homeostasis Control systems in the body Cell membrane and its functions Transport through cell membrane Genetics Blood Composition and General Functions Plasma proteins Red Blood Cell (Erythropoiesis) Haemonglobin & Blood Blood indices in various Indices, Iron metabolism, Fate of Hb White Blood Cells Leucopoiesis, Leucocytosis Leucopoiesis, functions Platelets Thrombocytopaenia Clotting disorders (Haemophilia etc) Blood grouping / cross Blood Transfusion & complications matching & significance Reticuloendothelial systems, spleen Nerve and muscle The neuron-structure & functions Properties of Nerve Fibers Physiology of action Potential Including compound action potentials Conduction of Nerve Impulse, Nerve Degeneration and regeneration Synapses Structure of the muscle Skeletal muscle contraction Rigor Mortis & Contractures Isometric and isotonic contraction Smooth muscle contraction Neuromuscular Transmission Myasthenia Gravis Excitation-contraction coupling Motor Unit Neuromuscular Blockers Gastrointestinal Tract Structure and General Functions Enteric nervous system (Gut Brain) Mastication, Swallowing and their Dysphagia, achlasia of Functions and movements of Examination of abdomen, Peptic Ulcer, pancreatitis Functions and movements of Gastric function tests Small intestine Functions and movements of large Intestine Hormones of GIT Vomiting and its pathway Vomiting and its effects Defecation and its pathway Functions of Liver Jaundice, Liver function tests Cardio Vascular system Introduction to heart & circulation Correlation of cardiac cycle with ECG & heart sounds Physiology of cardiac muscle Action potential in atrial & ventricular Muscle and pacemaker potential Regulation of cardiac functions Cardiac impulse-origin & propagation Cardiac cycle- various events ECG-Recording & interpretation Functional types of blood vessels Local control of blood flow Systemic circulation, Characteristics and control Regulation of peripheral resistance Arterial pulse Jugular venous pulse Arterial blood pressure (short/long Term regulation) Radial/other pulses Hypertension, types & Heart sound/murmurs Venous return & its regulation Coronary circulation Pulmonary circulation Cerebral circulation Cardiovascular changes during exercise
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Organization / functions of
Respiratory Tract
Functions of Lungs (respiratory & non
Types of respiration pressure, pneumothorax, Mechanics of Breathing Lung function tests spirometry) Protective reflexes Lung volumes and capacities Obstructive/Restrictive lung Disease (FEV1 / FVC) Dead space Diffusion of Gases (composition) Ventilation / perfusion Ventilation / perfusion Transport of C02 in blood Regulation of respiration (Nervous / Chemical) Abnormal breathing Hypoxia-types and effects Hypoxia, cyanosis, Physiology of Cyanosis Physiology of high altitude, Artificial respiration Exercise
ANNEXURE FOR PHYSIOLOGY

Recommended books
1.
Text book of Medical physiology by Arthur C. Guyton. Review of Medical physiology by Ganong. N.M.S text book of physiology. RECOMMENDED MODES OF ASSESSMENTS Continuous Internal Assessment ( as recommended by PM&DC). a. Descriptive: consisting of short essay questions and short notes. b. Multiple choice questions (MCQ's) Oral & Practicals a. Viva voce: it should be about definitions, normal values, mechanisms, interpretations. Drawing / labelling of graphs / diagrams. Conceptual questions should be asked. b. Practical: Two experiments to be performed by the student OSPE (objective structured practical examinations) should be encouraged.
Nervous System
Organization of Nervous system
Classification of nerve fibers
Properties of Synaptic transmission
Types and function of sensory
Functions of spinal cord, ascending Tracts Reflex action/muscle tone Interpretation of Reflexes Muscle spindle / muscle tone UMN/LMN Lesion-features and Tactile, temperature and pain Sensations structure of cerebral Motor Cortex Motor pathways, pyramidal & extra Pyramidal) Basal Ganglia, connections and functions Parkinsonism and of Vestibular Apparatus/Regulation of Posture & Equilibrium Reticular formation Basal ganglia cerebellar Disorder Physiology of sleep / EEG Physiology of speech Thalamus- Nuclei & functions Hypothalamus & limbic Cerebrospinal fluid Regulation of body temperature Functions of skin Autonomic Nervous system Special senses Physiology of smell Olfaction / taste Physiology of taste Endocrinology General principles (classification, Mechanism of action, feed back control) Acromegaly, Giantism Biosynthesis, transport, metabolism, actions and control of secretion of hormones of; Hypothalamus Anterior Pituitary Posterior Pituitary Panhypopituitarism Parathyroid, calcitomin Diabetes insipidus Adrenal Medulla Myxoedema, Creatinism, Pheochromocytoma Cushing's syndrome, Cohn's disease Addision's disease, Diabetes Mellitus & Hypoglycemia Physiology of growth EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY

Haematolgy
Study of the microscope
Determination of : -
Haemoglobin (Hb%)
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
Packed cell volume (PVC) Haematocrit
Bleeding time (BT)
Clotting time (CT)
Blood Groups
Study of Neubauer chamber
RBCs Count
Red cell indices
WBCs Count
Differential leucocyte Count (DLC)
Osmotic fragility of chest
Demonstration of prothrombin time and thrombin time
Respiratory System
Measurement of Pulmonary volumes and capacities (Spirometry)
Stethography
Nervous System
Examination of superficial reflexes
Examination of deep reflexes
Examination of sensory, motor system
Clinical Examination of cranial nerves
Cardiovascular System
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Examination of arterial pulse
ECG recording/interpretation
Measurement of arterial blood pressure
Effect of exercise & posture on BP
Examination of Apex Beat
Heart Sounds – auscultation of normal sounds/murmurs
Special Senses
Taste sensation
Recording of body temperature
C : BIOCHEMISTRY

1.
Introduction of Biochemistry: Biochemistry of the Cell Introduction to cell (Biochemical point of view) Scientific methods to study the cell Biochemistry Biochemical composition of the cell Biochemistry of the Cell and Body Fluids: a) Ionization of water & weak acids, Bases Concept of Ph, and pH scale Dissociation constant & titration curve of weak acids, the concept of pK values Buffers, their mechanism of action Henderson-Hesselbalch Equation (No derivation) Importance of selectively permeable membranes, Osmosis, Osmotic pressure, surface tension, viscocity & their importance related to body fluids Definition, biochemical function and classification Structure and functions of Monosaccharides, and their derivatives Disaccharides, their important examples Oligosaccharides, their important combination with other macromolecules Polysaccharides, their important examples and biochemical role The biochemical importance of carbohydrates Definitions, Biomedical importance and classification of proteins Based on - Physiochemical properties Amino acids, their structure, properties and functions Classification and nutritional significance of amino acids Structure of proteins and their significance Separation of proteins e.g. salting out, Electroresis, Chromatography, Centrifugation Immunoglobulins and its biomedical significance Plasma proteins & their clinical significance Nucleotide and Nucleic Acid: Chemistry and structure of nucleotides and their biochemical role Nucleotides, structure, their derivatives and their biochemical role Nucleic acids, their types, structure and functions Definition, biomedical function Classification of lipids Phospholipids, Glycolipids, Sphingolipds and their Biochemical signation Fatty acids, chemistry, classification and biochemical function Essential fatty acids Eicosanoids, their classification and functions in heallth and disease Steroids, Sterol e.g Cholesterol, their chemistry, functions and clinical Significance Lipid peroxidation and its Significance Biological Membrance: Biochemical composition Biochemistry of cell membrane, chemical composition, importance of Lipid and proteins in membranes, chemistry of signals and receptors Biochemistry of membrane transport mechanism, active transport, Passive transport, simple and facilitated diffusion Introduction, definition, mechanism of catalysis Coenzymes, co-factors Isoenzymes, their clinical importance Factors affecting enzymes activity, Michaelis-Menten Equation, (no derivation of equations) Enzyme inhibitors and their classification and biomedical importance Application of enzyme in clinical diagnosis and therapeutic use Porphyrins & Hemoglobin: a) Chemistry and biosynthesis of porphyrins and its disorders (porphyrias) Structure, functions and types of hemoglobin Oxygen binding capacity of hemoglobin, factors affecting and regulating the oxygen binding capcity of hemoglobin Degradation of heme, formation of Bile pigments, its types, transport and excretion Hyperbilirubinimea, their biochemical causes and differentiation, Jaundice and its types Hemoglobinopathies (HP-S, Thalasemia etc) and their biochemical causes Introduction, classification chemistry, biochemical functions, deficiency manifestations, daily allowances and source of water soluble and fat-soluble vitamins Hypervitaminosis Biochemistry of Digestive Tract: a) Introduction of digestion and absorption Introduction, composition, functions, daily secretion, stimulants and depressants of: Gastric Juice & HCL Pancreatic Juice Succus Entericus Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acid and lipids. Biochemical disorders of GIT, e.g. achlorhydria, peptic ulcers, Lactose intolerance, cholelithiasis and related disorders.(Introductions) Mineral & Trace Elements: Classification and Biochemical role of: Macro minerals (Na,K,Ca, CI, PO4) Micro minerals (Fe,Zn,Mg,Se,I,Cu,Cr,Cd.Mn) Laboratory Practicals Introduction to use laboratory facilities / equipment's Basic techniques and fundamental informations Preparation of solutions-Normal solution and Normal saline Experiments on Carbohydrates qualitative analysis Experiments on proteins- qualitative analysis Experiments on Fats- qualitative analysis Chemical analysis of Urine-Normal and abnormal specimens D: SCIENCE OF DENTAL MATERIALS
Introduction to Dental Materials Physical properties of materials:- a) Characterisation of solid surfaces b) Adsorption, absorption, and sorption. c) Surface tension, wetting, capillary rise d) Forces involved in denture retention Thermal, Electrical and other related properties of dental Mechanical properties i.e. stress, strain, stress/strain relationship and other related properties. Classification of dental materials on their basis of chemistry eg. example Polymers, Ceramics, Metals, Alloy and Impression materials in all respects and duplicating Duplicating materials Gypsum products and investment materials. Investment materials 10 Dental Waxes . 11 Separating media used in dentistry 12 Polymers:- ? Requirements of denture base materials. ? Properties of Acrylic Resin as a denture base materials, their composition, manipulation and ? Alternative denture base materials. ? Artificial teeth. ? Types of Acrylic Resin polymerization i.e. heat cured Acrylic denture plastics, chemically accelerated plastics, fluid resin acrylic denture plastics, light cured denture plastics, repair, relining and rebasing ? Tissue conditioning materials and soft linner. 13 Adhesion : Enamel and Dentine bonding agents and 14 Dental Cements. ?? Zinc Phosphate Cement. ?? Zinc Oxide/Eugenol, Modified Zinc Oxide/Eugenol, Ethoxy Benzoyic Acid Cement, Zinc Polycarboxylate , Zinc Polyacrylate Cement, Silico Phosphate Cement. ?? Glass Ionomer Cement and Hybrid Ionomer Cement ?? Compomers, Cavity Varnish, Cavity Linners, Calcium Hydroxide and Guttapurcha. Composite Restorative Materials and properties of composites ? Dental amalgam alloys ? Amalgamation process ? Properties and uses of dental amalgam General Characteristics of Metals ?? Extraction of metals from their ores and their purification. ?? Micro leakage, creep, galvanism, cold working/strain hardning, Annealing ?? Welding and soldering. ?? Tarnish and corrosion and their types. Alloys and its types. Dental casting gold alloys its composition, properties uses. Base metal casting alloys, their composition, properties and comparison with casting gold alloys. Wrought alloys, i.e. steel and stainless steel. Porcelain and bonded porcelain as a dental ceramic, classification of dental porcelain, composition, properties, manufacturing and firing and their uses. Maxillo facial materials used in dentistry. Abrasion and polishing materials Practical And Laboratory Techniques
Identification and manipulation of all dental materials. Laboratory procedures / experience of Acrylic, partial denture and crown and bridge work. Books Recommended a) Restorative Dental Material by Robert G. Craig and John M. Power. b) Skinner's "Science of Dental Materials" c) Chemistry of Dental Materials by Mc Cabe d) Notes on Dental Materials by M. C. Comb e) Science of Dental Materials by William and Cunnigham E - PAKISTAN STUDIES AND ISLAMIAT

The role of sufis and saints in the spread of Islam in the subcontinent. Shah Waliullah and Tehrik – I – Mujahidin. The war of Independence 1857. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and two nation theory. The Aligarh Movement. The Muslim League. The Nehru report and Quaid-I-Azam 14 points. The Ideology of Pakistan. The initial problems faced by newly independent Pakistan. Pakistan and the Muslim World. The Kashmir problem. The U.N.O. The fudamental pillars of Islam. The Holy Qur'an: Sura-e-Furqan. Hadith-e-Nabvi. Uswa-e-Husna. Ashra-e-Mubshra. The Meccan period and life in Medina. Hajja-Tul-Wida. The Rashida Caliphate. SECOND PROFESSIONAL BDS

A: GENERAL PATHOLOGY

1. Cell Injury:
a. Terms necrosis, ischemia, hypoxia, infarction and gangrene. b. Sequence of the ultrastructural and biochemical changes which occur in the cell in response to the following: ?? Ischemia ?? Immunological injury-eg. Asthma / SLE /Anaphylactic ?? Physical agents: eg. Radiation ?? Genetic defects- eg. Thalassemia / haemophilia ?? Nutritional deficiency ?? Infectious agents ?? Viruses: eg. Hepatitis / Aids / HIV infections ?? Fungi: eg. Candida Albicans/Candidosis ?? Parasites: eg. Malaria c. Irreversible and reversible injury. d. Apoptosis and its significance. e. Necrosis and its types. f. Exogenous and endogenous pigment deposition g. Dystrophic and metastatic calcification along with clinical h. Metabolic disorders INFLAMMATION AND MEDIATORS OF INFLAMMATION
a) Describe the role of inflammation in the defense mechanisms of b) Describe the vascular changes of acute inflammation and relate these to the morphological and tissue effects. c) Describe the process of chemotaxis, opsonization and phagocytosis. d) Describe the role of cellular components in inflammatory e) Differentiate between exudate and transudate. f) List the important chemical mediators of inflammation Describe the pathway of Arachidonic Acid metabolism. Discuss the role of products of Arachidonic acid metabolism in inflammation. Describe the mechanism for development of fever, with reference to exogenous and endogenous pyrogens. Describe chronic inflammation including granulomas. Describe granuloma , its type and causes. Describe the systemic effects of acute and chronic inflammation and their possible outcomes. m) Describe the signification of ESR. n) Give two example of induced hypothermia in medicine. Describe the pathogencsis, clinical features and lab. Diagnosis of Gout. Describe the management of acute and chronic Gout. WOUND HEALING
?? Describe the differences between repair and regeneration . ?? Describe wound healing by first and second intention. ?? Discuss the factors that influence the inflammatory reparative ?? Compare wound contraction with cicatrization. ?? Describe the formation of granulation tissue. ?? Describe the complications of wound healing. DISORDERS OF CIRCULATION
a) THROMBO-EMBOLIC DISORDERS AND THEIR MODALITIES: 1. Explain the pathogenesis of thrombosis. 2. Describe the possible consequences of thrombosis. b) DISORDERS OF THE CIRCULATION AND SHOCK 1. Define edema, ascites, hydrothorax and anasarca. 2. Describe the pathophysiology of edema with special emphasis 3. Describe the pathogenesis of four major types of shock (Hypovolemic, cardiogenic, vasovagal and septic) and list their causes. 4. Describe the compensatory mechanisms involved in shock. Describe the defense mechanisms of the body. Describe the microbial mechanisms of invasion and virulence. Differentiate between sterilization and disinfection. Describe methods of disinfection and sterilization. Describe the principles of aseptic techniques. Describe universal precautions for infection control. Describe the general principles of the following serological tests: ?? ELISA – Hepatitis (A,B,C,D,E,G) Rubella, CMV and HIV ?? Haemagglutination – TPHA ?? Westem blot – HIV ?? ICT – Malaria Interpret: a) Culture reports, b) Serological reports and c) microscopic reports of gram stain and AFB stain. Describe the principles of proper collection and submission of specimens for laboratory investigations with due precautions. Describe the general characteristics and taxonomy of Bacteria, Viruses and Fungi. Define communicable endemic, epidemic and pandemic diseases, carriers, pathogens, opportunists, commensals and colonizers. List the microorganisms responsible for infection of the body with especial reference to oral cavity. Describe pathogenesis, treatment, epidemiology, prevention and control of the following organisms. ?? Bacteria: 14. DESCRIBE PRINCIPLES OF ANTI MICROBIAL ACTION GENETICS
1. Agenesis, Dysgencsis, Aplasia, Hypoplasia, Hyperplasia, Metaplasia, Dysplasia,Neoplasia, Anaplasia, Atrophy and Hypertrophy. 2. Cell cycle and list cell types (stable, labile , permanent) 3. Mechanisms controlling cell growth. 4. Classification systems of tumors. 5. Characteristics of benign and malignant tumors. 6. Grading and staging system of tumors. 7. Biology of tumor growth. 8. Process of carcinogenesis. 9. Host defense against tumors. 10. Mechanism of local and distant spread. Llocal and systemic effects of tumors. Tumor markers used in the diagnosis and management of cancers. Chemical, Physical agents and Viruses related to human cancer. Epidemiology of common cancers in Pakistan. IMMUNOLOGY
Antigen, antibody, epitope, hapten and adhesion molecules. Innate and acquired immunity. Type I, type II, type III, and type IV hypersensitivity reactions. Classification of the immunodeficiency disorders. Autoimmunity. THE ORAL CAVITY:
?? Predisposing factors (pipe smoking, ill fitting denture, alcohol abuse, irritant foods) of leukoplakia. ?? Risk factors of oral cancer. ?? Clinical and morphological features of oral cancer. ?? Benign and malignant tumours of salivary glands. ?? Clinical and morphological features of plemorphic adenoma. B: GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY
General Pharmacology: Definition of drug and drug nomenclature. Branches / Divisions of Pharmacology Sources of drugs Active principles of drug and Pharmacology Dosage forms and doses of drugs. Drug administration. Absorption of drugs and processes involved in drug absorption Factors modifying absorption of drugs. Transport of drugs across cell-membrane 10. Bioavailability, its clinical significance and factors affecting bioavailitability 11. Drugs reservoirs, distribution and redistribution of drugs, plasma 12. Pro-drug, Biotransformation of drugs, enzyme induction, enzyme inhibition and entero-hepatic circulation 13. Plasma half-life of drugs, steady state concentration, its clinical importance and factors affecting it. 14. Excretion of drugs. 15. Mechanism of drug action. 16. Dose response curves, structure-activity relationship. 17. Factors modifying action and doses of drugss. 18. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and Receptors Locally Acting Drugs ?? Demulcents, Emollients, Irritants, Counter irritants, Astringents, anti- seborrheics, locally acting enzymes. ?? Antiseptics and Disinfectants ?? Ectoparasiticides Drugs Acting on Gastrointestinal Tract Cardiovascular Drugs ?? Antiarrythmic Drugs ?? Ionotropic Drugs ?? Antianginal Drugs ?? Thrombolytics ?? Antihyperlipidemic Drugs Diuretics Autocoids Drugs Acting on Autonomic Nervous system Cholinergic Drugs ?? Choline Esters ?? Anticholine-esterases ?? Cholinomimetic Alkaloids Anti- Cholinergic Drugs ?? Anti Muscarinic ?? Non catecholamine Sympatholytics / Antiadrenergics ?? Alpha Adrenergic Blockers ?? Beta Adrenergic receptor Blockers Adrenergic Neuron Blockers Autonomic Ganglionic Blockers Skeletal Muscle Relaxants Neuromuscular Blocking Agents – D-tubocurarine, Suxamethanin Central Muscle Relaxants, Meprobromate, Mephenesim , Diazepam etc. Central Nervous System Sedative-Hypnotics General Anaesthetics Local Anesthetics Drugs for movement Disorder/Muscle Relaxant Drugs for Migraine Stimulants of the Central Nervous System: ?? Caffeine, Theophyline, Theobromine ?? Brain stem stimulants: Picrotoxin, Nikethamide, Ethamivan, Psychopharmacology ?? Anti-psychotics ?? Anti-Depressant / Anti mania Drugs acting on Endocrine System a) Drugs-Hypothalamic Drugs Adrenocorticoids Thyroid / Parathyroid Drugs Pancreatic Hormones and Oral hypoplyglcemic Agents ANTIBIOTICS:

Parameters:
?? Provisional Diagnosis, Investigation, Empirical Therapy, prescribing culture and sensitivity.

VITAMINS:

Parameters:
?? Groups of vitamins prescribed
?? Vitamins prescribed on basis of therapeutic indication or empirical ?? Single / multiple vitamins prescribing ?? Rational with use of vitamins. ANALGESICS:

Parameters:
?? Various groups of analgesics prescribed
?? Single / multiple adverse drug prescription. ?? Non specific indications of analgesic prescribed
ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS
Anti-microbials, cytotoxic drugs, steroids etc.
C: ORAL BIOLOGY & TOOTH MORPHOLOGY

EMBRYOLOGY
?? General human development
?? The brachial apparatus ?? Development of face/tongue/thyroid gland ?? Development of nasomaxillary complex ?? Development of palate ?? Development of mandible and temporo mandibular joint ?? Development of para-nasal sinuses ?? Development of salivary glands ?? Tooth development and its associated structures ?? Development of cartilages and bones of facial skeleton ?? Introduction of clinical anomalies related with all the above topics ?? Introduction to Post natal facial growth. ?? Development of base of skull Developmental Histology (structure) and Function of: - ?? Bone/cartilage (specially jaws) ?? Alveolar bone ?? Periodontal ligament ?? Tooth eruption and shedding ?? Oral mucous membrane ?? Temporo-mandibular joint clinical consideration ?? Endogenous implants/changes during tooth movement/wound healing ORAL PHYSIOLOGY: ?? Immunology ?? Calcium metabolism and bone ?? The healing of bone fractures ?? Repair and regeneration of dental tissues ?? Histology and function of a) Saliva and salivary glands b) Taste and taste organs c) Pain and pain pathway TOOTH MORPHOLOGY AND OCCLUSION ?? Introduction and nomenclature ?? Anatomic and physiologic consideration of form and function of oro- dento-facial structures ?? Brief study of comparative Oral Biology and Tooth Morphology The Deciduous Dentition: ?? Detail description of each primary tooth ?? The pulp cavities ?? The difference between deciduous and permanent teeth Occlusion: ?? Temporo-mandibular joint ?? Muscles of mastication and facial expression ?? Mastication and Swallowing ?? Occlusion at primary/mixed/adult dentition stages ?? Innervation and arterial supply of orofacial structures PRACTICALS: Preparation of slides with different staining techniques HISTOLOGY: Practical use of microscope, microtome and preparation of ground section of teeth Books Recommended: ?? Orban's Oral Histology and Embryology, S.N.Bhaskar ?? Oral Histology (Development, Structure and Function), A.R.Tencate ?? Oral Development and Histology, James K. Avery ?? Introduction to Oral Biology and Tooth Morphology, Scott & Symons ?? Wheeler's Oral Biology and Tooth Morphology and Morphology, Major ?? Concise Oral Biology and Tooth Morphology and Morphology, James L. ?? Oral Embryology, Sperber ?? Oral Physiology, Cristopher Lavelle ?? Physiology of Mouth, Jenkins ?? An Atlas of Oral Anatomy, Berkoritz, G.R.Holland
D –COMMUNITY AND PREVENTIVE DENTISTRY

Introduction to Community Dentistry and Dental Public Health: Concepts of
health; disease and illness and factors affecting these states; activities
carried out in the field of community dentistry.
Oral epidemiology: Definition, uses and principles of epidemiology;
Research designs; dental surveys; clinical trials; screening; oral health
assessment indices; current concepts about etiology, natural history and
epidemiology of oral diseases and conditions having public health
implications; assessment of disease risk and predictive tests.
Prevention of oral and dental diseases: Levels of prevention; health
promotion; specific protection; dental plaque and its role in the etiology of
dental diseases; diet; nutrition and dental health; water fluoridation; fluoride
supplements; professionally and self-applied topical fluorides; fissure
sealing; methods of plaque control; principles and strategies of dental
health education and promotion; infection control; protection from radiation
and mercury hazards in dental practice.
Dental health care delivery system: The structure and financing of dental
care, role of dentists, dental auxilliaries and general health workers in oral
health care, dental care of people with special needs including the elderly,
the handicapped, HIV / AIDS patients, school children, principles and
elements of primary health care, ethical issues in dental care.
Behavioral sciences: Health behavior and its determinates, attitudes,
beliefs and values about health and illness, theories of health behavior,
dentist – patient communication, management of stress, fear and anxi ety
in dentistry, child psychology and behavior management and modification
techniques, counseling, motivation and compliance.
Introduction to bio – statistics: Types of variables, frequency distribution,
measures of central tendency and variability in data, methods of sampling,
sampling error, probability, normal distribution, confidence interval, tests of statistical significance, Kappa test. 1. Community Dentistry practical & field assignments: A. Clinical Oral Examination i Exercise on Models and Extracted teeth ii Exercise on patients in out patients department iii Examination of institutionalized population like school children B. Questionnaire / interview study i Designing a questionnaire ii. Pilot testing the questionnaire iii Data coding, processing and analysis C. Planning and conducting a dental health education (D.H.E.) session: i. Designing D.H.E. material ii Planning, conducting and evaluating (D.H.E) sessions 2. Chairside preventive dental procedures i High fluoride gel application ii Fissure sealing iii Dietry counseling iv Plaque disclosing v Instructions about Oral Hygiene measures ?? Tooth Brushing demonstration ?? Inter-dental cleaning ?? Chemical control of dental plaque PRE CLINICAL DENTISTRY
It is not an examination subject will be examined in the subject of operative dentistry and Prosthodontics in final year. The preclinical dentistry include the following: - A. Junior Operative Techniques/Dental Materia Medica B. Junior Prosthodontic Techniques A-1 Junior Operative Techniques - Introduction to dental operative Techniques - Introduction to instrument used in cavity preparation - Classification of dental caries - Principles of Cavity preparation - Cavity preparation on plaster models/phantom head - Filling Materials - Dental Materia Medica B-1 Junior Prosthodontics Techniques: i Introduction of impression and denture materials ii Laboratory procedures a) Complete Dentures b) Acrylic removeable partial denture c) Cast partial denture d) Anterior crowns e) Posterior crowns f) Bridges g) Relining / Rebasing procedures h) Repairs i) Soldering and welding techniques. THIRD PROFESSIONAL B.D.S
GENERAL MEDICINE
Core Knowledge and Principles of Medicine. To deal with critical Situations: Clinical Teaching. ?? History taking in general, ?? GPE, Pallor, Cyanosis, Jaundice, Clubbing and Koilonychia. ?? Thyroid, Lymph nodes, Dehydration, Nutrition, Decubitus, Edema. ?? Examination of Blood Pressure and JVP. ?? History taking in GIT – Vomiting, Diarrhea, Pain Abdomen, ?? Hematemesis, Melena, Dyspepsia, Distension. ?? Examination of GIT – Inspection, Palpation. ?? Percussion, Auscultation. ?? Any deficient program. ?? Chest pain, wheezing. ?? Inspection, Palpation, Percussion, Auscultation front of chest. ?? Inspection, Palpation, Percussion, Auscultation back of chest. ?? Any deficient program. ?? History taking in CVS. ?? GPE in CVS – Clubbing, Koilonychia, Osler's nodes, Splinter Hemorrhages, Cyanosis. ?? Pulse, JVP, Blood pressure. ?? Inspection, Palpation of pericardium. ?? Percussion, Auscultation of pericardium – Mitral, Tricuspid, Aortic. ?? Pulmonary areas. ?? Any deficient program. ?? History taking in CNS. ?? Higher Mental Functions – level of consciousness, Behavior, Speech, ?? Examination of cranial nerves – I, II, III, IV nerves. ?? V, VI, VII, VIII nerves. ?? IX, X, XI, XII nerves. ?? Examination of Motor system. ?? Examination of sensory system – Crude touch, pain, Temperature. ?? Fine touch, Pressure, Vibration, Joint position, ?? Cortical sensations. ?? Two point localization, Two point discrimination. ?? Examination of Cerebellar system. Knowledge of Systems and the Diseases; 1. Genetic factors in disease. 2. Immunological factors in disease. 3. Climate and environmental factors in disease. 4. Diseases due to infection. 5. Diseases of the cardiovascular system. 6. Diseases of the respiratory system. 7. Diseases of the alimentary tract and pancreas. 8. Diseases of the liver and biliary system. 9. Nutritional factors in disease. 10. Disturbances in water, electrolyte and acid base balances. Diseases of the kidney and genito-urinary system. Endocrine and metabolic Diseases. Diseases of the blood. Diseases of connective tissues joint and bones. Diseases of the skin. Diseases of the nervous system. Principles of geriatric medicine. Acute poisoning. GENERAL SURGERY
Core Knowledge and Principles of Surgery. 1. Physiological response to Surgical Trauma and homeostasis. 2. Wound and its Repair. 3. Pathophysiology and Management of Shock including fluid and electrolyte imbalance. 4. Investigation and treatment of Infections and Parasitic Infestations of surgical Importance. 5. Hemorrhage Blood Transfusion and their implications. 6. Management of Acutely injured & critically ill patients including aspiration pneumonia and embolic phenomenon. 7. Principles in the Management of common Skin and Soft Tissue problems: Ulcers, Abscesses, Sinus & Fistulae, Swellings, Embedded foreign bodies and Minor injuries. 8. Principles of Anaesthesia. 9. Nutrition of surgical patients. To deal with critical Situations: Polytrauma with airway difficulty and circulatory instability. Uncontrolled External Hemorrhage. Sudden upper Repiratory Tract Obstruction. Patient in Hypovolumic or Septicemic Shock. Tension Pneumothorax. Cardiac Temponade. Unconscious patient due to Head Injury. Patient with Gas Gangrene and Tatenus. Knowledge of Systems and the Diseases; ?? Head, Face and Neck: Development abnormalities of face, palate, lip. Principles of management of Head Injuries and its complications. Oral region including tongue. Diseases of Salivary glands (Inflammation, Calculus, Tumors) Neck lumps including Lymphatics Thyroid, Parathyroid. ?? Chest Wall & Thorax: Blunt & Penetrating Injuries and their Complications. Lung abscess and Empyema Thoracis. Growth of cysts in the lungs. ?? Gastro Intgestinal Tract: Diseases causing Oesophageal Obstruction. Peptic Ulcer disease & its complications. Tumors of Stomach. Conditions Causing Acute Abdomen. Conditions causing Chronic Abdomen including malignant lesions of small and large bowel. Abdominal, Pelvic and Genital Traumas and Hernias. Principles in management of abdominal trauma Epigastric Hernia Incisional Hernia Obstructive Jaundice Malignancy (Hepatoma & Secondaries) ?? Gall Bladder: Acute and chronic Cholecystitis Cholelithiasis and its Complications Acute, Relapsing and Chronic pancreatitis Pancreatic masses including (benign, malignant) neoplasia ?? Skin & Soft Tissues: Common benign and malignant skin lesions Wounds / Ulcers / abscesses /Sinuses / Fistulae Soft Tissue Lumps ?? Orthopedics and Trauma: Common Congenital Malformatios of Locomotive System. Bone Fracture & their Comp-lications. Sports injuries and afflictions of Tendons and Bursae. Bone and joint Infections. Bone and Cartilage Tumours. ?? Vascular and ;Nerve Disorders: Vascular afflictions. Deep venous thrombosis. Peripheral nerve Injuries. ?? Essential Skill to be acquired: Provide First Aid: Resuscitation (ABC) of Polytrauma, CPR. Collect samples of blood, urine, sputum, pus swab etc. Understand the principles of pre-operative preparations, Sterilization /Disinfecting techniques. Understand principles of wound care, Skin Suturing and Suture Removal, Incision and Drainage of Superficial Abscesses, Excision of Small Soft Tissue Lumps, Needle Biopsies, Aspiration of localized fluids, etc. Have Observed common surgical procedures, treatment of Fracture / Dislocation and Methods of General / Local Anesthesia. Have observed instillation of Chemotherapy and principles of Radiotherapy. ORAL PATHOLOGY
Developmental disturbances of Teeth Pre malignant , Benign and Malignant lesions Salivary gland tumors and diseases Odontogenic & non –Odontogenic tumours Diseases of pulp and periapical tissues Spread of Infections Diseases of bones and joints Cysts of Jaws and Oral Cavity
Practical in Oral Pathology to include:

Study of Histopathological slides Study of Radiographs Histochemical Techniques Books Recommended: ?? Oral Pathology, J.V.Soans, J.C.Southam ?? Clinical Guide of Oral Medicine, P.J.Lamy & MAO Lenix ?? Essential of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, R.A.Cawson, E.W.Odell
D: PERIODONTOLOGY

Introduction to Periodontology Knowledge of healthy periodontium macro and micro anatomy and physiology of periodontium. 1. Gingiva 2. Periodontal Ligament 3. Root cementum 4. Alveolar bone Lymphatic System 5. Dentogingival Junction Epidemiology of Periodontal diseases. Sulcus bleeding index Periodontal index Periodontal destructive index Community Periodontal index of treatment need (CPITN) Etiology of periodontal diseases Plaque microbiology Origin and composition Mode of attachment Clinical significance of calculus Microbiology of Plaque associated Periodontal diseases. Histopathogensis of Plaque associated Periodontal diseases. Host response in Periodontal Disease Hypersensitivity reaction cell mediated and Humoral immunity. Classification of Periodontal Diseases Clinical significance of Dental Plaque in the formation of gingivitis Acute Gingivitis Signs and symptoms of acute gingivitis and different types of gingivitis. a) Traumatic gingivitis Acute Necrotizing gingivitis Acute Herpetic - gingivo stomatits Circum coronitis Streptococcal gingivitis (With their etiological factors and treatment) Chronic Gingivitis Specific and Non-specific gingivitis Specific Gingivitis ?? Emphasis should be given towards. a) Gingival Bleeding Gingival texture Gingival consistency Gingival swelling (Hyperplasia) Gingival Recession Gingival Pigmentation Desquamative Gingivitis. Definition, clinical features in the form of Mild, moderate and severe form of Desquamative Gingivitis. i. Nutritional factors Hormonal factors Dermatological condition Chemotherapeutic agents Fungal infection Periodontal Pocket. Soft tissue wall of Periodontal pocket Hard tissue wall of Periodontal pocket Classification of periodontal pocket a) Suprabony pocket Infrabony pocket Bone loss and pattern of bone loss in periodontal disease. Adult onset periodontitis (Slowly Progressional Periodonitits) Rapidly Progressive Periodontitis Early onset Periodontitis i. Prepubertal Periodontitis Juvenile Periodontitis Adult onset rapidly Progressional Periodontitis. Necrotizing Periodontitis i. Non AIDs Related Refractory Periodontitis Trauma from Occlusion Acute & Chronic trauma Primary & Secondary trauma Consequences of trauma Tissue Response of trauma Periodontal manifestation of Systemic diseases. (Different systemic diseases are discussed with respect to periodontal manifestation) Tumour and Tumour like lesions of the Periodontium. Periodontal Abscess and treatment Periodontium and AIDs Furcation involvement in Periodontal disease Periodontal Consideration with: 1. Removable Prosthodontics Fixed Prosthodontics GTR (Guided Tissue Regeneration) Introduction, knowledge and the techniques. Diagnosis of Cause Related Disease. a) History taking b) Examination of the Oral Cavity c) Importance should be given to the periodontitis. d) Differential Diagnosis e) Plaque Recognition Visualization with naked eyes. Visualization with disclosing agents. f) Treatment Planning Mechanical control of Dental Plaque - Motivation, education and instruction. - Interdental cleaning (AIDs) - Scaling and root palning with advantages and g) Chemical control of dental Plaque i. Chemotherapeutic agents for topical and systemic Re-evaluation of the cause related therapy, surgical control of dental Plaque. A) Aims and objectives of periodontal therapy. i. Local Anaesthesia in Periodontal Surgery ii. Instruments for periodontal surgery procedures iii. Periodontal probing impact and radiographic interpretation. iv. Sterilization, universal precautionary measures B) Indications and contra indications of periodontal surgery. Surgical Procedures i. Curattage ii. Gingivectomy with different modalities iii. Flap Surgery with different modalities iv. Muco gingival Problem - Soft tissue graft - Pedical graft or displaced flap - Free gingival graft - Crown lengthening procedure - Vestibular widening procedure - Frenectomy Periodontal dressing Periodontal Suturing Periodontal treatment of medically compromised patients Occlusal Analysis i. Diagnosis of Occlusal trauma Occlusal Adjustment
Clinical & Practical Work
1. Knowledge of the objectives of Periodontal therapy. ?? Elimination of local etiological factor ?? Elimination of periodontal pocket ?? Establishment of normal Physiolocal architecture of periodontium ?? To be able to interpret Findings of medical and dental history and relate this to periodontal dignosis and treatment 2. To be able to secure a good dental history pertaining to: a) Past Periodontal treatment. b) Present oral hygiene habits c) Past present oral habits d) Presence of Hypensensitive teeth e) Past extraction (Reason) f) Past Restorative treatment, filling types, fixed/removal g) Past orthodontic treatment h) Family Dental history Detailed clinical examination and charting of the Periodontium i.e. aceurate probling. ?? To be able to recognize problems of an inadequate width and attached gingival . 4. Shallow vestibule ?? High muscle frenum attachment a) Scaling manual b) Root Planning c) Polishing d) Curettage e) Gingivectomy f) Epulus Removal (with incisional and excisional procedure) g) Flap Surgery. Books Recommended Clinical periodontology by Glickman Clinical Periodontology by Manson Colour Atlas of Clinical and Surgical Periodontology by Strahan & Waite A Text book of Clinical Periodontology by Jan Lindhe Fundamentals of Periodontic by Thomas G. Wilson, Kenneths Kornman. Periodontology and Periodontics, Modern Theory and Practice by Sigurd P. Ramford Major M. Ash. ORAL MEDICINE
Introduction: Significance of Oral Medicine: 1. Oral diagnosis: Histology, general health status, oral examination (including lips, oral mucosa, floor of the mouth, teeth, gingival, occlusion, salivary glands, jaw bones), examination of tempro-mendibular joint. Roentgenological examinations, laboratory aids, analysis Treatment Planning and Patient Management. 2. Immunity and its impact on oral health. 3. Oral Infections: a. Bacterial infections. b. Fungal infections. c. Viral infections. 4. ORAL SOFT TISSUE LESIONS; Classification;
White lesions Pigmented lesions Ulcerative lesions Vesiculo-bullous lesions. a. Pre-malignant lesions, Clinical features, Diagnosis and b. Disorders of the tongue and lips. Clinical features, diagnosis c. Diseases of salivary glands, xerostomia; Clinical features, Diagnosis and management. d. Diseases of Jaw bones, Clinical features, Diagnosis and e. Disorders of Tempro-mandibuar joint: Clinical features, Diagnosis and treatment. f. Disorders of Teeth, Clinical features. Diagnosis and g. Focal infection: Significance diagnosis and management of h. Clinical features, Diagnosis and treatment of pain; Dento-alveolar pain Neurological pains. Psycho-somatic pain. 5. Halitosis: Causes, Clinical features, diagnosis and therapy. 6. Allergy and drug reactions in dental practice: Clinical features, Diagnosis and treatment of anaphylactic shock. 7. Special consideration to the dental problems of children and senior citizens. 8. Nutrition and Oral Health. 9. Professional hazards in dentistry. 10. ORAL MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASES:
- Auto immune diseases related to oral cavity.
Oral aspects of systemic diseases and their dental Particularly of cardiovascular diseases. Disorders of Respiratory System. Disorders of Gastrointestinal Tract. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES:
??AIDS, oral manifestations, diagnosis and management.
??Syphilis, oral manifestations, diagnosis and management.
??Oral aspects of Gonococal Infections, diagnosis and
management.
Diseases of Liver with special attention to the infectivity of the patients and mode of its further spreads and control specific reference to universal precautions. Diseases of Kidneys, special attention to patient on dialysis. Hormonal disturbances. - Oral aspects of puberty, menstruation, pregnancy and
menopause.
Oral aspects of skin diseases. Special considerations for patients suffering from systemic disorders, like blood disorders requiring blood examination prior to oral surgery. - Anaemia
- Leukeamia
- Bleeding disorders.
- Patients on anti-coagulant therapy, management.
Oral Malignancies, Diagnosis and management. - Patients on Radio therapy
- Patients on Chemo-therapy
Methods of report writing BOOKS RECOMMENDED

1. Oral Medicine by W.R. Tyldesley
2.
Burket's oral Medicine by Malcolm A. Lynch.
3.
Oral Medicne and Pathology by Cawson and Odel
Partial Dentures Applied Anatomy and Physiology Oral manifestations of local and systemic disorders History General and oral examination Diagnosis and treatment planning, prognosis Bio-mechanics of oral cavity and contributory factors Study cast, master cast, working cast. Components: Outline of support, retention, bracing and reciprocation, connectors. Surveying, Design of partial dentures Mouth rehabilitation/Odontoplasty Impression techniques and modifications Construction of wax pattern and casting procedures Trial of metal frame work Maxilo mandibular relations: Use of face bow, articulation techniques including split cast techniques Selection of artificial teeth Arrangements of teeth Processing and finishing procedures Insertion and post insertion counseling and follow up
BOOKS RECOMMENDED

Removable Partial Dentures. a. MacCraken's Removable partial dentures b. Boucher's treatment of partially edentulous patients by Gavin c. Miller's Removable partial dentures, d. Designing Removable partial dentures by John Osborn. e. Atlas of Removable partial dentures by Davenport. ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SURGERY
i) Introduction, History and Diagnosis and treatment planning ii) Sterilization, instruments and armamentarium iii) Incisions, Flap design and tissue handling iv) Haemostasis, debridement and suturing. v) Post Operative care and nutrition, Prevention of infection, Antibiotics and cross-infection LOCAL ANAESTHESIA
i) Introduction, types and Pharmacology. ii) Indications and contra-indications, iii) Surgical Anatomy iv) Administration techniques v) Complications and management EXODONTIA
ii) Indications and contra-indications iii) Principles and application of forceps extraction iv) Principles and application of elevators v) Surgical removal of erupted/broken down roots teeth vi) Complication of Extraction vii) Management of complications Prevention And Management of Medical Emergencies
Introduction to Dental Ethics and Law, Forensic Dentistry
General Anaesthesia and Sedation in Dentistry
Impacted Wisdom tooth Surgery
a) Introduction and Aetiology b) Indications and contra-indications c) Surgical Techniques d) Complications of impacted wisdom tooth Surgery and OPERATIVE DENTISTRY
- Etiology - Pathogenesis - Prevention Examination, Diagnosis, and Treatment Planning - Examination and Diagnosis - Caries - Erosion, Attrition, Abrasion, cracked tooth, others - Treatment sequencing, placement and repair/replacement - Selection of restorative materials - Restorative failure - Postoperative problems Principles of cavity design & preparation - Basic principles, instrumentation and nomenclature - Introduction to lasers - Preparations - Dental amalgam - Tooth colored restorative materials Sterilization and cross infection control Isolation, Operator and the environment - Instruments and equipment - Control of the operating field - Soft tissue management - Esthetic considerations FINAL PROFESSIONAL BDS
Complete Dentures. a) Definitions. b) Applied Anatomy and Physiology c) Peripheral tissue attachment of denture bearing area. d) Tongue form e) Saliva f) Systemic disorders and applied pathology. g) Evaluation of patients. h) Identification of patients i) General conditions. j) Muscle tone and muscular development. k) Osmotic balances l) Oral lesions with skin manifestations m) Psychiatric evaluation of patients n) Oral condition of denture bearing area o) Ridge form and relations. p) Oral mucosa: resistant and non resistant tissues q) Alveolar bone resorption. r) Face forms s) Fundamentals of Denture retention and contributing factors t) Mouth preparation including preprosthetics Surgery Impression Procedures
a) Objectives of impression. a) Theories and techniques b) Impression techniques: minimum pressure, definite pressure, selective pressure impression. c) Pascal's law and its corollaries, atmospheric pressure, intermolecular attraction, interfacial, surface tension d) Impression Techniques: primary, wash and secondary impressions, impression trays, impression materials. e) Factors responsible for physical retention, physiological, mechanical, surgical and psychological factors. f) Stability g) Maxillo-mandibular relations. h) Occlusal and Rest vertical relations. i) Horizontal relations. j) Centric and Eccentrio relations. k) Articulators. l) Theories of articulation. m) Protrusive records condylar path. n) Lateral records. o) Hanau's formula. p) Facebow, arbitrary and kinematics. q) Hinge axis. r) Semi adjustable and acron type articulators. s) Selection of teeth, arrangement of teeth Factors responsible for size, shape, colour, shade, position and relationship of teeth. ?? Curve of Spee. ?? Curve of Wilson. ?? Monson curve. t) Occulusion and articulation, u) Phonetics v) Trial w) Insertion x) Post-insertion follow up. Immediate Dentures and Replacement Dentures a) Classification and types (partial, complete). b) Indications and contra indications c) Objectives d) Clinical and laboratory procedures e) Multi disciplinary approach including care during surgery f) Insertion, follow up and maintenance. a) Types of implants a) Endosseous b) Sub periosteal c) Endodontic implants. Osseo integration and Bio compatibility. Limitation of implants. Prosthodontic Options. Clinical and laboratory procedures
Maxillo Facial Prosthodontics.
Classification of congenital and acquired defects. Principles governing treatment and management of patients presenting with various defects Cleft palate prosthesis Speech aid prostheses Facial prostheses Bite Raising appliances Occlusal splints Arthralgia and Myalgia splints Splints and Stents. Occlusion including TMD/MPD
Theories and Principles of Occlusion. Concept, Aetiology, Treatment planning and options
Gerodontology
Principles and procedures relating to the management of medically compromised patients and the elderly Effects of medication Medical conditions having oral manifestation Geriatric Nutrition Principles of prosthodontic procedures in geriatric patients Fixed Prosthodontics
Principles of Fixed prosthodontics Applied Anatomy and Physiology Oral manifestations of local and systemic disorders History: General and oral examination Diagnosis and treatment planning, prognosis Bio-mechanics of oral cavity and contributory factors Indications and contraindications Classification and types Components of a bridge Design of various component parts Abutment and retainer selection Margin placement and pontic designs. Steps of Procedures i. Tooth preparation Impression procedures Localization and trial of bridge frame work Final cementation Post insertion follow up, complication and management h) Material considerations and cementation i) Resin – Bonded Bridge

2.

Over Dentures
Applied Anatomy and Physiology Oral manifestations of local and systemic disorders History General and oral examination Diagnosis and treatment planning, prognosis Bio-mechanics of oral cavity and contributory factors Classifications and types i. Partial and complete ii. Removable and Fixed iii. Transitional or Diagnostics and permanent definitive. iv. Tooth supported, root supported, implant supported Indications contra indications, advantages and disadvantages Steps of procedures and follow up. Precision Retained Dentures
Intra Coronal, Extra Coronal and Intra radicular attachments. Relining, Rebasing and Repairs
General indications and principles
Geriodontology

Management strategies for the dental care of the elderly. Dental and oral diseases and disorder in the elderly. Range of psychological and social factors involved with geriatric patients. Distinguish between normal and abnormal consequences of aging. Excessive tooth wear. Root dental caries. Recession of the gingival tissues and the special difficulties of providing removable prostheses. Books Recommended A) Fixed Prosthodontics a. Planning and making crowns and bridges by B. G. Smith. b. Contemporary fixed prosthodontics by Rossential and c. Fundamentals of crown and bridge by Shillenberg. d. Tillman's Principles of crown and bridge. e. Atlas of Tooth preparation for crown and bridge by Complete Denture Prosthodontics a. Boucher,s Prosthodontic treatment for edentulous Patients by Dicky and Zarb, . b. Atlas of complete dentures by John Hobkirr c. Syllabus of complete dentures by Heartwell and Rahn. d. Immediate and Replacement dentures by Anderson and e. Fenn's Clinical dental Prosthodontics by MacCraken. f. Complete Dentures Prosthodontics by Basker and Devenpot. a. Atlas of implantology by Norman Kranin. b. Dental laboratory techniques by Morrow, Rudd and c. Occlusion by Ramfjord and Ash. d. Management of Temporomandibular Disorders by Okeson. B: OPERATIVE DENTISTRY
1. Radiology & Radiography
2. Restorative materials Applied Chemistry Mercury hazards & hygiene Composite resins Applied Chemistry, Enamel & Dentine bonding, Restoration of Class III & IV Posterior Composite Composite Veneers Zinc Oxide Eugenol and others Discoloration of teeth Inlays and Onlays Restoration of Pulpless teeth ( Post and Core) Pin Retained restorations Bleaching Restorative / Gingival Interface Management of medically compromised patients with special reference to HIV and Hepatitis Implant supported restorations Occlusion Paedodontics 1. Child management in dental practice 2. Prevention of Dental Disease a) Prenatal Counseling b) Oral prophylaxis c) Fluoride administration d) Dietary management e) Diet counseling f) Home care 3. The Acid etch Technique in caries prevention 4. Pit & Fissure Sealants & Preventive resin restorations 4. Radiology 5. Problem of Pain & Sedation 6. Periodontal disease in children 7. Injury to the primary & permanent teeth 8. Pulp therapy for the primary & young permanent teeth - Apexification - Apexogenesis 9. Restorative dentistry for the primary dentition 10. Space maintenance in the primary dentition Treatment planning & interceptive orthodontics Treatment of handicapped children
Endodontics

1. Diagnostic Procedures.
Clinical examination 2. Clinical Classification of pulpal & periapical disease Reversible pulpitis. Irreversible pulpitis. Acute apical periodontitis. Acute apical abscess Chronic apical periodontitis Local Anesthesia Internal Morphology & Access opening Pulpectomy – diagnostic & working length, cleaning filing, shaping Bio-mechanical canal preparation etc. Irrigants & intra canal medicaments . Root canal sealers & obturation. Failures in endodontics Surgical Endodontics & Re-treatment Endo – perio lesions Internal, external resoption Radiographic Analysis. Dental emergency Sterilization and asepsis Traumatic injuries -
Crowns

1. Terminology, Indications & Contra indications
2. Diagnosis & Treatment Planning
3. Basic Principles of preparation
4. Procelain Jacket Crowns ? Indications & Contraindications, Clinical
assessment, and steps of preparation. 5. Procelain Fused to metal crowns Indications, Contraindications Clinical assessment Steps of preparation Indications, Contraindications Clinical assessment Steps of preparation 7. Fluid control & soft tissue management 8. Electrosurgery Indications, Contra indication & Technique 9. Post & Core crowns 10. Impressions & Impression materials 11. Clinical Procedures 12. Laboratory Technique for 13. Porcelain veneers 14. Inlays Onlays. 15. CAD-CAM 16. Occlusion List of Operative Dentistry Books The Art & Science of Operative Dentistry by Sturdurant. Pickardards Manual of Operative Dentistry by EAM Kidd. Fundamentals of Operative Dentistry by Schwartz Harty's Endodontic in Clinical Practice by T.R. Pittford. Pathway of the Pulp by Cohen. Paediatric Dentistry Infancy through Adolesurse by Pinkham. Essentials of Dental Radiography & Radiology by Frickwhaites. Planning & making crowns and bridges by B.G.Smith. Tillman's principles of crowns and bridges. Atlas of tooth preparation for crowns and bridges by Shillen berg. ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY
Dento-alveolar Surgery
Local Anaesthesia Pre-prosthetic Surgery Surgical Aid to Orthodontics Maxillary Antrum
Diseases, Oro-antral fistula, foreign body. Oro-facial Infections
Specific and non-specific, spread, principles of management Cyst of Soft and hard tissues of Oro-facial region and their management Oncology
Benign and malignant tumors of oral cavity, jaws and associated tissue: odontogenic tumors, squamous cell carcinomas, Lymphoma etc. Protocol of investigation including biopsy, X.Ray's, CT Scan, MRI, Bone Scan. Principles of different treatment modalities including: Surgery, Radiotherapy, Chemotherapy Cryotherapy, lasers. Salivary Glands
Diseases of salivary glands including tumors, sialadenitis, sialithiases, means of investigation, management. Temporo-mandibular joint
Surgical anatomy, diseases and disorders including ankylosis. Fibro-osseous Lesion
Classification and management Giant Cell Lesions
Types and management Developmental anomalies
Introduction and management of cleft lip and palate. Maxillofacial injuries
Surgical anatomy, first aid, treatment, soft tissue injuries of head and neck, dento-alveolar injuries, fractures of mandible, fractures of mid-face, fractures of zygomatic complex, Naso-ethmoid fractures, orbital involvement, head injuries, blood and fluid replacement. Orthognathic Surgery
Introduction, evaluation and principles of treatment of facial disharmony including excess and deficiency of mandible and maxilla and craniofacial anomolies Management of medically compromised patients.
Outpatient and in-patient management. Especially emphasis on cardio-vascular, respiratory disorders, immuno-compromised, blood dyscrasias etc. Introduction, indications, contra-indications, types, surgical techniques, after care. Books Recommended: Minor Oral Surgery by Geoffrey L. Howe. An outline of Oral Surgery Part-I and II by Killey, Seward and Kay. Killey's Fractures of Middle third of the facial skeleton Killey's Fracture of the Mandible Medical problems in Dentistry by Scully & Cawson Contemprary Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery by Patterson, Ellis & Tucker. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery by LASKIN Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery by Kruger. Local Anaesthesia in Dentistry G.L. Howe, Whitehead 10. Law and Ethics in Dentistry J. Sear 11. General Anaesthesia & Sedation in Dentistry by Hill, Morris 12. Oral Medicine by W.R. Tyldesley 13. Burket's oral Medicine by Malcolm A. Lynch. 14. Oral Medicine and Pathology by Cawson and Odel 15. Oral & Maxillo Surgery by John Peddler 16. Oral & Maxillo Surgery by Archer. a. Definitions and Terminologies b. Types ii) Preventive iii) Interceptive iv) Corrective a. Aims and needs for Orthodontic Treatment Growth and Development
a. Basic concepts and definitions b. Variables affecting growth c. Prenatal and postnatal craniofacial growth b. Methods of studying growth c. Theories of growth d. Clinical application of growth and development in orthodontics e. TMJ Development Occlusion
a. Normal Occlusion b. Andrews Six Keys of Occlusion Diagnostic Aids in Orthodontics
a. History b. Clinical Evaluation ii) Extraoral examination iii) Intraoral examination' iv) Periapical Xrays v) Orthopantomogram vi) Occlusal Xrays vii) Cephalometric Xray (1) Identifying relevant anatomical structures and landmarks (2) Tracing (3) Analyses d. Tooth mass and size analyses ix) Bolton Analysis x) Mixed Dentition analysis f. Formulation of problem list Dental Radiology
a. Roentgen Anatomy of teeth, jaws and T.M.Joints b. Variations within normal limits, and abnormalities c. Different types of X-Rays machines d. Varieties of X-Ray Films: Extra Oral, Intra oral, Bite wing and e. Film taking and exposure procedures f. Film development techniques g. Indications and uses of dental radiology h. Interpretation of films i. Radiation Hazards Development of dentition and occlusion
a. Prenatal development of dentition c. Features of Primary dentition d. Mixed dentition period e. Permanent dentition period a. Dimensional changes in dental arch b. Variations in development including size, form, number and position c. Factors affecting development. a. Definitions b. Classification Etiology of Malocclusion
a. Local factors b. Heredity c. Environmental Factors Preventive and Interceptive Orthodontics
a. Diagnosis and Management of Habits b. Space supervision c. Space maintainers d. Space regainers e. Serial Extractions Bone metabolism
a. Normal Structure of Periodontal Ligament and Bone b. The role of bone in eruption and stabilization c. Effects of Orthodontic force d. Factors affecting tooth movement a. Concepts, Types and Control of Anchorage b. Types of Wires and Alloys used in orthodontics c. Ideal properties of Orthodontic wires and comparison of different Retention and relapse
a. Concepts of retention and relapse b. Occlusal Stability and factors related to retention c. Strategies of management. Removable appliances
a. Functional appliances i) Types ii) Indications iii) Construction b. Introduction to various extraoral appliances for tooth movement c. Expansion appliances Fixed appliances
a. Introduction and background of different systems b. Indications and drawbacks c. Components and its accessories d. Edgewise and Straight Wire systems e. Bonding and Banding materials Treatment Planning
a. Non-skeletal problems including Class I malocclusion, crowding, spacing, crossbite, open bite, deepbite b. Skeletal problems c. Class II d. Class III e. Extractions in Orthodontics f. Adjunctive treatment goals and principles Surgical Orthodontics
Cleft Lip and Palate
a. Etiology & Clinical Features Practical and Clinical Orthodontics
1. Wire bending exercises including a. Adams clasp b. Labial Bow c. Canine retractor d. Cantilever and Z spring e. Arch wire fabrication+ Making of removable appliances A comprehensive orthodontic case presentation of a non-skelatal malocclusion. Ceph Analysis a) Suggested Treatment Plan Mixed dentition analysis Books Recommended ?? Contemporary Orthodontics, Profit ?? Introduction to Orthodontics, Luar Mittehels ?? Hand Book of Orthodontics, Robert-E-Moyers

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Microsoft word - mso37a.doc

Credits: Questo rapporto è stato realizzato Dal Technology and Innovation Council (TIC) di Business International In collaborazione con: Istituto per la Promozione Industriale Direzione politiche e progetti d'intervento Dipartimento Net-economy Pubblicato a Roma il 3 maggio 2004 Technology and Innovation Council In collaborazione con:

Microsoft word - harmonised_steroids.doc

IDENTIFICATION OF HYDROCORTISONE ACETATE, DEXAMETHASONE, BETAMETHASONE, 2/12/2005 ACM MAL 07 BETAMETHASONE 17-VALERATE AND TRIAMCINOLONE ACETONIDE IN COSMETIC PRODUCTS BY TLC AND HPLC THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE (TLC) The method describes the identification of hydrocortisone acetate, dexamethasone, betamethasone, betamethasone 17-valerate and triamcinolone acetonide in cosmetic products.