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Brochure of the Department of Pharmacy, DIU
Management of the University……………………………………………… 3
Management of the Faculty of Science & Information Technology………. 4
Faculty of Science & Information Technology…. …………………………….
Academic rules and regulations……………………………………………….…. 14
Cost structure for the Department of Pharmacy………………………….…… 20
Laboratories of the Department of Pharmacy……………………………….….
Management of the University
Mr. Md. Sabur Khan
Prof. Dr. Aminul Islam
Dean, Faculty of Science & Information Technology
Prof. Dr. M. Lutfar Rahman
Dr. Md. Fokhray Hossain
Controller of Examinations
Prof. Dr. S. M. Mahbub-Ul-Haque Majumder
Prof. Dr. Md. Golam Mowla Choudhury
Management of the Faculty
of Science & Information Technology
Prof. Dr. M. Lutfar Rahman
Honorable Dean, FSIT Prof. Dr. Md. Golam Mowla Choudhury
Head, Department of ETE Prof. Dr. A. M. Rezaul Karim Talukder
Head, Department of EEE Prof. Dr. Md. Mahbubul Haque
Head, Department of TE Prof. Dr. Shamsul Haque
Head, Department of Pharmacy Prof. Dr. M. Ismail Jabiullah
Head, Department of Software Engineering Dr. Md. Abu Taher
Head, Department of CSE&CIS Dr. Md. Bellal Hossain
Head, Department of Applied Dietetics and Food Technology
Message from the Head of the Department of Pharmacy I am happy to know that the Daffodil International University is publishing a Brochure of the Department of Pharmacy, I am sure, this Brochure will serve as an useful guide for the students of the Pharmacy (Hons.) programme of this University. The Department of Pharmacy is committed to prepare students to go on to establity careers as practicing pharmacists in the areas of community pharmacy, Hospital pharmacy and in the drug manufacturing sector. The Department is, however, aware that the role of the pharmacists is not limited to only the above three healthcare sectors, they are also being increasingly called upon to offer advice to doctors on prescribing issues and to the public on treatment for a wide range of less serious complaints, The Department is thus planning to prepare its students in those areas so that they can serve the nation in a better way, In order to achieve this goal, courses like Clinical pharmacy, laws and ethics guiding the pharmacy profession, Hospital and Community pharmacy have been included in the syllabuses of the Department. Entry into these areas can be either directiy with a Bachelor degree in Pharmacy of this University or at a later stage with a higher degree in Pharmacy (M. Pham. M.Phil. of Ph.D.), which the Department is planning to offer in near future. Since the Brochure under publication containc the detailed syllabus of the B.Pham. (Hons.) programmer I hope, the present and future students of these Department will be tremendously benefited by this Brochure. I wish every success of this highly commendable endeavour of the
Professor Dr. Shamsul Haque
Depatment of Pharmacy
Daffodil International University (DIU) was established in January, 2002 through the registration number E/M: 14//8-P:U: 29/2001/36 Dated 24/01/2002 by the Ministry of Education of the Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. The University is empowered and authorized to conduct all undergraduate and postgraduate programs of study under the Private University Act of 1992 and its amendment in 1998. The prime objective of this University is to provide the learners with quality education in different undergraduate and post graduate programs. Each program is enriched with several major and minor courses and these are offered through semester system. Daffodil International University has introduced time-befitting and pragmatic curricula, which aim at not only extracting the potentialities and flair from our youth but also making the students worthy in the job market so that they can meet the changing demand of the society and can face the challenges of the 21st century. The University is also determined to focus on the heritage, history, culture, and values of our nation through its education. DIU has a clear vision and capacity to deal with the emerging social, cultural, economic and technological challenges of globalization. It is geared to effectively contribute to socioeconomic, technological and social developments of Bangladesh. The students in-turn will be equipped with outstanding knowledge and skill necessary to foster economic development, cultural assimilation, social and technological progress and human resource development. Daffodil International University is committed to develop efficient human resources to foster the national development process through an academic institution of higher education. Its mission is to create educational opportunities at higher level that will be responsive to the changing need of the society and these will be able to develop creative, dynamic and efficient leaders competent to contribute to the economic development of Bangladesh. Faculty of Science & Information Technology
There are nine departments under the Faculty of Science & Information Technology- Department of Computer Science & Engineering Department of Computing & Information System Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering Department of Computer Science Department of Environmental Science and Disaster Management Department of Textile Engineering Department of Pharmacy Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering Department of Software Engineering Department of Applied Dietetics and Food Technology DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACY
Pharmacy is a noble professional subject which is concerned with handling of all aspects of drugs e.g. the preparation, administration, indication, contra-indication, pharmacological action, structure activity relationship, side effects and even the toxicity of a drug. The Department of Pharmacy that has been accredited by the Pharmacy Council of Bangladesh and approved by the University Grants Commission of Bangladesh offers quality education and research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. The Department of Pharmacy has designed the courses for Bachelor of Pharmacy, B. Pharm. (Hons.) for a 4 years program consisting of 8 semesters each of 6 months tenure with 162 credits to provide with in-depth knowledge in pharmacy and related fields. The curriculum of Pharmacy is designed with the following objectives: 1. To produce skilled Pharmacist with broad academic and scientific knowledge. 2. To train the students in different field of pharmacy. 3. To nourish pharmacy professionalism among the students. Accreditation of the Department of Pharmacy
Pharmacy Council of Bangladesh is the sole accreditation authority in Bangladesh to accredit professional
degree program in Pharmacy. This Council has accredited the Department of Pharmacy, DIU on November
19, 2008 [Ref. No. PCB- 3035/(1), Dated-19/11/2008]. Department of Pharmacy acquired this status as it
satisfies all the requirements set by the Council. This status is an authentication that made the scopes for our
Pharmacy graduates to build their career at home and abroad. Latter, the Department of Pharmacy in
Daffodil International University (DIU) came into being on 9th March, 2009 through the approval of the
Bangladesh University Grant Commission (Ref. No. wegK/ †etwet/G-6/395/Part-1/01/1717, Dated-
1. To provide highly qualified and well trained graduate pharmacists to the nation. This integrates the scientific, clinical and professional aspects of appropriate pharmaceutical disciplines in order to provide a comprehensive introduction to pharmaceutical knowledge. 2. To develop student abilities to (a) safely design, undertake and interpret practical experiments and (b) to collect, interpret and critically assess relevant pharmaceutical information in order to enhance their ability to assemble, evaluate and communicate such data, by oral and written means, to colleagues, other scientists and managers and to patients, relatives and other health professionals. 3. To develop the knowledge, skills and qualities which will allow students to progress through pre-registration training in order to practice as pharmacists in all branches of the profession or as pharmaceutical scientists within industry or the hospital service, to contribute to the maintenance and improvement of the health of the nation, and to provide a base for a continued involvement in lifelong learning. Objectives
1. To understand and apply the fundamental mathematical, chemical, physicochemical, biological and pharmacological principles on which the pharmaceutical sciences are based. 2. To understand the applications of this scientific knowledge in the study of the chemical, physicochemical, biological, pharmacological, clinical and professional disciplines within the pharmaceutical sciences. 3. To understand the principles of medicinal chemistry and drug design on which reactivity, analysis, modes of action and drug discovery are based. 4. To understand the applications of molecular biology, microbiology and immunology to genetic and biochemical processes and to the preparation and supply of sterile medicines and the control of sterility within pharmaceutical products. 5. To understand and apply the principles governing the design, performance and quality assurance of pharmaceutical formulations of small molecules and biotechnology-based entities, the optimization of drug delivery through biopharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic and delivery route considerations and the processes by which medicines are developed, manufactured and brought to the market place. 6. To understand the pathophysiology of major diseased states; to have a thorough understanding of the pharmacology of the major groups of drugs use in these conditions; to be able to explain the mechanism of action of these drugs; to understand the choice of medications available for treatment and to be able to advise on their selection taking into account the evidence of clinical efficacy, pharmacokinetic, pharmacoeconomics, side-effects and possible interactions. 7. To understand the applications of research methodologies in the design, planning and execution of projects, and the collation, interpretation and communication of data and conclusions, relevant to natural, clinical or socials sciences. 8. To develop a range of transferable skills, including competence with information technology (IT) and experimental systems, for data analysis, presentation and literature-searching, a critical facility to collect, interpret and assess information from various sources, and the ability to communicate this to appropriate individuals or groups by oral or written means. 9. To understand and be able to supply medicines in accordance with pharmaceutical knowledge, legislation and codes of professional conduct and practice; to be able to prepare extemporaneously any medicines for which this would be regarded as the normal means of provision; to have sufficient academic knowledge to interpret and evaluate prescriptions and other orders for medicines and to be able to recognize common disease states and make appropriate responses to presented symptoms and underpin a role in advising patients and other health-care professionals on medicines and their usage. 10. To be able to work independently by taking responsibility for the management of their own study and learning in order to be able to identify learning requirements and to undertake and benefit from participation in lifelong learning to keep abreast of future developments. Eligibility for Admission
Minimum second division or (2.5 on average GPA) both in SSC and HSC from Science or any equivalent background with Biology/ Physics /Chemistry/ Mathematics may apply for admission into B. Pharm. (Hons) in Pharmacy. Students with English medium background are encouraged to apply for admission. Candidate's having no mathematics in the HSC or equivalent level have to take an additional course in mathematics. Admission Process
Students will be selected on the basis of past academic records and performance in admission test. Applicants finally accepted for the program will be notified of acceptance and registration within specific date. They will have to produce original certificate/ testimonials and mark sheets /transcripts for all examinations passed at the time of admission. Candidates who have completed the above formalities will have to pay the requisite admission and other fees for enrollment. Academic Session
Academic Session for all undergraduate programs shall extend over a period of 4 (four) academic years. One academic year is divided into two semesters Spring and Fall beginning from January. Each semester will be of 24 weeks duration with 21 weeks for class teaching; 1 week break for examination preparatory leave and 3 weeks for holding examinations. Graduation
To obtain the B. Pharm. (Hons) in Pharmacy degree a student will have to complete 162 credits with a minimum CGPA of 2.50. If any student fails in any course he/she will get the opportunity to improve the grade by retaking the same in the subsequent semester. Summary of Course Distribution:
Pharmacy Core Courses: 150 Credits Non-Pharmacy Courses: 12 Credits Semester
Year I Semester I Year I Semester II Year II Semester I Year I Semester II Year III Semester I Year III Semester II Year IV Semester I Year IV Semester II Academic Rules and Regulations
18 weeks Classes
During 18-week period a total of 54 hours class will be offered for teaching of each theoretical course. There will be 1 week preparatory leave for mid-term examination, 2 weeks for final examination and 1 week for semester break. Two classes in each week on each course. Duration of each class is 1.30 hours (90 minutes) 1:30 h X 2 Classes = 3 hours in every week. Total class hours = 3 hours X 18 weeks = 54 hours. In every semester, date for registration will be notified. The students must be registered within the specified date. All fees are to be paid at the time of registration and are non-refundable except (i) where the University fails to provide a place to the students in a course and (ii) courses dropped by the student in the first week of registration. The student will in such cases get a refund of the tuition fee and other charges except registration/ admission fee. Registration Procedure
A student seeking registration for the semester should:Pick up a blank "Course Registration Form" from the office of the registrar. The academic adviser and student ID number will be assigned by the office of the registrar; a) Select courses in consultation with the student's adviser and obtain adviser's signature on Course Registration Form; b) Submit the course registration form to the office of the Registrar; c) Pay semester fees at the Accounts office within the notified dates. Transfer from other University
Students with good academic records from other recognized University are eligible for transfer of their credits to DIU. Students wiling to transfer from another university must have transcripts of courses and grades, together with the copies of certificate/mark sheet or transcripts. Transcripts will be evaluated against the minimum entry requirement at DIU. Exemption of Courses
Students with extensive academic or professional experience may apply to waive courses by completing a ‘Request for Course Waiver' form. This form should be submitted to the Coordinator of the Program/Head of the Department/Dean of the Faculty with the relevant academic transcripts or evidence of an appropriate certification. Students having completed any course of Bachelor's degree from other recognized university are eligible for waiver provided that he/she obtained at least a ‘B' grade or over 50 percent marks in that specific course. Waiver is given to foundation courses only. Course waiver requires approval from equivalence committee of DIU. Admission of International Students
International students meeting equivalent admission qualification are eligible for admission as regular students or as special students for a part of the duration and may acquire transfer credits. In case of the later, the recommended minimum duration of residence in the first and the second years is one semester. The University may enroll foreign students under an exchange program established between two universities. Admission is also open to any person who wishes to pursue courses or a course as a non-degree student to improve knowledge or acquire new skills. Students are also admitted for specific certificate or diploma courses. Full-time and Part-time Studentship
Any student registered for a courses load of 9 credit hours or more will be classified as full time student. A student registered for fewer than 9 credit hours will be classified as a part-time student. Any student willing to take more than 15 credit hours in a semester will require prior written consent of his or her academic advisor. A student may change status from full-time student to part-time student or vice-versa during the first week of the semester. Drop/Add Procedure
A student may drop or add new courses during the first week of the semester. To add a course, one must have the approval of the faculty adviser. The procedure is given bellow: Pick up a Drop/Add form from the Office of the Registrar Fill up the relevant section of the form Obtain the signature of the course teacher/ advisor on the form and if a course is being added; make sure that space is available in the course. Submit the form to the office of the Registrar. Check at the Accounts office about any change of fees. Attendance
Attendance is regarded as a part of the course requirement. The expected attendance is 90 percent of classes held. A student may be debarred from appearing at the course final examinations if his/her attendance falls bellow 75 percent. Students are given marks on class attendance. Student Dismissal
Students are dismissed from the program for failure to make satisfactory academic progress. Students failing to maintain the required CGPA (2.0) in two consecutive semesters will be dropped out of the program. Students dropped out of the program may appeal to the Dean/ Head of the Department/ Coordinator for re-admission. Re-admission will not be granted without strong evidence of significant change in student's ability to complete the requirements satisfactorily. Teaching Method and Medium
The University follows modern teaching methods including class lectures, interactive discussion, simulation, lab work, case analysis, and field study. A special feature of Daffodil International University teaching is the tutorial/workshop/lab sessions designed to assist students in learning application of concepts and theories. The medium of instruction in Daffodil International University is English. Additional Facilities for Weak Students
Many students joining the university may be coming from Bengali medium schools and therefore would have to adjust to English as the medium of instruction. They may be asked to attend English courses rigorously and special English course in summer or any other time preceding the semester in which they take regular courses. Similarly, students from non-science background or who are weak in Mathematics may be asked to attend a remedial course in Mathematics. Recognition of Outstanding Performance
A full-time student securing GPA 3.75 at the end of a regular semester will be included in the Dean's Honor List and for maintaining CGPA 3.75 in successive 3rd and 4th semesters, will be put in the VC's Honor List. A student in the VC's List will be given individual citation. Grading and Performance Evaluation Process
Final grade in each course will be given on the basis of the performance on class attendance, quiz, assignment, presentation, midterm test and final examination as indicated below: A student may earn five-letter grades on the basis of his/her performance of the course. The letter grades A, B, C, and D are considered passing grades and also acceptable to continuing of grades. Grade F is the failing grade. The numerical equivalents of the grades and grade points are given below: Marks obtained out of 100
Grade point Equivalent
75% to less than 80% 70% to less than 75% 65% to less than 70% 60% to less than 65% 55% to less than 60% 50% to less than 55% 45% to less than 50% 40% to less than 45% Grade Report
Each student's grade point average is numerical value obtained by dividing the total grade points earned by the credits attempted. Only the courses graded A+, A, A-, B+, B, B-, C+, C, D and F are used to determine credits attempted. In case students repeat courses, GPA and CGPA will be calculated on the basis of the grades obtained at the last attempt of the course (s) only. Grades obtained in course (s) in all examinations will be shown in the grade report. In addition, students who complete courses in addition to their normal credit requirements for graduation will inform the Registrar in writing about the course, which he intends to declare for consideration towards the requirements for the degree. Incomplete (I)/ Improvement
The ‘Incomplete' (I) grade will be used in special circumstances. The ‘Incomplete' may be given only at the end of a semester to a student who has completed all other requirements except the final examination. The student has the responsibility to take the initiative in making up the Incomplete as specified by the instructor. If action is not taken within three weeks of commencement of the next semester, the ‘I' grade will automatically be converted into "F". In the event, where the instructor from whom a student received an incomplete grade is not available, the disposition of the case-involving grade rests with the Dean of Faculties. Moreover, students can get the opportunity to improve the grade by appearing final examination of 40 percent of the total weight in particular course. Academic Probation
A student must maintain a good academic standing with a CGPA of at least 2.00. Students with CGPA and (or) GPA of less than 2.00 will be placed on Probation. Students on Probation will be allowed a maximum of three semesters to earn CGPA and (or) GPA 2.00 or more failing of which will result in dropped from the program. Retake Policy
A course passed with a grade less than B may be repeated to improve the relevant grade. When a course is repeated, the previous grade will be automatically cancelled. Students, failing in a course, will be allowed to repeat that course twice at the most on payment of course fee. Appeal for Grade
A student not satisfied with the grade in any course may appeal to the course teacher. But if the grade is not improved and at the same time, the student is not satisfied with the explanation of the teacher concerned, he/ she may make a written request to the Chair of the department or Dean of the faculty. The Chair will review the process by which the grade was determined. After having the grade or answer script-rechecked, the reviewed final grade will be delivered. These procedures must take place within two weeks after the grade was published. Before making an appeal the student will have to make a payment of fee as determined by the university authority. Examination Guidelines
Student must put their ID cards properly. They must bring their admit cards. A student shall not be allowed to sit for the exams without admit cards. Students have to be sure that the Controlar of Exam signs the permit before the exams Student must keep all things except permitted materials and examination document in front of the room. Students, if found with any act of cheating, shall be debarred from appearing at the said examination or all examinations to be decided by the Discipline Committee. Candidates shall not leave the examination hall before one hour has passed. They must sign in the attendance sheet before leaving the examination hall. All cellular phones must be switched off during the exam. Digital diary or programmable calculators are not allowed for use in the exam hall. Candidates must observe silence and strict discipline in the examination hall. For any other matters pertaining to smooth conduct of examination not mentioned above, the decision of the invigilator/ hall in charge shall be considered final. Code of Conduct for the students
DIU is committed to maintain proper academic environment in its premises. Students are expected, as enlightened members of the society, to be of good moral character and decent conduct. They should strictly observe the university rules of discipline, maintain honesty and punctuality and have respect for the right of others within the premises. Willful violation of these rules seriously destabilizes the academic environment and undermines the efforts of the University to impart high quality education. Followings are the areas of misconduct: Academic Misconduct
Cheating in examinations by any method or means. Helping other students to cheat in the examinations. Reproducing the work of others as one's own work. Fabrication or the falsification of any information with the intent to deceive. Forgery, alteration, or misuse of university documents, records and identity cards. Social Misconduct
Abusive or disorderly conduct. Verbal, mental, physical or sexual harassment. Physical assault in any form. Direct/ indirect threats of violence. Participation in any activity that may disrupt any function of the University. Property Damage
Willful damage or destruction of any property of the university. Dangers to Health and Safety
Smoking inside university building campus. Possession or use of alcoholic drinks and drugs or any other illegal and objectionable items. Disobedience to Lawful Authority
Disobedience, interference, resistance or failure to comply with the direction of an authorized university personnel on duty. ii) Unauthorized Theft or misappropriation of university properties and materials stolen university property. Penalties for Misconduct
The following penalties and sanctions will be imposed on a student for
violating the code of conduct of the University.
Warning in the form of written or verbal notice Cancellation of the examination and/or an assignment. Expulsion for one or more semesters. Expulsion from the university for life. Disciplinary Procedure
A "Discipline Committee" of the University examines the allegations of misconduct, takes evidence from both sides, and recommends penalties to be imposed on the student if found guilty. Change of Department and Program
Students willing to change the Department and Program should make a written application to the Head of the Department to which he/ she is interested to get in along with the transcripts of the previous courses completed. The department will scrutinize the application and upon the recommendation of the department and faculty to he (she) is interested to go, the office of Registrar will make necessary arrangement to transfer
An examination schedule of midterm test and final examination will be notified to the teachers and students within 3 weeks after starting the classes every semester. Before that a tentative schedule including the time frame of class tests, midterm test and final examination will be notified. Cost structure for B. Pharm (Hons.) Degree
Total Fee for the Program
Library fee (One time) Industrial Training fee (one time) Tuition fee for theoretical courses (127 credits @ Tk.2500 per credit) Tuition fee for Laboratory courses (28 credits @ Tk.3000 per Tk. 84,000/- credit) Tuition fee for Oral Assessment (4 credits @ Tk.1500 per credit) Laboratory fee (4 semester @ Tk. 6,400 per semester) Laboratory fee (4 semester @ Tk. 3,000 per semester) Semester fee (4 semester @ Tk. 6,400 per semester) Semester fee (4 semester @ Tk. 3,000 per semester) Development fee (4 semester @ Tk. 6,400 per semester) Development fee (4 semester @ Tk. 3,000 per semester) Extra-curricular Activities fee (Tk. 750 per semester) Project fee (2 credits @ Tk. 4000 per credit) Total Fee for the Program
Tk. 5, 51,800/-
Table 2: Cost of subsequent semesters
(Considering Semester Fee = Tk. 6,400; Development Fee =Tk. 6,400; Laboratory fee = Tk. 6,400; Extracurricular Activities Fee = Tk. 750; All theoretical credit hours @ Tk. 2,500; Tuition fee for Laboratory courses per credit @ Tk. 3,000. 1st installment includes semester fee, development fee, laboratory fee & extra curricular activities fee) 1st Installment
Course (Before Mid-Term
(Before Final Exam)
For 18 Credit 64,950 19,950 hours (Laboratory credit 0) For 19 Credit 67,950 hours (Laboratory credit 1) For 20 Credit 70,950 19,950 hours (Laboratory credit 2) For 21 Credit 73,950 hours (Laboratory credit 3) Laboratories of the Department of Pharmacy
The Department of Pharmacy has the following laboratory facilities, each adequately equipped with instruments, equipment, glassware and chemicals to perform experiments defined in the curricula. 1. Inorganic and Physical Pharmacy Laboratory. 2. Pharmacognosy and Microbiology Laboratory. 3. Organic pharmacy and Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory. 4. Physiology and Pharmacology Laboratory. 5. Pharmaceutics and Cosmetology Laboratory. 6. Analytical and Quality control Laboratory. Inorganic and Physical Pharmacy Laboratory: Qualitative analysis of inorganic ions and
radicals, standardization of acids and bases, preparation of solutions of pH values, preparations of
Pharmacognosy and Microbiology Laboratory: Isolation, characterization and study of
bioactive compounds present in various medicinal plants available in Bangladesh. Preparation of
culture media, identification and assay of various types of microorganisms. Organic pharmacy and Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory: Qualitative and quantitative analysis
of various organic pharmaceutical preparations and synthesis of bioactive chemical compounds
used as active components in pharmaceutical preparations.
Physiology and Pharmacology Laboratory: Total count & differential count of blood cells,
hemoglobin estimation, ESR determination, blood grouping etc. study of physicochemical effects
of different drugs on heart of toad/frog or other animals such as, rat, rabbit's etc.
Pharmaceutics and Cosmetology Laboratory: Formulation and preparation of different
pharmaceutical dosage form such as, tablet, capsules syrup, suspension, emulsion etc.
Preparation and quality control test for cold cream, vanishing cream, lotion, shampoos, tooth
powders and tooth pastes etc that are used externally.
Analytical and Quality control Laboratory: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of various
marketed pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations.
While taking admission,
A student has to pay a total of Tk. 31,400.00 which includes the followings:
Library Fee (one time) Industrial Training Fee (one time) Semester Fee (@ Tk. 6,400 per semester) Tuition Fee (for 3 credits @Tk. 2,500 per credit) Total Fee during admission
Table 1: Cost of 1st semester
(Considering, Admission Fee = Tk. 10,000; Library Development Fee =Tk. 2,500; Industrial Training Fee = Tk 5,000; Semester Fee = Tk. 6,400; Development Fee = Tk. 6,400; Laboratory fee = Tk. 6,400, Extracurricular Activities Fee = Tk. 750; All theoretical credit hours X Tk. 2,500; Tuition fee for Laboratory courses per credit X Tk. 3,000) 1st Installment
(Before Final Exam)
For 18 Credit 82,450 31,400 25,525 25,525 For 19 Credit 85,450 For 20 Credit 88,450 31,400 28,525 28,525 For 21 Credit 91,450 4-Year Bachelor of Pharmacy (B. Pharm.) (Hons.) Syllabus
Inorganic Pharmacy-I Basic Mathematics and Statistics English Language Computer Fundamentals Level–1 Term-2
Inorganic Pharmacy – II Pharmacognosy-II 3 Organic Pharmacy-I Physical Pharmacy-I
Organic Pharmacy – II Physical Pharmacy-II Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Pharmaceutical Microbiology-I
Pharmaceutical Analysis & Quality Control-I Pharmaceutical Microbiology-II Basic Pharmaceutics Clinical Pathology Bangladesh Studies Level–3 Term-1
Pharmaceutical Analysis & Quality Control-II Pharmaceutical Technology -I Medicinal Chemistry- I Hospital & Community Pharmacy
Medicinal Chemistry-II Pharmaceutical Technology-II Biopharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics-I Pharmacology-III Pharmaceutical Marketing Clinical Pharmacy Level–4 Term-1
Medicinal Chemistry-III Pharmaceutical Technology – III Biopharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics-II Advanced Pharmaceutical Analysis & Quality Control Pharmaceutical Quality Control & Analytical Method Validation Pharmaceutical Management Level–4 Term-2
Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Pharmaceutical Engineering BPH423 Cosmetology Nutraceuticals, Dietary Supplements and Herbal Products Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs DETAILED COURSE CONTENTS
First Year, Semester-I
BPH 111: Inorganic Pharmacy- I
: 3 credits
1. Structure of atoms: An elementary treatment of theories of atomic structure, quantum numbers, Pauli's exclusion principle, origin of spectral lines. 2. Chemical bonds: Electronic concept of valency, different types of chemical bond e.g. ionic, covalent, co-ordinate covalent, metallic, dipole, hydrogen bond etc., theories of covalent bonding and hybridization. 3. Classification of elements: The electronic structure of atoms, modern periodic table and periodic law, variation of properties within periods and groups, usefulness and limitations of periodic table. 4. Chemistry of alkali and alkaline earth metals: General characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metals, chemistry of group IA & II elements and their compounds, comparison of alkaline earth metals with alkali metals, pharmaceutical applications of alkali and alkaline earth metals. 5. Chemistry of co-ordination compounds: Ligands or co-ordinating groups, monodentate ligands or unidentate ligands, polydentate ligands, co-ordination number, co-ordination sphere, tendency of polydentate ligands to form chelates, application of chelate formation, nomenclature of co-ordination compounds, isomerism of co-ordination compounds, Warners co-ordination theory, Sidgwick's electronic concept of co-ordinate bond in co-ordination compounds. 6. Medicinal gases: Medicinal gases (oxygen, nitrogen, carbondioxie, helium, nitrous oxide, mixtures), components, containers and closures, production and process control, packaging and labelling, holding and distribution, laboratory controls, return and salvage of drug products. 7. Inert or noble gases: Source, electronic configuration and inertness, isolation of inert gases from dry air (chemical method) and liquid air (physical method), physical & chemical properties and uses of noble gases, conditions and types of compounds formed by inert gases.
BPH 111P: Inorganic Pharmacy-I Practical : 1 credit
Qualitative analysis of inorganic ions and radicals:
Na+, K+, Ca+ Al+3, Mg+2, Fe+2, Mn+, Ag+, Cu+ Cu+2, Cl-, Br-, I- and, CO -
1. Introduction to Modern Inorganic Chemistry- S. Z. Haider, 1994, Friends International. 2. Modern Inorganic Chemistry- Madan, 1st (reprint 1997), S. Chand & Company Ltd. 3. Introduction to Modern Inorganic Chemistry- J. D Lee, 5 edition, Blackwells. 4. Bentley and Driver's Textbook of Pharmaceutical Chemistry- Bently, Arthur Owen, 8th edition, Oxford University Press. 5. Modern Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry- Clarence A. Discher, Leonard C. Bailey, Thomas Medwick, 2nd edition, Waveland Pr Inc. 6. Rogers Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry- Rogers, Charles Herbert, Taito O. Soine and Charles O. Wilson, 7th edition, Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger. 7. Inorganic Medicinal & Pharmaceutical Chemistry- Block, John H., R oche, Edward B., Soine, Taito O., Wilson, Charles O., 1974, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia. BPH 112: Pharmaco
gnosy I : 3 credits
1. Definition and scopes of Pharmacognosy: Historical development, contribution to modern 2. Drug literatures and publications: Pharmacopoeias, National formularies, Codex Monograph, etc; official, non-official & un-official drugs. 3. Structure of cell: Its function and form, int o r duction to general structure of the morphological parts of plants, microscopic examinations. 4. Crude drugs: A e g neral view of their origin, distribution, cultivation, collection, drying, storage a) Preparation of dru s g for commercial market b) Classification of drugs c) Drug adulteration. d) Evaluation of crude drugs e) Chemistry of drugs 5. Vitamins and vitamin-containing drugs: General considerati n o , classifications & functions of vitamins; Cod liver oil, Shark liver oil, Hilsha fish liver oil, etc. 6. Plant analysis: Extraction, separation, chroma o t graphy, types of plant constituents, comparative Phytochemistry and Chemotaxonomy. 7. Phytochemistry and pharmaceutical uses of the following classes of drugs along with consideration of some important drugs of each group: Carbohydrates and related compounds: Biosynthesis of carbohydrate .
i) Sugar & sugar containing drugs: sucrose, glucose, fructose, etc. ii) Polysaccharides & polysaccharides containing drugs: starches, cellulose, iii) Gums & mucilage: tragacanth, acacia, sodium alginate, sterculia, aga Lipids: Castor oil, linseed oil, peanut oil, olive oil, chaulmoogra oil, beeswax, etc. c. Alkaloids: Dist but ion, properties, tests, classification, structures, extraction and 8. Plants in complimentary and traditional systems of medicine: Introduction-different types of alternative systems of treatments (e.g. Herbal, Ayurvadic, Unani and Homeopathic medicine, contribution of traditional drugs to modern medicines; details of some common indigenous traditional drugs: Punarnava, Vashaka, Anantamul, Arjuna, Chirata, Picrorhiga, Kalomegh, Amla, Asoka, Bahera, Haritaki, Tulsi, Neem, Betel nut, Joan, Karela, Shajna, Carrot, Bael, Garlic, Jam, Madar, etc. 9 Surgical dressings and fibres: Introduction, classifications, preparation and uses.
BPH 112P: Pharmacognosy-I Practical : 1 credit
1. Study of some medicinal plants of Bangladesh:
• Study of morphological characteristics e.g. flowers, fruits, leaves, petals, stamens, • Literature survey of medicinal plants according to fa i • Drying and extraction techniques of plant samples. • Preparation of spray re 2 Study of some unorganised drugs: a. General tests for carbohydrates. b. Preparation and extraction of starches and related products. c. Examination of gums: Acacia, tragacanth, sterculi , a agar and alginates. and surgical dressings. Recommended Books :
1. Pharmacognosy- Varro E. Tyler, Ly n n R. Brady & James E. Robbers, 9th edition, 2. Pharmacognosy- Trease & Evans. 3. Pharmacognosy- Edward P. Claus, Varro E.Tyler, 5th edition, Lea & F b e iger, Philadelphia. 4. Textbook of Pharmacognosy- T. E. Wallis, 5th edition, J & A Churchill. 5. Practical Pharmacognosy- Rasheeduz Zafar, 1st edition, CBS Publishers. 6. Natural Products, A Laboratory Guide - Raphael Ikan, Acadec Press, Inc., London. B H 113: Basic Anatomy : 3 credits
1. Introduction to human anatomy: Origin of lif
e on earth, evolution of life on earth, primate and human evolution, anatomical nomenclature. 2. Neonatal anatomy and growth: Neonatal anatomy, individual systems in the neonate, growth. 3. Integumental system: Skin- epidermis, d ermis, nerves, blood vessels, age-related changes, repair, female breast and male breast. 4. Skeletal system: Morpho logy of the human eton, skeletal connective tissue, axial skeleton, appendicular skeleton. 5. Muscle: Brief survey of the major types of muscles, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, s o muscle, muscles and fasciae of the head, anterolateral muscles and fasciae of the neck. 6. Alimentary system: Oral cavity and related structures, ab o d men, oesophagus of anus, stomach, intestine, pancreas, liver, billiary ducts and gall bladder. s stem: Kidney, ureter, kidney transplantation, urinary bladder, male urethra, female 8. Reproductive system: Reproductive organ of the male, testes and epididymes, ductus deferens, penis, prostate, reproductive organs of the female, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, female external organs. 9. Endocrine system: Adenohypophysis, neurohypophysis, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, para-aortic bodies. 10. Respiratory system: Nose and paranasal sinuses, larynx, trachea and bronchi, lungs, pleurae, mediastinum. Recommended Book :
1. Gray's Anatomy- Spalding Gray, (International students edition), published by Churchill 2. Atlas of Human Anatomy by Frank H. Netter
3. Atlas of Human Anatomy (Quick study Books) by Vincent Perez
4. Text Book of Human Anatomy Volume-1,2,3 by Dr. B. K. Tandon
5. Clinically Oriented Anatomy- SI Moore, Dalley
6. Human Anatomy-1,2,3,4 By Datta
MAT 114: Mathematics and Statistics : 3 credits
Section A: Mathematics
1. Graphs and gradients: (a) Rectangular co-ordinates, curve fitting gusting first degree equation in both variables, determination of slope, intercept and points of intersection, equation of first degree in both x and y (circle), ellipse, rectangular hyperbola etc. (b) Exponential and logarithmic curves, graphical solution equation, graphical solution of simultaneous equation. (c) Arithmetic progression, geometric progression, permutation, combination, the binomial theorem and exponential theorem. 2. Calculus: (a) Rate of process, rules of differentiation, successive and partial differentiation, differentiation of a function of a function relation between the derivatives of inverse function. (b) Rules of integration- integration as a summation, area under a curve, integration by partial fraction, graphical integration. 3. Matrices: Addition, subtraction and multiplication of matrices, unit matrix, row transformation, determinants, inverse of a matrix, solution of equation by matrix. Section B: Statistics
1. Graphical and diagrammatic representation- Graphs and diagrams. 2. Measurement of central tendency – Arithmetic mean, geometric mean, harmonic mean, median and mode. 3. Measures of dispersion – Range of mean deviation, variance, coefficient of variance, standard deviation.Moments, Skewness and kurtosis. 4. Probability distribution – The normal, binominal and Poisson distribution, derivation, means 5. The basic ideas of significance test – Simple significance tests based on the normal distribution, comparison with a known standard, comparison of means of two large samples. 6. The correlation of measurement – General notion of correlation, calculation of correlation 7. Regression analysis – Basic idea of regression, calculation of regression coefficient, standard error and significance test. Partial correlation and multiple regression with two and more than two independent variables. 8. Simple experimental design and the analysis of variances – Introduction, completely randomized design, randomized block design, testing the homogeneity of variances. 9. Introduction to factorial experiments – Principle basic ideas, notation in 2n factorial, scope of more advanced designs. 10. Random samples and random numbers- the need and use, representative samples.
1. Integral Calculus: Das and Mukherzjee
2. Differential Calculus: Das and Mukherzjee
3. Matrices: Md. Iman Ali
4. Differential Calculus: Khosh Muhammed and Bhattacharjee
5. Matrices- Ayres, Schaum's Outline Series.
6. Statistics- Spiegel, Schaum's Outlines.
7. Methods of Statistics- M. G. Mostafa.
8. Statistical Methods in Medical Research- P. Armitage.
CSE 111: Computer Fundamentals: 3 credits
The main objective of this course is to familiar the students with computers and their applications
in professional tasks. The course includes hardware and software concepts, functions of CPU,
memory, and I/O devices. Functions of operating system, introduction to some commonly used
operating systems, DOS and Windows environment. Concepts of database, Networking and
Internet applications. Application packages (MS Words, MS Excel, MS Access and Chemdraw).
Basic ideas about programming and some high level programming languages. The course also
includes sufficient lab works based on the theory.
ENG 113: English Language:
1. Grammar: Tenses, articles, prepositions, subject-verb agreement, clauses, conditionals. Abbreviation & Italics, Punctuation, Referring to people and things, Identifying people & things, Giving information about people & things, Varying the message, Expressing time; Composition-The writing process, the paragraph, Social letters, Employment letters. 2. Transformation of sentences: Active-passive transformations, reported speech. 3. Phonetics: How to use a dictionary, IPA symbols, word transcriptions, intonations, and stress. 4. Vocabulary building: Correct and precise diction, affixes, idiomatic expressions, level of appropriateness, colloquial and informal, standard and formal. 5. Developing writing skills: Sentences, sentence variety, generating sentences, sentence clarity and correctness, linking sentences to form paragraphs; Précis writing; Amplification; Report writing; Business communication and tenders; Informal letter writing. First Year, Semester-II
BPH 121: Inorganic Pharmacy-II: 3 credits
(Pre-requisite- Inorganic Pharmacy-1)
1. Environmental chemistry and environmental science: A. Definition, causes of environmental pollution, types of pollutions (gases like SO2, SO3, CO2, CO, NO, HCl, NO2 etc., hydrocarbons, cigarettes, smokes, suspended, particulate, pesticides, gasoline and industrial waste, pharmaceutical food additives), deleterious effects of pollutants on life cycle, applications and importance of environmental sciences. B. Heavy metal toxicity: Poisoning caused by mercury, arsenic, lead, iron and copper, their adverse effects on human life cycle and study of antidotes used in these poisoning cases. 2. Radioactivity radiopharmaceuticals: Introduction, types of radiation and their properties, radioactive decay, half-life, average life, modes of radioactive decay, interaction of radiation with matter, measurement of radioactivity, radiation hazard and radiological safety, biological effects of radiation, control of radiation exposure, storage of radioactive materials, medical applications of radionuclides, official radioactive compounds and their importance, toxicity of radioactive isotopes. 3. Gastrointestinal agents: Classification of inorganic gastrointestinal agents, systemic and non- systemic antacids, preparations with applications of antacids, adsorbents and saline cathartics or laxatives. 4. Dental preparations: Dental plaque and antiplaque agents, dental caries, fluorides and other anticaries agents (preparations with applications), dentifrices. 5. Topical agents: Classification of topical agents, preparations and applications of different antimicrobial, astringent and protective agents. 6. Pharmaceutical aids: Antioxidants, tabletting aids- lubricants, glidants, suspending agents etc., pharmaceutically acceptable glass and glass wares. 7. Intra & extra-cellular electrolytes: Major physiological ions, electrolytes used for replacement therapy, electrolytes used in acid-base therapy, electrolytes combination therapy etc. 8. Essential trace elements: Essential trace elements and their preparations (Cu, Zn, Mn, S, I, Cr, Se, Co, Ni, ect.), applications of essential trace elements in pharmaceutical sciences.
BPH 121P: Inorganic Pharmacy-II Practical : 1 credit
1. Identification of inorganic ions from pharmaceutical formulations: Ca+2, Fe+2, Al+3, Mg+2, K+ and Na+ ions from supplied preparations. 2. Conversion of different water insoluble or sparingly soluble drugs into water soluble form: a. Na/K-salicylate from salicylic acid. b. Na/K-benzoate from benzoic acid. c. Na/K-citrate from citric acid. 3. Preparation of inorganic drugs: a. Preparation of aluminium hydroxide gel. b. Preparation of magnesium hydroxide. c. Preparation of haematinics: ferrous sulfate, ferrous gluconate and ferrous fumerate. Recommended books:
1. Introduction to Modern Inorganic Chemistry- S. Z. Haider, 1994, Friends International. 2. Modern Inorganic Chemistry- Madan, 1st (reprint 1997), S. Chand & Company Ltd. Introduction to Modern Inorganic Chemistry- J. D Lee, 5th edition, Blackwells. 3. Bentley and Driver's Textbook of Pharmaceutical Chemistry- Bently, Arthur Owen, 8th edition, Oxford University Press. 4. Modern Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry- Clarence A. Discher, Leonard C. Bailey, Thomas Medwick, 2nd edition, Waveland Pr Inc. 5. Rogers Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry- Rogers, Charles Herbert, Taito O. Soine and Charles O. Wilson, 7th edition, Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger. 6. Inorganic Medicinal & Pharmaceutical Chemistry- Block, John H., Roche, Edward B., Soine, Taito O., Wilson, Charles O, 1974, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia. BPH 122: Pharmacognosy-II: 3 credits
(Pre-requisite : Pharmacognosy-I)
1. Phytochemistry and pharmaceutical / pharmacological uses of the following plant constituents along with considerations of some important local and foreign drugs of each group. A. Glycosides and glycoside-containing drugs: Introduction, classifications & biosynthesis of glycosides. The details of the following classes of glycosides and glycoside-containing drugs: Cardiac: Digitalils, Strophanthus, Squill, Nerium. II. Anthraquinones: Cascara sagrada, Aloe, Senna, Rhubarb. III. Saponins: Sarsaparilla, Glycyrrhiza, Dioscorea. IV. Cyanogenic: Wild Cherry. V. Isothiocyanate: Mustard (Black mustard and White mustard). VI. Other glycosides like alcohol, phenol, aldehyde, flavonoid, lactone, etc. and neutral principles: Gentian, Quassia, Saffron. B. Alkaloids: The details of the following: I. Tropane: Belladonna, Stramonium, Hyoscyamus, etc. II. Quinoline: Cinchona, Cusparia. III. Isoquinoline: Ipecac, Opium, Sanguinaria, Curare. IV. Indole: Rauwolfia, Nux vomica, Ergot, Catharanthus. V. Imidazole: VI. Steroidal: Veretrum viride, Aconite. VII. Lupinea: Lupinus spp. VIII. Purine base-Coffee, Tea. Biosynthesis of tropane, quinoline, isoquinoline and indole alkaloids. C. Volatile oils and related terpenoids: Methods of obtaining volatile oils, chemistry, their medicinal and commercial uses, biosynthesis of some important volatile constituents used as drugs. The details of the following classes of volatile oils: Terpenes or sesquiterpenes: Pinus, Juniper, Cade. II. Alcohols: Coriander, Sandalwood. III. Ester: Peppermint, Lavender, Rosemarry. IV. Aldehydes: Cinnamon, Eucalyptus, Lemon, Lemon grass. V. Ketons: Spearmint, Caraway, Dill, Camphor. VI. Phenols: Clove, Cinnamon, Ajowan. VII. Ethers: Fennel, Nutmeg, Eucalyptus, Anise, Cajuput. VIII. Peroxides: Chenopodium. IX. Others: Mustard, Wintergreen, Bitter almond. D. Phenolic compounds and tannins: Chemical nature and tests for tannins and some tannin-containing drugs such as Nutgall and Catechu. E. Resin and resin combinations: Genaral consideration, classification and study of resin, oleo resin, oleo-gum resin, tolu balsam and benzoin. 2. Herb as health foods: Alfa alfa, Apricot, Pits, Arnica, Garlic, Onion, Ginseng, Spirulina, Fenugreek, Sassafras, Honey, Nigella etc. 3. Poisonous plants and natural pesticides: Datura, Poison hemlock, Water hemlock, Foxglove (digitalis), Ipornoca, Tobacco, Poppy, Pyrethrum flower, Derris & Lanchocarpus, Red squill, Strychnine, etc. BPH 122P: Pharmacognosy-II Practical
1. General tests for carbohydrates e.g. glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, maltose, etc.
2. Examination of starch and related products.
3. Examinations of gums and mucilages.
4. Extraction and identification of some anthraquinone derivatives from Senna, Cascara
sagrada, and Aloe. 5. Extraction & identificaiton of caffeine from tea and coffee. 6. Preparation of TLC plate, activation, sampling and screening of different plant extracts by thin- layer chromatography (TLC). 7. Study of cardiac glycosides and some cardio-active drugs: Digitalis, Squill, Strophanthus. 8. Examination of some saponin-containing drugs: Sarsaparilla, Discorea. 9. Study of alkaloids and some alkaloid-containing drugs: Belladonna, Stramonium, Hyoscyamus, Cinchona, Rauwolfia, Nux-vomica, Ergot, Ephedra, Colchicum. 10. Isolation of volatile oils from volatile oil-containing drugs. Recommended Books:
1. Pharmacognosy- Varro E. Tyler, Lynn R. Brady & James E. Robbers, 9th edition, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia. 2. Pharmacognosy- Trease & Evans.
3. Pharmacognosy- Edward P. Claus, Varro E. Tyler, 5th edition, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia
4. Textbook of Pharmacognosy- T. E. Wallis, 5th edition, J & A Churchill.
5. Practical Pharmacognosy- Rasheeduz Zafar, 1st edition, CBS Publishers.
6. Natural Products, A Laboratory Guide - Raphael Ikan, Acadec Press, Inc., London.
BPH 123: Organic Pharmacy-I
1. Introduction: History of organic chemistry, classification of organic compounds, systematic naming of organic compounds, electronegativity, polarity of bonds, polarity of molecules, structures and physical properties, intermolecular forces, carbonium ions, carbanion ions, electrophiles, nucleophiles, free radicals, isomerism, etc. 2. Principles and mechanisms of the following organic reactions: Substitution reactions. Addition reactions. Elimination reactions. Rearrangement reactions. Polymerization reactions (addition and condensation polymerization). 3. Hydrocarbons: Properties, nomenclature, preparations, identifications, reactions and pharmaceutical applications of alkanes, alkenes and alkynes. 4. Halogenous compounds: Chemistry of alkyl, aryl, allyl and vinyl halides, their syntheses, reactions and pharmaceutical applications. 5. Alcohols, ethers and epoxides: Properties, nomenclature, preparations, identifications, reactions and pharmaceutical applications. 6. Aldehydes and ketones: Properties, nomenclature, preparations, identifications, reactions and pharmaceutical applications. 7. Carboxylic acids: Properties, nomenclature, preparations, identifications, reactions and pharmaceutical applications. 8. Amines: Properties, nomenclature, preparations, identifications, reactions and pharmaceutical 9. Aromatic compounds: Aromaticity, general chemistry of aromatic compounds, such as phenols, sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids, diazonium compounds etc. with special reference to biological and pharmaceutical importance.
BPH 123P: Organic Pharmacy-1 Practical
1. Qualitative analysis of organic salts. 2. Determination of functional groups like –COOH, -NO2, -NH2, -SO3H, -OH group in various Recommended Books:
1. Organic Chemistry- Robert Thornton Morrison and Robert Neilson Boyd, 6th edition, Prentice- Hall of India, Private Limited. 2. A Textbook of Organic Chemistry- Arun Bahl and B. S. Bahl, 15th edition, S. Chand & 3. Organic Chemistry, vo1. I & II- I. L. Finar, 5th edition, Longman, London. 4. Organic Chemistry- Louis Feiser and Mary Feiser, 3rd edition, Asia Publishing House, India. 5. Advanced Organic Chemistry- B. S. Bahl and Arub Bahl, 1st (reprint 2005), S. Chand & 6. Introduction to Organic Laboratory Techniques- Donald L. Pavia, Gary M. Lampman, George S. Kriz, Randall G. Engel, 2nd edition, Thomson Brooks / Cole. 7. Advanced Organic Chemistry- Reactions, Mechanisms and Structure, Jerry March, 4th edition, John Willey & Sons. 8. A Text Book of Organic Chemistry- Raj K. Bansal, 3rd edition, New Age International (P)
BPH 124: Physical Pharmacy-I
1. Properties of matter: Gaseous state, Gas-law's ideal gas equation, Dalton's law of partial pressure, diffusion of gases. Kinetic theory of gases, mean free path, deviation from ideal gas behaviour, Van der Waals equation. Critical constants, liquefaction of gases, determination of molecular weights, law of corresponding states and heat capacity. 2. Chemical equilibrium: Law of mass action. Determination of equilibrium constant, heterogeneous equilibrium and homogeneous equilibrium, the Le chatelier principle, Van't Hoff equation. 3. Chemical Thermodynamics: Introduction, the first law of thermodynamics, internal energy, determination of internal energy, heat change at constant volume and constant pressure. Thermodynamic reversibility, work in isothermal reversible expansion of gases. Heat capacities, difference between molar heats. Adiabatic processes. Joule-Thomson experiment. Thermochemistry and thermochemical laws, Hess's law. Second law of thermodynamics, Carnot's cycle and efficiency of a perfect engine, the concept of entropy and entropy changes for an ideal gas expansion. Free energy and work functions. Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, free energy changes under equilibrium. The Calusius-Clapyeron equation. 4. Phase equilibria: Phase, components and degrees of freedom. The phase rule and its thermodynamic derivation. The phase diagrams of water and sulphur systems, partially miscible liquid pairs: the phenol and water and nicotine-water systems. Completely miscible liquid pairs and their separation by fractional distillation. Freeze drying (lyophilization). 5. Solutions: Types and properties of solutions, Units of concentration, ideal and real solutions. Henry's law, distribution of solids between two immiscible liquids, distribution law. Partition coefficient and solvent extraction. 6. Colligative properties of dilute solutions: Lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point and osmotic pressure including necessary thermodynamic derivations. 7. Ionic eqilibria: pH, determination of pH of different acids and base, salt solutions and buffers. Titration curves of acids and bases and indicators. 8. Buffer capacity: Preparation of buffers, buffers and isotonic systems. Methods for adjustment of tonicity of solutions. Buffers in pharmaceutical and biological systems.
BPH 124P: Physical Pharmacy-I Practical
1. Preparation of solutions of different pH values.
2. Preparation of buffers.
3. Standardization of acids & bases.
4. Determination of pKa and pKb values.
5. Determination of phase diagram of binary systems.
6. Calorimetric determination of heat of solution of different salts.
7. Determination of titration curves of acids & bases.
8. Determination of molecular weight of substances by Victor Meyer's method.
9. Determination of distribution coefficients of oxalic acid between ether and water.
10. Experiment on dialysis.
1. Principles of Physical Chemistry- M. Mahbubul Haque & M. Ali Nawab, 2nd edition, Student 2. Physical Pharmacy- Alfred N. Martin, Pilar Bustamonte, 5th edition, Lippincott Williams & 3. Elements of Physical Chemistry- Glasstone Samuel and Lewis David, 1966, Macmillan. 4. Physical Chemistry- P. W. Atkins, Peter Atkins, Julio De Paula, 7th edition, W. H Freeman & 5. Essentials of Physical Chemistry- B.S.Bahl, G.D. Tuli and Arun Bahl, 24th edition, S.Chand & 6. Quantitative analysis- V. Alexeyev, 2nd edition, CBS Publishers. 7. Physicochemical Principles of Pharmacy- A. T. Florence and D. Attwood, 2nd edition, BPH 125: Physiology-I
1. Cell: Structure and functions, cell inclusion, division of cell. Tissue: Definition, classification, characteristics, distribution and function of tissue. 2. Blood Blood: Composition and function. Plasma: Electrolytes, proteins and other organic constituents. Blood cells: Their formation and destruction, cell count, functions of different blood cells. Haemoglobin: Structure, properties and functions. Coagulation factor: Definition, functions. Anaemia: Causes and classification. Blood coagulation: Blood groups, blood transfusion. Lymph: Composition, formation, circulation and function, lymph nodes and lymphatic. 3. Circulatory system: Heart: Structure, heart muscles, conducting system of heart, origin and transmission of cardiac impulse; ECG, control and requirements for the normal heart beat, cardiac cycle, cardiac output, nervous regulation of heart, cardiac reflexes. Blood vessels: Types of blood vessels and their functions. Blood pressure: Measurements and regulation of blood pressure, nervous control and chemical control. Arterial pulse: Definition and clinical study, recording of arterial pulse. Importance and functions. Regional blood circulation: Pulmonary circulation, hepatic circulation, renal circulation and cerebral circulation. 4. Respiratory system: Mechanism of respiration, pulmonary ventilation, ventilation volumes, gaseous interchange through lungs: carriage of O2 and CO2. Regulation of respiration: Nervous and chemical regulation. Hypoxia: Causes and classification, abnormal breathing, Cheyne stokes breathing, Kussmal breathing, breathing at high altitude. 5. Alimentary system: Structure of different parts of the alimentary system, movements of the different parts of the alimentary tract and their control, swallowing, gastric contractions, intestinal contraction, secretion of digestive juices, saliva, gastric juice, pancreatic juice, intestinal juice and bile, mechanism and control of the various secretions and their functions, digestion of food stuff, absorption of the different digested materials. 6. Structure and functions of liver: Formation of bile and its concentration in the gal bladder, circulation of bile salts and bile pigments, functions of liver. BPH 125P: Physiology-I Practical
1. Microscopical study of blood cells: R.B.C., W.B.C., and platelets. 2. Estimation of haemoglobin. 3. Total count of R.B.C. 4. Total count of W.B.C. 5. Differential count of W.B.C. 6. Determination of clotting and bleeding times. 7. Examination of clot under the microscope. 8. Effect of chemical agents on R.B.C. 9. Fragility test of R.B.C. 10. Determination of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (E.S.R). Recommended Books:
1. Human Physiology (vol. I & II)- Chandi Charan Chatterjee, 11th edition, Medical Allied Agency, 2. A Text Book of Medical Physiology- Arther C. Guyton, 10th edition, W. B. Sander's Company, 3. Review of Medical Physiology- W. F. Ganong, 22nd edition, Appleton & Lange Medical 4. A Text Book of Practical Physiology- C.L. Ghai, South Asia Books.
An oral examination on the syllabus of first year (semester I & II) will be taken after the final examination of theory and practical courses. Second Year, Semester-I
BPH 211: Organic Pharmacy-II 3 credits
(Pre-requisite: Organic Pharmacy-I) 1. A detailed study of the important name reactions: Arndt-Eistert, Baeyer-Villiger, Birch reduction, Clemmensen reduction, Darzens' condensation, Diels-Alder, Eschweiler-Clarke, Friedel-Crafts, Gabriel synthesis, Gatterman, Grignard, Hofmann, Koch, Mannich, Michael, Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reduction, Oppenauer oxidation, Perkin, Reformatsky, Reimer-Tiemann, Sandmeyer, Vilsmeier-Haack, Wittig, Wolff-Kishner reduction, etc. 2. Organometallic compounds: Preparation of organometallic compounds containing lithium, magnesium, copper, cadmium, zinc and their importance. 3. Introduction to common essential drugs: Preparation and uses of salicylic acid, aspirin, paracetamol, benzoic acid, benzylbenzoate, sulfa-drugs, PASA, PABA, isoniazid, halothane, enflurane, methoxyflurane, etc. 4. Basic heterocyclic chemistry: Introduction of heterocyclic compounds, comparison between heterocyclic and carbocyclic compounds 6. Carbohydrates: Definition, classification, constitution and configuration of carbohydrates, synthesis of monosaccharides, ring structures of monosaccharides and their conformations, action of acids and bases on reducing sugars, epimers, anomers and anomeric configurations, reactions of mono-, di-, tri- and tetrasaccharides, their structure, physical and chemical properties. Polysaccharides: Definition, classification, constitution and importance of polysaccharides, isolation and purification of polysaccharides, a brief introduction of polysaccharides such as cellulose, pectin, alginic acid, chitin, glycogen and heparin. 7. Lipids: Definition, occurrence, classification and functions, composition of fats and oils, hydrolysis of fats, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, steroids and phospholipids. 8. Amino acids, peptides and proteins: Amino acids: Definition, sources, classification, structures, configurations, preparations, reactions and importance of amino acids; isoelectric point, essential and nonessential amino acids. Peptides: Constitution and geometry, C-terminal and N-terminal residues of peptides. Proteins: Classification and functions, denatured and conjugated proteins; primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins. BPH 211P: Organic Pharmacy-II Practical
1. Identification of simple organic compounds such as Benzoic acid, Salicylic acid, Aspirin, 2. Synthesis of simple compounds using name reactions such as Baeyer-Villiger, Birch reduction, Clemmensen reduction, Friedel-Crafts, Gabriel synthesis etc. Recommended Books:
1. Organic Chemistry - Robert Thornton Morrison and Robert Neilson Boyd, 6th edition, Prentice, Hall of India, Private limited. 2. A Textbook of Organic Chemistry – Arun Bahl and B. S. Bahl, 15th edition, S. Chand & 3. Organic Chemistry, vo1. I & II- I. L. Finar, 5th edition, Longman, London. 4. Organic Chemistry - Louis Feiser and Mary Feiser, 3rd edition, Asia Publishing House, India. 5. Advanced Organic Chemistry – B. S. Bahl and Arub Bahl, 1st (reprint 2005), S. Chand & 6. Introduction to Organic Laboratory Techniques- Donald L. Pavia, Gary M. Lampman, George S. Kriz, Randall G. Engel, 2nd edition, Thomson Broks / Cole. 7. Advanced Organic Chemistry- Reactions, mechanisms and structure, Jerry March, 4th edition, John Willey & Sons. 8. A Text Book of Organic Chemistry- Raj K. Bansal, 3rd edition, New age international (P)
BPH 212 : Physical Pharmacy-II
(Pre-requisite: Physical Pharmacy-I) 1. Principle and techniques of heat transfer: Drying (including freeze drying), evaporation, 2. Extraction: Solvent extraction, solid/liquid separation, liquid/ liquid extraction, filtration, (a) Physical degradation: Degredation of pharmaceutical products, loss of water, absorption of water, loss of volatile constituents, polymorphism, colour change. (b)Chemical degradation: Hydrolysis, oxidation, isomerization, polymerization, decarboxylation, factors affecting chemical degradation, etc. (c) Chemical kinetics: Definitions, rates and orders of reactions, methods for determination of orders of reactions, influence of temperature on rate of reactions, theories of reaction rates, decomposition of pharmaceutical products, accelerated test for physical, chemical and photochemical stability, stability aspects of formulations, shelf life determination. 4. Adsorption and interfacial phenomena: Feundlich and Langmuir isotherms, BET equation, electrical properties of interfaces, electrical double layer, Nernst equation and zeta potential, Gibbs equation, surface active agents, emulgents, detergents and antifoaming agents, surfactants and drug activity, surfactants and pharmaceutical products, measurement of surface tension, application of surface tension in pharmacy. 5. Rheology and rheology of dispersed systems: Newtonian liquids, non-Newtonian materials, yield value, plastic and pseudoplastic flow, dilatant and thixotropic flow, Poiseuillie's equation and measurement of viscosity, viscosity of suspending agents, uses of viscosity studies; pharmaceutical product design applying concept of rheology. 6. Colloids: Classification, preparation, electrical and optional properties, sedimentation, Stoke's law, stability of colloidal dispersion, protective colloid, sensitization, dialysis, Donnan membrane equilibrium, application and uses of colloidal preparations in pharmacy. 7. Electrochemistry: Electrical units and their interrelation, Faraday's laws of electrolysis and electrochemical equivalents, electrolytic conduction, equivalent conductance and the related facts, conductometric titrations, transference numbers and their determination. 8. Electrochemical cells: Electrode and cell potentials, energies involved in electrode processes, reference electrodes, buffer solutions and measurement of pH, potentiometric titrations and oxidation reduction systems, concentration cells. BPH 212P: Physical Pharmacy-II Practical
1. A. Determination of viscosity of liquid: a. Pure liquids such as glycerin, alcohol etc. b. Liquid pharmaceutical preparations-syrup, emulsion, suspension, etc. B. Study of variation of viscosity of liquids with temperature using Ostwald or Engler's 2. Determination of velocity constants of the hydrolysis of methyl/ethyl acetate catalysed by 3. Determination of adsorption isotherm of oxalic (or acetic) acid from aqueous solution by charcoal and calculation of the constant in Freundlich's equation. 4. Determination of the equilibrium constant of the reaction KI+I2=KI3. 5. Determination of solubility of sparingly soluble salts in water by conductance measurement. 6. Determination of velocity constant for the hydrolysis of an ester in the basic medium by conductance measurement. 7. Determination of the molecular weights of organic solids by iboluscopy and cryoscopy. Recommended Books:
1. Principles of Physical Chemistry- M. Mahbubul Haque & M. Ali Nawab, 2nd edition, Student 2. Physical Pharmacy- Alfred N. Martin, Pilar Bustamonte, 4th edition, Lippincott Williams & 3. Elements of Physical Chemistry- Glasstone Samuel and Lewis David, 1966, Macmillan. 4. Physical Chemistry- P. W. Atkins, Peter Atkins, Julio De Paula, 7th edition, W. H Freeman & 5. Essentials of Physical Chemistry- B. S. Bahl G. D. Tuli and Arun Bahl, 24th edition, S. Chand 6. Quantitative analysis- V. Alexeyev, 2nd edition, CBS Publishers. 7. Physicochemical Principles of Pharmacy- A. T. Florence and D. Attwood, 2nd edition, BPH 213 : Physiology-II
Nerve cells: Properties, classification and functions. Nerve fibres: Types of nerve fibres, origin and propagation of nerve impulse across nerve fibre, action potential, units for the measurement of nerve excitability. Synapse: Classification and properties of synapses and their functions. Reflex action: Definition, classification and properties. Principal division of the nerve system: CNS and PNS, different parts of the CNS, Principal motor and sensory paths of the CNS: Upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron. Sensory nerve endings: Different types of sensation. Muscle tone: Definition and regulation. Autonomic Nervous system and its principal division: Sympathetic and parasympathetic functions served by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. Neurotransmitters: Definition and functions. 2. Excretory system: Structure of kidney, nephron and its various parts, renal circulation, adjustment and regulation of renal blood flow and its measurements, renal clearance, its use for the measurement of GFR & RPF, counter current hypothesis, role of kidney in acid-base balance of blood and for the maintenance of plasma volume, properties and composition of urine, micturition reflex and its control. 3. Endocrine system: Structure and functions of pituitary thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands and pancreatic islets, hormones secreted by the different endocrine glands and by the hypothalamus, normal and disordered functions of the different hormones, regulation of the secretion of different hormones. 4. Metabolism: Fat, carbohydrate, protein and nucleoprotein metabolism, metabolic pathways of fat, carbohydrate and proteins, enzymes, vitamins and hormones regulating various metabolic steps; hormone replacement theraphy; vitamin and minerals, their physiological properties and functions. Male reproductive system: Testis and accessory of organs, male sex hormone, formation of spermatozoa and its control by various hormones. Female reproductive system: Ovaries, uterus, oviduct etc., menstrual cycle and its control, diagnosis of pregnancy, female sex hormones, pregnancy & lactation and their hormonal control. 6. Temperature Control: Heat production and heat dissipation, role of hypothalamus and other nervous factors in body temperature regulation, other functions of hypothalamus. BPH 213P: Physiology-II Practical
1. Recording of normal heart beat in toad. 2. Demonstration of the effects of temperature on toad heart. 3. Demonstration of the effects of stannous ligatures on toad heart. 4. Demonstration of the effects of drugs on toad heart. 5. Demonstration of the effects of electrolytes (Na+, K+, Ca++) on toad heart. 6. Recording of respiration with stethograph. 7. Measurement of blood pressure with sphygmomanometer. Effects of physical exercise on B.P. and heart rate. 8. Biochemical testes on saliva: Effect of ptyalin on starch. 9. Collection of gastric juice, tests for gastric acidity. Recommended Books:
1. Human Physiology (vol. I & II) - Chandi Charan Chatterjee, 11th edition, Medical Allied Agency, Calcutta. 2. A text book of Medical Physiology- Arther C. Guyton, 10th edition, W. B. Sander's Company, 3. Review of Medical Physiology-W. F. Ganong, 22nd edition, Appleton & Lange Medical 4. A Text Book of Practical Physiology- C.L. Ghai, South Asia Books. BPH 214: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
1. Introduction to cell: Differences between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells, structure and functions of mitochondria and chloroplasts, cytoskeleton, cell development and differentiation. 2. Plasma membrane/cell walls and cell surface: Principle of semi-permeability, active transport, endocytosis, exocytosis, bacterial, fungal and plant cell walls. 3. Nuclear structure and function: Cell division and cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis, structure and function of chromosomes. 4. Cancer biology: Types of cancer, genetic causes of development of cancer, approaches for the treatment of cancer. 5. Proteins: Important bonds in protein, important functions of protein in biological system, importance of amino acid sequence in protein structure, different amino acids structures and functions, peptide bond, disulfide bridge in protein structure, peptide bond is rigid and planner, α helix, β sheet, hairpin turn, denaturation and renaturation of protein, proteins are rich in hydrogen-bonding potentiality, different structures of protein, conformational change of protein, gel electrophoresis, 2-D gel electrophoresis, purification of protein, synthesis of protein, protein sequencing, recombinant DNA technology for protein sequencing. 6. Nucleic acids: Basic definition, gene, genome, transcription, translation, importance of nucleic acid study, different bases of DNA/RNA, nucleotide, nucleoside, structures of DNA, DNA chain has polarity, AT/GC structure, melting point of DNA, physical states of DNA, Replication, discovery of DNA polymerase I and III, mRNA, hybridization studies of mRNA, synthesis of mRNA, recombinant DNA technology, restriction enzymes, promoter region of DNA, RNA synthesis termination, tRNA, role of tRNA in protein synthesis, DNA sequencing. 7. Enzymes: Definition, activation energy and enzymes, enzymes are highly specific, regulation of enzymes activity, enzymes and reaction equilibria, enzyme kinetics, enzyme inhibition, common features of enzymes, enzyme cofactor/ coenzyme, Vit B1, Vit B2 etc as coenzyme. BPH 214P: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Practical
1. Determination of protein content by Spectrophotometric method 2. Determination of extinction coefficient of protein. 3. Identification and molecular weight determination of protein by SDS-PAGE. 4. Identification of DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis. 5. Synthesis of DNA by PCR method. 6. Determination of lipid profiles. 7. Determination of serum creatinine level. 8. Determination of blood urea level. 9. Determination of SGPT, SGOT levels in blood. Recommended Books:
1. Cell and Molecular Biology- E.D.P. De Robertis, 7th edition, Marcel and Dekker, NY. 2. Molecular Cell Biology, Hervey Lodish, Arnold Berk, S. Laurence Zipursky, 3rd edition, Lodish 3. Biochemistry, 5th edition, J. M. Berg, J.L. Tymoczko and L. Stryer, Freeman, 1995. 4. Lehninger Principle of Biochemistry, David L. Nelson, Michael M. Cox, 4th edition, W.H. 5. Amazing Schemes Within Your Genes- Balkwill, F. and Rolph, M., 1994, Harper Collins. 6. Instant Notes in Biochemistry- Harries, Hooper and Houghton. 7. Molecular Biology of the Cell- Bruce Albertis, Dennis Bray, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Robertis, James D. Watson, 3rd edition, Garland Publishing, NY.
BPH 215: Pharmaceutical Microbiology-I
1. Introduction to microbiology: Microbiology as a field of biology, place of micro organisms in the living field, procaryotic and eucaryotic protists, groups of microorganisms, areas of microbiology, application of microbiology. 2. History and evolution of microbiology: Spontaneous generation and biogenesis, germs theory of diseases, pure culture concept, immunization, widening horizons. 3. Microscopic observations of microorganisms: Bright field, dark field, fluorescence and phase contrast microscopy, electron microscopy, preparations of microscopic examinations, wet mount and hanging drop techniques, fixed and stained smears, microbiological stains, simple and differential staining methods. 4. Bacteria: Nomenclature of bacteria, morphology and fine structures, nutritional requirements, bacteriological media, growth and reproduction, quantitative measurement of bacterial growth, maintenance and prevention of pure culture of bacteria. 5. Microorganisms other than bacteria (Brief study): a) Yeasts-types: morphology, reproduction and physiology, pathogenic yeasts. b) Rickettsiae: Introduction, characteristics of rickettsiae, pathogenic rickettsiae, laboratory diagnosis of rickettsial deseases. c) Viruses: Virus inhibition, control of virus infections, bacterial virus or bacteriophages, morphology and composition, cultivation of bacterial viruses, reproduction of bacterial viruses. 6. Basic concepts of immunology: Infections, pathogenicity and virulence, immunity. BPH 215P: Pharmaceutical Microbiology Practical
1. Study of compound microscope. 2. Identification and characterization of bacteria. 3. Gram staining of bacterial cells and spores. 4. Preparation of pure bacterial cultures. 5. Preparation of pure culture and its identification. 6. Bacterial counts. Recommended Books:
1. Microbiology- Michael J. Pelczar, Noel R. Kreig and E.C.S Chan. 5th edition, Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi. 2. Microbiology: An Introduction- Tortora, Berdell R.Funkee & Case, 8th edition, Prentice-Hall. 3. Biology of Microorganisms- TD Brock, MT Madigan, JM Martinko, and J. Parker, 7th edition, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 4. Prescott and Dunn's Industrial Microbiology- Samuel Cate Prescott, Cecil Gordon Dunn and Gerald Reed, 4th edition, Chapman & Hall. 5. Pharmaceutical Microbiology- Harris. 6. Fundamental Principles of Bacteriology- A.J. Salle, 7th edition, Mc Graw Hill Book Company. Second Year, Semester-II
BPH 221: Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Control–I
(Pre-requisite: Physical Pharmacy-I & II)
1. Introduction of pharmaceutical analysis: Significance of quantitative analysis in pharmaceutical quality assurance, different techniques of analysis, selection of samples, significant figures, precision and accuracy of representative samples, fundamentals of volumetric analysis, methods of expressing concentration, primary and secondary standards. 2. Aqueous acid base titration: Definitions, distribution of acid-base species with pH of the medium, acid-base titrimetry for determination of weakly acidic and basic pharmaceuticals, indicators (theories) and their selection, applications. 3. Non-aqueous acid base titration: Theoretical considerations and principles, non-aqueous solvents, titration of weak acids and weak bases, applications and scope of non-aqueous titrations. 4. Oxidation reduction titration: Principles and concepts, determination involving potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate and potassium borate, iodometric determination, miscellaneous oxidation and reduction titrations, indicators, applications. 5. Complexometric titration: Concept, complexes and chelates, stability of complex ions, titration based on complex formation, types of complexometric titrations, methods of end point detection, titration selectivity and masking agents, choice of chelating agents, and pharmaceutical importance. 7. Potentiometric titration: Introduction, theory and principles, electrochemical cells and half- cells, electrodes, measurement of potential, application of potentiometric titration. Polarography and amperometric titration: Introduction, theoretical considerations, instrumentation, general polarographic analysis, amperometric titration using one and two electrodes. 9. Aquametry: Principle and scope, physical and chemical methods of water determination, applications in pharmacy. BPH 221P: Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Control–I Practical 1 Credit
1. Assay of acetyl salicylic acid in aspirin tablets. 2. Non-aqueous assay of phenobarbitone tablets. 3. Determination of potency of penicillin tablets. 4. Determination of calcium in solid and liquid dosage from by complexometric titration. 5. Assay of aluminium hydroxide gel. 6. Assay of promethazine hydrochloride. 7. Assay of magnesium and aluminium from antacid preparations. 8. Determination of iodine value and saponification value for fixed oils. Recommended Books:
1. A Textbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis- Kennth A. Connors, 3rd edition, John Wiley & Sons. 2. Pharmaceutical Chemistry, vol. 1 and 2- Lasie G. Chatten, 1996, Marcel Dekker Inc. 3. A Textbook of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis, vol. I & II- Aurther I. Vogel, 3rd edition, Longman, England. 4. United State Pharmacopoeia, 29th edition, United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc. 5. British Pharmacopoeia 2005. 6. Quality Control in Pharmaceutical Industry- Murray S. Cooper, 1972, Academic Press. BPH 222: Pharmaceutical Microbiology-II
1. Sterilization a. Sterilization by dry heat: principle, hot air oven, method of use, applications, advantages and disadvantages of sterilization by moist heat, factors affecting sterilization by moist heat, principle of sterilization by stem under pressure, Autoclave- applications, testing the efficiency of autoclaves, sterilization by heating with bactericides, validation of sterilizers. b. Sterilization by filtration c. Sterilization by radiation d. Sterilization by gas 2. Sterility testing: Sampling techniques. Types of media used in sterility testing. Positive and negative controls. Pyrogen tests. Testing procedure for aqueous solutions, aqueous suspensions, powders, semi solid preparations, oils and ointments, ligatures and sutures, surgical dressings, equipments. Miscellaneous tests: Immunological preparations and viral products. 3. Disinfection and antisepsis: Introduction to disinfection. Factors influencing disinfection. Chemical disinfectants, and their modes of action. Disinfectant evaluation. 4. Microbial assay of antibiotics: Antimicrobial activity. Factors affecting the measurement of antimicrobial activity. Antibiotic assays. Biological and non biological assays. Determinations of MICs (Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations). Challenge tests. Microbiological quality of pharmaceutical materials with special reference to Non-sterile and Sterile products, t- Test. 5. Industrial microbiology: Ecology of microorganisms as it affects the pharmaceutical plant. Good manufacturing practice. Microbial spoilage and preservation. The role of recombinant DNA technology in the pharmaceutical industry. Pharmaceutical products made by genetic engineering. Miscellaneous pharmaceutical products of microbial origin (vitamins, amino acids, dextran, etc.), streptokinase. 6. Immunological products: Active antigenic products, attenuated, inactivated and extract, viral and bacterial. Passive products, gamma globulin. Recommended Books:
1. Microbiology- Michael J. Pelczar, Noel R. Kreig and E.C.S Chan. 5th edition, Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi. 2. Microbiology: An Introduction- Tortora, Berdell R.Funkee & Case, 8th edition, Prentice-Hall. 3. Biology of Microorganisms- TD Brock, MT Madigan, JM Martinko, and J. Parker, 7th edition, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 4. Prescott and Dunn's Industrial Microbiology- Samuel Cate Prescott, Cecil Gordon Dunn and Gerald Reed, 4th edition, Chapman & Hall. 5. Pharmaceutical Microbiology- Harris. 6. Fundamental Principles of Bacteriology- A.J. Salle, 7th edition, Mc Graw Hill Book Company. 7. Cooper and Gunn's Dispensing for Pharmaceutical Students- S. J Carter, 12th edition, Pitman 8. Microbiology- Lachman and Whistriche. 9. Pharmaceutical W. B. Hugo & A. D. Russel, 6th edition, Blackwell Science. BPH 223: Basic Pharmaceutics
1. Pharmacy profession: Pharmacy as a career, education, professional organizations, legislation and acts in Bangladesh, Evolution of pharmacy profession, earlier period, middle to modern ages, Introduction to Pharmacopoeias with special reference to B.P., U.S.P. and International Pharmacopoeia. 2. Prescriptions: Reading and understanding of prescriptions, modern methods of prescribing and common Latin abbreviations, form of the prescription order, hospital medication orders, reducing medication errors, processing the prescription order, patient compliance, prescription dispensing and associated record maintenance, monitoring adverse drug reactions, legal considerations. 3. Pharmaceutical calculations: Some fundamentals of measurement and calculation, the metric system, calculation of doses, reducing and enlarging formulas, percentage calculations, % w/v, v/v, and w/w, dilution and concentration, use of alligation methods, isotonic solutions, milliequivalent units, calculations involving buffer solutions and radioactive pharmaceuticals, pharmacoeconomic calculations, graphical methods, basic statistical concepts, problems involving HLB values, exponential and logarithmic notation. 4. Pharmaceutical excipients: Acidifying agents, aerosol propellants, air displacement agents, alkalizing agents, anti-foaming agents, anti-microbial preservatives, anti-oxidants, buffering agents, chelating agents, colors, complexing agents, desiccants, emulsifying agents, flavoring agents and perfumes, glidants, anti-caking agents, humectant, ointment bases, plasticizer, solvents, stiffening agents, tablet binders, tablet/capsule lubricants, tablet disintegrants, tonicity agent, water repelling agent, wetting and solubulizing agents. 5. Polymers and macromolecules: Definition, classification, physical, chemical and mechanical properties, molecular weight and distribution, polymer solution properties, plasticization and elastomers, pharmaceutical applications of some water soluble and water-insoluble polymers, polymeric systems in drug delivery. 6. Micromeritics: Definition, porosity, density of particles, packing arrangements, flow properties, importance of particle size determination, different means of expressing particle size, methods of particle size determination: optical and electron microscope studies, Coulter-counter methods, laser beam technique, sieve analysis, sedimentation methods, particle shape and surface area: measurement of particle surface area. 7. Pharmaceutical incompatibilities and drug interactions: Physical, chemical and therapeutic incompatibility, factors contributing to the occurrence of drug interactions, patient variables, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions. 8. Preformulation studies: i) Study of physical properties of drugs like physical form, polymorphism, solubility, salt formation, dissolution and partitioning effects and their influence on formulation, stability and bioavailability of products. ii) Study of chemical properties like hydrolytic degradation, oxidation, racemization, decarboxylation, polymerization and their influence on formulation and stability of products, drug substance– excipient interaction study. iii) Study of pro-drugs in solving problems related to stability, bioavailability and elegancy of formulations. Recommended Books:
1. Cooper and Gunn's Dispensing for pharmaceutical Students- S. J Carter, 12th edition, Pitman 2. Sprowl's American Pharmacy- Lewis W. Dittert, 7th edition, J. B. Lippincott Company, 3. 3. Remington: The Science & Practice of Pharmacy- Alfronso R. Gennaro, 20th edition, Mack Publishing Company, Easton, Pennsylvania. 4. Martindale- The Extra Pharmacopoeia- James E. F. Reynolds, 29th edition, London, The Pharmaceutical Press. 5. Bentley's Textbook of Pharmaceutics- E. A. Rawlins, 8th edition, E.L.B.S., Bailliere Tindall. 6. Cooper & Gunn's Tutorial Pharmacy- S. J. Carter, 6th edition, Pitman Medical. 7. Pharmaceutics: The Science of Dosage form Design- Michael Aulton, 1993, E.L.B.S., London. BPH 224: Pharmacology-I
1. General principle: Sources of drugs, routes of administration and pharmacogenetics. 2. Introduction to pharmacokinetics: Drug absorption, factors modifying drugabsorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME). 3. Introduction to pharmacodynamics: Basic principles, mechanism of drug absorption, receptor (receptor for physiological regulatory molecules, structural and functional families, receptor as enzyme etc.) agonist, antagonist, potentiation, synergism, drug-receptor interaction, factors modifying drug action, drug tolerance, dependence etc. 4. Basic concept of drug action, receptor, nature of receptor, drug antagonism, Relation between drug dose & clinical response. Signalling mechanism and drug action, legand gated channels, G-proteins and second messengers. 5. Autacoids: Amine, lipid & peptide autacoids. 6. Drugs for peptic ulcer: antacid,H2 - receptor blokkers, proton pump inhibitor, PG analogue, mucosal-protective agent,Anti Helicobacter pylori. 7. Analgesic, antipyretic and antinflammatory drugs: Non-narcotic analgesic- salicylates, pyrazolone derivatives, para-aminophenole derivatives, propionic acid derivatives, indomethacin, sulindac,tolmetin, diclofenac; Narcotic analgesic -opium alkaloids, morphine antagonist, synthetic & semisynthetic opiate. 8. CNS stimulant drugs: Strychnine, xanthine & methylxanthine, amphetamine, nicotine. 9. Sedative & hypnotic drugs: Benzodiazepine & Barbiturates. 10. Local & General anesthetic: History, mechanism of action, properties, Pharmacological action of local & General anesthetics. BPH 224P: Pharmacology-I Practical
1. Study of drugs acting on CNS: a. CNS stimulant drugs (strychnine, ephedrine, amphetamine). b. CNS depressant drugs (barbiturates induced sleeping time). 2. Effect of pilocarpine on salivary secretion of rat. 3. Effect of digitalis, adrenaline, nor-adrenaline, isoprenaline on toad's heart. 4. Effect of local anaesthetics on rat's tail. 5. Study of mydriatic and myotic effects on rabbit's eye (e.g. pilocarpine, atropine, physostigmine, etc). Recommended Books:
1. Goodman & Gillman's Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics- Hardman, Joel G., 10th edition, Mc graw Hill Incorporated. 2. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology- Bertram G. Katzung, 9th edition, Mc Graw Hill Companies. 3. Medical Pharmacology-Andres Goth, 8th edition, Toppan Co. Ltd. 4. Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics- R. S. Satosker, Paperback, 2005, Popular Prakashani Ltd. India. 5. Clinical Pharmacology- D. R. Laurence, P. N. Bennett and M. J. Brown, 9th edition, Churchill 6. Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, Roger walker and Clive Edwards, 3rd edition, Churchill
BPH 225: Clinical Pathology
1. Definition and scope of pathology, concept of disease 2. General adaptation, cell injury & cell death: Hyperplasia, hypertropy, atrophy, metaplasia, necrosis, apoptosis, intracellular accumulation, pathological calcification 3. Acute & chronic inflammation: Vascular changes, leukocyte extravasation & phagocytosis, chemical mediators, causes of chronic inflammation 4. Hemodynamic disorders: Edema, hyperemia, congestion, hemorrhage, hemostasis, thrombosis, embolism, shock 5. Infectious disease: Diptheria, whooping cough, tuberculosis, syphilis, clostridial infections, pneumonia 6. Nutritional disease: Marasmus, kwashiorkor, deficiency states of minerals & vitamins 7. Diseases of the blood vessel: Varicose vein, arteriosclerosis, stroke 8. Heart disease: Ischemia, carditis, congestive cardiac failure, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, congenital heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, rheumatic fever Recommended Books:
1. Robinn's Pathological Basis of Disease- Ramzi S. Cotran, Vinay Kumar, Tucker Collins, Stanley L. Robbins, 6th edition, W.B Sander's Company, Philadelphia. 2. General Pathology- J. B Walter & M. S Israel, 3rd edition, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.
GED 305: Bangladesh Studies
Part–A: Roots of Bangladesh: Ancient Bengal, The Medieval Bengal, British Rule, Emergence of
Bangladesh, Mind and Culture of Bangladesh, Education in Bangladesh, Literature, Ethnic
Insurgency, Foreign policy.
Part–B: Politics and Economy of Bangladesh(1971-2003), Government and Administration,
Executive, Legislature, Judiciary.
An oral examination on the syllabus of second year (semester I & II) will be taken after the final examination of theory and practical courses. Third Year, Semester-I
BPH 311: Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Control-II
(Pre-requisite: Pharmaceutical Analysis & Quality Control-I)
1. Ultraviolet, Visible and infrared spectrophotometry: Introduction, electromagnetic radiation, units, electromagnetic spectra and absorption of radiation, Lambert's and Beer's law, deviations from Lambert-Beer law, instrumentation, colorimetry, chromophores and auxochromes, analysis of mixtures, absorption and intensity shifts, applications of ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectroscopy in quantitative analysis of drugs. 2. Fluorometry: Introduction, theoretical principle, fluorescence and chemical structure, instrumentation, factors influencing intensity of fluorescence, comparison of fluorometry and spectrophotometry, applications of fluorometry in pharmaceutical analysis. 3. Polarimetry: Introduction, origin of optical rotation, molecular requirements for optical rotatory power, methods used in polarimetry, instrumentation and applications. 4. Chromatographic methods: General consideration and classification. a) Column chromatography: Principle and theories, preparation, procedure, method of detection, applications. b) Thin layer chromatography: Principle, preparation of plates, procedure, method of detection, high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), Rf value, concentration zone, applications. c) Paper chromatography: Principle and theories, preparation, procedure, method of detection, applications. d) High performance liquid chromatography: Principle, instrumentation, characteristics of stationary and mobile phases, reversed phase chromatography, retention time (tR), retention volume (vR), special techniques, precautions, detectors, applications. e) Gas chromatography: Principle, theoretical consideration, methodology, detectors, applications, GCMS. f) Size exclusion chromatography: Principle and applications of gel filtration and gel permeation. g) Ion exchange chromatography: Introduction, principle and applications. h) Affinity chromatography: General consideration, principle and applications. 5. Emission spectroscopy: Flame emission and plasma emission spectroscopy, differences between emission and absorption spectroscopy, applications. 6. Radio-chemical methods of analysis: Fundamentals of radioactivity, natural and induced measurement, principles of Geiger-Muller and scintillation counters, radio-activation and isotope dilution, characterization of radioisotopes, uses of radioisotopes in pharmaceutical research. PH 311P: Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Control-II Practical 1 credit
1. Estimation of amoxycillin by UV spectroscopic method. 2. Estimation of aspirin by UV spectroscopic method. 3. Estimation of ferrous fumerate from iron capsule. 4. Determination of ampicillin by iodometric method. 5. Potentiometric determination of the concentrations of iodide & chloride sample in a mixture. 6. Determination of atenolol potency in the tablet by volumetric and coductometric method. 7. Preparation of column for liquid column chromatography, gradient elution technique. 8. Analysis of various classes of drugs by a) Thin layer chromatography (TLC). b) High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Recommended Books:
1. A Textbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis- Kennth A. Connors, 3rd edition, John Wiley & Sons. 2. Pharmaceutical Chemistry- Lasie G. Chatten, 1996, Marcel Dekker Inc. 3. A Textbook of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis, Vol. I & II- Aurther I. Vogel, 3rd edition, Longman, England. 4. United State Pharmacopoeia, 29th edition, United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc. 5. British Pharmacopoeia 2005. 6. Quality Control in Pharmaceutical Industry- Murray S. Cooper, 1972, Academic Press. 7. Organic Spectroscopy- Philip Crews, Jamie Rodriguez & Marcel Jaspurs, 1998, Oxford University Press, New York, London. 8. Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Parts 1 and 2, By A. H. Backett & J. B. Stenlake, 4th edition, 1988, Athlone Press, London. 9. Introduction to Organic Laboratory Techniques- A Contemporary approach, D. L. Pavia, G. M. Lampman, G. S. Krij, W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, London, Torento. BPH 312: Pharmaceutical Technology-I
1. Solutions: Introduction, advantages and disadvantages; aqueous solutions: types of pharmaceutical water, approaches to the improvement of aqueous solubility, cosolvency, pH control, solubilization, complexation, chemical modification, particle size control; non-aqueous solutions: fixed oils of vegetable origin, alcohols, polyhydric alcohols, dimethylsulphoxide, ethyl ether, liquid paraffin, miscellaneous solvents; formulation additives: buffers, density modifiers, isotonicity modifiers, viscosity enhancement, preservatives, reducing agents and antioxidants, sweetening agents, flavors and perfumes, colors; types of preparations: lotions, liniments, paints and collodions, ear preparations, eye preparations, irrigations, mouthwashes and gargles, nasal products, oral liquids, parenteral products, rectal preparations, aromatic waters and spirits; stability of solutions, manufacture of solutions. 2. Emulsions: Definition, terminology, merits and demerits, theory of emulsion formation, interfacial considerations and stabilization of emulsion, types of emulsions, phase volume, Bancroft's rule, oriented wedge theory, identification tests, classification of emulsifying agents, hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) system, preparation and stability of emulsions, examples of pharmaceutical emulsions. 3. Suspensions: Definition, types, merits and demerits, physical properties, terminology, pharmaceutical applications of suspensions for oral, topical and parenteral route; formulation of suspensions: particle size control, wetting and surface active agents, hydrophilic colloids, solvents, flocculated and deflocculated systems, controlled flocculation, flocculating agents, viscosity modifiers, rheology of suspensions, stability of suspensions. 4. Transdermal drug delivery: Structure, function and topical treatment of human skin, drug transport through the skin; properties that influence transdermal delivery: biological factors, physicochemical factors; drug permeation through skin, methods for studying transdermal drug delivery, maximizing the bioavailability of drugs applied to skin; transdermal therapeutic systems: device design, monolith or matrix system, rate-limiting membrane system, clinical patches; dermatological formulations: liquid preparations, gels, powders, creams, pastes, aerosols and ointments: hydrocarbon bases, fats and fixed oil bases, silicones, absorption bases, emulsifying bases, water-soluble bases; cosmetic or aesthetic criteria for dermatological formulations, microbial contamination and preservation: rancidity and antioxidants.
Rectal and vaginal drug delivery:
A. Rectal drug delivery: introduction, anatomy and physiology of the rectum, absorption of drugs from the rectum; formulation of suppositories, requirement of suppository base, fatty vehicles, water-soluble vehicles, choice of vehicle, the drug, drug solubility in vehicle, surface properties, particle size, amount of drug, other additives; manufacture, quality control and drug release from suppositories. B. Vaginal drug delivery: physiology and dynamics of the vagina, vaginal administration of drugs, formulation of vaginal dosage forms, benefits of intravaginal controlled drug administration, vaginal contraceptive devices, biomedical applications.
BPH 312P: Pharmaceutical Technology -I Practical
1. Preparation of percent solution and calculation. 2. Preparation of aromatic water. 3. Preparation of syrups: (a) Phenobarbitone-Na syrup (b) Chlorpheniramine maleate syrup (c) Promethazine HCl syrup (d) Hematinic syrup 4. Preparation of suspensions: (a) Paracetamol suspension (b) Antacid suspension (c) Benzoyl Metronidazole suspension. 5. Preparation of emulsions and determination of type of emulsions: a. Primary emulsion by dry gum method and wet gum method b. Castor oil emulsion 6. Formulation of ointments and suppositories. Recommended Books:
1. Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems- Howard C. Ansel, 6th edition, B. I. Waverly Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 2. Sprowl's American Pharmacy- Lewis W. Dittert, 7th edition, J. B. Lippincott Company, 3. Remington: The Science & Practice of Pharmacy- Alfronso R. Gennaro, 20th edition, Mack Publishing Company, Easton, Pennsylvania. 4. Bentley's Textbook of Pharmaceutics- E. A. Rawlins, 8th edition, E.L.B.S., Bailliere Tindall. 5. Pharmaceutics: The Science of Dosage form Design- Michael Aulton, 1993, E.L.B.S., London. BPH 313: Pharmacology-II
a) Introduction and classification of diabetes. b) Hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. c) Introduction, classification, chemistry, mode of action, structure-activity relationship, pharmcokinetics, indications, contraindications, dose, adverse effects and drug interaction of following individual classes of drugs:Oral hypoglycemic agents: sulfonylureas, biguanides. Hormone preparations: Insulin d) Management of diabetes mellitus. 2. Antibacterial and antifungal agents: Introduction, classification, chemistry, mode of action, structure-activity relationship, pharmacokinetics, indications, contraindications, dose, adverse effects and drug interaction of following individual classes of drugs: a. Drugs which interface with synthesis and action of folate b. β-Lactum antibiotics c. Drugs affecting bacterial protein synthesis d. Drugs affecting the enzyme topoisomerase-1. e. Miscellaneous antibacterial Agents f. Antitubercular agents 3. Cardiovascular Functions and diseases of heart: Arrhythmia, atheroma, ischemia, angina pectoris, coronary thrombosis, myocardial infarction, arteriosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, hypertension and congestive heart failure. Introduction, classification, chemistry, mode of action, structure-activity relationship, pharmacokinetics, indications, contraindications, dose, adverse effects and drug interaction of following individual class of drugs: a) Cardiac glycosides. Antihypertensives: β-Blockers, vasodialators, Ca-channel blocking agents, ACE inhibitors. c) Antiarrhythmic drugs. d) Diuretics: Cardiac anhydrase inhibitors, low and high ceiling diuretics, potassium sparing diuretics and osmotic diuretics. 4. Drugs used in tropical diseases: Introduction, classification, chemistry, mode of action, structure activity relationship (SAR), pharmacokinetics, indications, contraindications, dose, adverse effects and drug intraction of the following classes of drugs: (a) Antiamoebic drugs, (b) Antimalarial Agents, (c) Anthelmentics (d) Drugs used in enteric fever, (e) Drugs used in diarrhoea and cholera. PH 313P: Pharmacology-II Practical
1. Handling of experimental animals: mice and rat. 2. Estimation of blood glucose by enzymatic and chemical method. 3. Estimation of blood paracetamol level after oral administration by UV/Visible spectrophotometric methods. 4. Estimation of paracetamol in blood by colorimetric method. 5. Estimation of cholesterol in human blood by enzymatic and chemical method. 6. Study of antipyretic effect of aspirin on rabbit model. 7. Study of anti-inflammatory effect of drugs on rat model. Recommended Books:
1. Goodman & Gillman's Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics- Hardman, Joel G., 10th edition, Mcgraw-Hill Incorporated. 2. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology- Bertram G. Katzung, 9th edition, Mc Graw Hill Companies. 3. Clinical Pharmacology- D. R. Laurence, P. N. Bennett and M. J. Brown, 9th edition, Churchill 4. Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, Roger walker and Clive Edwards, 3rd edition, Churchill BPH 314: Medicinal Chemistry-I 3 credits
1. Stereochemistry: a) General treatment of different types of isomerism. b) Geometric isomerism of alkenes and cyclic compounds: Cis-trans and (E), (Z) systems of nomenclature. c) Conformational isomers: Conformation of open chain and cyclic compounds. d) Chirality of molecules: Enantiomer, diastereomer, racemic modification, meso compound, (R) and (S) configuration, sequence rule, optical rotation. e) Asymmetric synthesis: Preparation of enantiomer by asymmetric synthesis and optical resolution method. f) Stereoselective and stereospecific reactions. g) Pharmaceutical of studying stereochemistry. a) 5-membered heterocyclic compounds: Pyrrole, furan, thiophene, pyrazole, imidazole, oxazole, isoxazole, thiazole and isothiazole: their preparations, reaxtions and pharmaceutical importance. b) 6-membrane heterocyclic compounds: Pyridine, pyrimidine, pyradazine, pyrazine, and triazine: their preparation, reactions and pharmaceutical importance. c) Benzofused 5-membered heteroatomic compounds: Indole, benzofuran, benzothiaphene and carbazole: their chemistry, syntheses and pharmaceutical importance. d) Benzofused 6-membered heteroatomic compounds: Quinoline and isoquinoline: their chemistry, syntheses and pharmaceutical importance. 3. Chemistry, mode of action, SAR and syntheses of: a) c) Analgesics and antinflammatory agents. d) Hypnotics and sedatives
BPH 314P: Medicinal Chemistry-I Practical 1 Credit
1. Synthesis and characterization of different compounds of medicinal importance:
a) Aspirin b) Phenacetin c) PABA (p-aminobenzoic acid) d) m-Nitrobenzaldehyde e) Ethyl parahydroxybenzoate f) p-aminophenol g) Methyl Recommended Books:
1. Willson and Gisvold's Textbook of Organic Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry- Jaime N. Delgado & Willium A. Remers, 10th edition, Lippincott- Raven, Philadelphia Newyork. 2. Burger's Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery- Donald J. Abraham, 6th edition, John Essentials of Medicinal chemistry- Andrejus Korolkovas, 2nd edition, John Wiley and Sons. Organic Chemistry- Robert Thornton Morrison and Robert Neilson Boyd, 6th edition, Prentice, Hall of India Private Limited. 5. Heterocyclic Chemistry- J. A. Joule and G. F. Smith, 2nd edition, English Language book 6. Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry- David A. Williams and Thomas L. Lemke, 5th edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. BPH 415: Hospital and Community Pharmacy
a) Hospital pharmacy 1. Introduction: Definition, functions and objectives of hospital pharmacy, location, layout and flow chart of material and men, personnel and facilities required including equipments, role of hospitals in the health delivery systems, types of hospitals, different departments and services, role of a pharmacist in the hospital, pharmacy education and job descriptions in Bangladesh. 2. Drug distribution system in hospitals: i) Out patients ii) In patients: Detailed discussion of (a) Unit dose dispensing (b) Floor ward stock system and satellite pharmacy services (c) Central sterile services, bed side pharmacy 5. Pharmacy and therapeutics committee: Constitution and functions of pharmacy therapeutics committee, hospital formulary system and its organization, functions and composition. 6. Manufacturing of pharmaceuticals in hospitals: Sterile manufacturing: Large and small volume parenterals, facilities, requirements, layout, production planning, manpower requirements. Non-sterile manufacturing: Liquid orals, external bulk concentrates. 7. Purchasing and inventory control: Purchasing agent, purchasing procedure, control on purchase, storage, perishable inventory, physical inventory, perpetual inventory. a) Community pharmacy: Concept of community health care, health needs of the community, different level of health care, elements of primary health care, principles of primary health care: equitable distribution, community participation, intersectoral coordination, appropriate technology, health manpower, health care delivery at different levels, community pharmacy in dealing with communicable diseases problem, nutritional problems, environmental sanitation problems and indigenous systems of medicine, development of community pharmacy infrastructure, participation of Non-governmental voluntary health agencies. b) Rational use of drugs: Background of rational use of drugs, definition, factors underlying irrational use of drugs: patients, prescribers, drug supply system; drug regulation and drug promotion, impact of irrational use of drugs with examples, disease-specific indicators, drug use patterns in developing countries, changing drug use patterns, strategies to improve prescribing, experiences with interventions to change drug use in developing countries, strengths and weaknesses of different interventions to change drug use patterns, international network for rational use of drugs. c) Forensic pharmacy: Definition, epidemiology of poisoning, influential factors, substances most frequently involved in accidental ingestions among children, first-aid treatment for poisoning, treatment, antidotes: Locally acting and systemic, prevention of poisoning, poison control, poison control act, schedules, poison treatment centers, poison prevention packaging, national and community awareness, centralization of poison information, role of pharmacist at different levels. Recommended Books:
1. Hospital Pharmacy- William E. Hasan, 5th edition, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia. 2. Textbook of Hospital Pharmacy- M. C .Allwood, J. T. Fell, 1st edition, 1980, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. Third Year, Semester–II
BPH 321: Medicinal Chemistry-II
(Pre-requisite: Medicinal Chemistry-I) 1. Drug discovery and design a) Sources of drugs. b) Cost and place of development of drugs. c) Search for new drugs. d) Genesis of drugs. i) serendibity ii) random screening iii) extraction from natural sources iv) molecular modification (general process, special process-ring closure of opening, formation of lower or higher homologues, introduction of double bonds, introduction of chiral centers, introduction, removal or replacement of bulky groups, isosteric substitution, change of position of orientation of certain groups, introduction of alkylating moieties, modification towards inhibition or promotion of various electronic states), methods of lead optimization (Topliss sequential method, fibonacci search, sequential simplex optimization, (v) selection or synthesis of soft drugs, soft analogous, activated soft compounds, natural soft drugs, soft drugs, soft drugs based on the active metabolite approach, soft drug based on inactive metabolite approach (vi) drug atentiation, prodrugs (vii) rational drug design, antidote, antimetabolites, enzyme inhibitors. 2. Drug metabolism: Introduction, pathways of drug metabolism, sites of drug metabolism, relationship between structure and extent of metabolism, metabolism of various groups of drugs, factors affecting drug metabolism, methods of studying drug metabolism, drug metabolism and drug design, concept of prodrug. 3. Chemistry, mode of action, SAR and synthesis of a) Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. b) Cardiovascular c) Diuretics. d) Psychotropic drugs and antidepressants. e) Antidiabetic drugs. 4. Toxicity studies of drugs: Adverse drug reactions and drug toxicity, principles of toxicology,
types of toxic reactions, descriptive toxicity tests in animals.
BPH 321P: Medicinal Chemistry-II Practical
1. Synthesis and characterization of different compounds of medicinal importance: 2. Extraction of metabolic enzymes from liver and their effects. Recommended Books:
1. Willson and Gisvold's Textbook of Organic Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry- Jaime N. Delgado & Willium A. Remers, 10th edition, Lippincott- Raven, Philadelphia, Newyork. 2. Burger's Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery- Donald J. Abraham, 6th edition, John Wiley 3. Essentials of Medicinal chemistry- Andrejus Korolkovas, 2nd edition, John Wiley and Sons. 4. Heterocyclic Chemistry- J. A. Joule and G. F. Smith, 2nd edition, English Language book 5. Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry- David A. Williams and Thomas L. Lemke, 5th edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
BPH 322: Pharmaceutical Technology-II
1. Tablet: Types, definition, preparation, additives and components, methods of preparation, processing problems, evaluation, commercial processing equipments, formulation and manufacturing techniques of different important compressed tablets, manufacturing and design layout & flow design for tablet manufacturing. 2. Compaction and compression of powder: Physics of tablet compression, mechanisms of compression of particles, bonding to tablets, the effect of compressional force on tablet properties, effect of lubricants on tablet compression and binding, instrumented tablet machines and tooling, problems associated with large scale manufacturing of tablets. 3. Tablet coating: Sugar coating process, characteristics and requirements of uncoated tablet, equipments, film coating process-materials, solvents, plasticizers, coating solution, additives for film coating, air suspension coating and dip coating, film testing and film defects, electrostatic coating, laminated coating, physiological availability and tablet coating. 4. Special tablets: Preparation of molded sublingual tablets, special problems with molded nitroglycerine tablets, compressed sublingual tablets, buccal tablets, vaginal tablets, rectal tablets, dispensing tablets, tablets for miscellaneous uses. 5. Hard gelatin capsules: Definition and classification, advantages and limitations of capsule dosage form, Gelatin and its manufacture, manufacture of hard capsule shells, properties of capsules, formulation of capsules, capsule filling machines, tooling and accessories, problems in capsule manufacturing, quality control methods of capsules, packaging of capsules. 6. Soft gelatin capsules: Definitions and classifications, advantages and limitations, properties of soft capsules, formulation of soft capsules, manufacturing of soft capsules, problems in soft capsule manufacturing, quality control methods of soft capsules, packaging of soft capsules. 7. Good manufacturing practices for pharmaceuticals: Status and applicability of regulation, current good manufacturing practices in manufacturing, processing, packaging and holding of drugs, production and process controls, ISO certification systems.
BPH 322P: Pharmaceutical Technology- II Practical
Physical checking of emulsions suspensions, syrups, ointments, suppositories' etc. 1. Formulation of emulsions, suspensions, syrups, ointments, suppositories etc. 2. Preparations, problems encountered during preparation, physical evaluation of the different a) Tablets including coated tablets b) Capsules c) Suppositories Recommended Books:
1. The Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy- Leon Lachman, Herbert A. Liberman,
Joseph L. Kanig, 3rd edition, Varghese Publishing House Inc. 2. Sprowl's American Pharmacy- Lewis W. Dittert, 7th edition, J. B. Lippincott Company, 3. Pharmaceutics: The Science of Dosage form Design- Michael Aulton, 1993, E.L.B.S., London. 4. Remington's The Science & Practice of Pharmacy- Alfronso R. Gennaro, 20th edition, Mack Publishing Company, Easton, Pennsylvania.
BPH 323: Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics-I
1. Introduction to Biopharmaceutics: Definition, historical development of the subject, fundamental principles, concepts and its role in formulation development and clinical setting. 2. Drug absorption: Nature of the cell membrane, passage of drugs across cell membranes, various mechanisms, factors affecting drug absorption- physicochemical, physiological and pharmaceutical, routes of drug administration. 3. Drug disposition: Physiologic factors, distribution in blood, calculation of apparent volume of distribution, plasma- protein binding, kinetics of protein binding, determination of binding constants and binding sites by graphic methods, clinical significance of drug-protein binding. 4. Pro-drug and chemical delivery systems: Eye as a target organ, chemical delivery systems (CDS) for eye skin, CDS for kidney, lugs as a target organ, colon targeting, CDS for liver targeting, lymphatic targeting, brain as a target organ for CDS, tumour targeting by CDS, antibody and enzyme based tumour targeting. 5. Determination of bioavailability and bioequivalence: Definitions, purpose of bioavailability studies, relative and absolute availability, methods for assessing bioavailability, measures of bioequivalence study and single dose bioequivalence study and relevant statistics, review of regulatory requirements for conducting bioequivalence study. 6. Drug clearance: Drug elimination, the kidney, clearance concept, physiologic approach to clearance, mechanism of renal clearance, clearance ratio, determination of renal clearance, extraction ratio, hepatic clearance, biliary excretion, extra hepatic circulation. 7. Biopharmaceutic considerations in drug product design: Rate-limiting steps in drug absorption, pharmaceutic factors affecting drug bioavailability, physicochemical nature of the drug, formulation factors affecting drug dissolution, in vitro dissolution testing, compendial methods of dissolution, methods for testing enteric-coated products, meeting dissolution requirements, problems of variable control in dissolution testing, in vitro-in vivo correlation of dissolution.
BPH 323P:Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics-I Practical 1 credit
1. Weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration, dissolution test of Tablet.
2. Leakage test of packaging of tablets/ capsules.
3. Capsule weight variation test.
4. Determination of binding sites and association constant.
1. Biopharmaceutics & Clinical Pharmacokinetics - Milo Gibaldi, 4th edition,
2. Le & Febiger, Philadelphia.
3. Biopharmaceutics & Clinical Pharmacokinetics- Notari, R. E., 4th editions, Marcel Dekker Inc. 4. Biopharmaceutics & Relevant Pharmacokinetics- T. G. Wagner and M. Pernarowski, 5th edition, Hamilton Drug Intelligence Publication. 5. Biopharmaceutics & Drug Interactions- Donald E. Cadwallader, 3rd edition, Raven Press, New 6. Pharmacokinetics- M. Gibaldi & D. Perrier.
BPH 324: Pharmacology-III
1. Drugs acting on autonomic nervous system:
b) Anticholinergic 2. Drugs acting on central nervous system: a) Antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs b) Antiepileptic c) Sedatives and hypnotics 3. Chemotherapeutic Antineoplastic drugs ii) Antiviral drugs a) Oral contraceptives ii) Adreno-cortical hormones 5. Drugs affecting the uterine motility: Oxytocin, prostaglandins, ergot alkaloids. 6. Vitamins: Water soluble and fat-soluble vitamins. 7. Ophthalmology: Overview of ocular physiology and biochemistry, ocular structure, microbial and viral diseases. 8. Immunosuppressive agents: Cycloserin, glucocorticoids, antibodies, cytotoxic agents.
BPH 324P: Pharmacology-III Practical
1. Determination of plasma proteins by the Biuret Method (Method of Reinhold).
2. Determination of Paracetamol in Blood by colorometric method.
3. Estimation of Cholesterol in Human blood by Enzymatic method.
4. Estimation of Cholesterol in Human Blood by chemical method.
5. Estimation of Aspirin in Human blood.
1. Goodman & Gillman's Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics- Hardman, Joel G., 10th edition,
Mcgraw-Hill Incorporated. 2. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology- Bertram G. Katzung, 9th edition, Mc Graw Hill Companies. 3. Clinical Pharmacology- D. R. Laurence, P. N. Bennett and M. J. Brown, 9th edition, Churchill 4. Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, Roger walker and Clive Edwards, 3rd edition, Churchill
BPH 325: Pharmaceutical Marketing
1. Principles of marketing : Definition and concepts of marketing, steps in the marketing process, role of marketing & environmental forces in our society, marketing mix and exchange relationships, marketing management process, the selling concept, marketing concept and the societal concept, customer relationship management, demarketing. 2. Strategic marketing planning : Strategic planning process, resources and opportunities affect the planning process, corporate, business-unit, and marketing strategies, the marketing plan and implementation process and the major approaches to marketing implementation 3. Consumer markets and buying behavior: Consumer market & business market, elements of a consumer behavior model & organisational buyer behavior, consumer buying process, factors affecting consumer behavior, types of buyer behavior, buying decision process, consumer decision process for new products or adoption process. 4. Market segmentation, target marketing and marketing positioning strategies: Identifying market segments, factors for segmenting market, choosing a target marketing strategy, market positioning for maximum competitive advantages. 5. Product promotion: Elements in the communication process, promotions mix (advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relation, direct marketing )and their roles in Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC), the promotions message and executions style, media choice, promotional objectives, representatives, physical distribution, inventory and cost control, returns and claims 6. Advertising: Importance of advertising, classification of advertising, advertising strategy: appraising the opportunity, media planning and selection, creating advertising messages, measuring advertisement effectiveness, advantages and the disadvantages of the primary media, international advertising decision. 7. Product management: Concept of a product, classification of products, product line, and product mix, products planning and development, PLC, marketing strategies along the product life cycle, brand building and brand management. 8. Pricing: Definition of pricing, basic factors influencing pricing decision, pricing methods and Recommended Books:
1. Basic Principles of Marketing by Jeorge R. Terry.
2. Pharmaceutical Marketing by Smith.
3. Marketing Management by Philips Kottler, 10th edition, Printice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
4. Marketing Strategy: A Global Perspective by Vernon R. Stauble,
BPH 326: Clinical Pharmacy
1. General consideration: Scope, importance and application of clinical pharmacy, clinical hematology, blood bank techniques etc., organ function tests, clinical pathology, manifestation of diseases, drug/hospital acquired diseases, cautionary and advisory notes for drug therapy. 2. Guidance for special clinical practices: Neonates, children, elderly, terminal case, liver diseases, renal impairment, pregnancy, lactating mothers. 3. Clinical pharmacy for OTC preparations: Antacids and anti-flatulants, antidiarrhoeals, laxatives, emetics and antimetics, antihistamines and anti-allergen, analgesics, contraceptives; ear, nose and throat preparations, dermatological preparations. 4. Blood and related products: Whole blood and blood components, plasma expanders and intravenous fluids, antibodies and isoagglutinins, agents affecting blood coagulation, anticoagulants, electrolytes and systemic buffers, drugs affecting blood production. 5. Basic concepts in toxicology: Introduction to toxicology, assessment of toxic substances, their impact on health and their target organs, toxicity testing. 6. Toxic responses to drugs and chemicals: Classification of different types of responses according to the biochemical basis and manifestation of toxic effect, mechanism of genotoxicity and nongenotoxic carcinogens. 7. Clinical toxicology: Role of poison centers, adverse reactions and poisoning incidences, analysis of poisoning situations, poison information sources, assessment of poison exposure. 8. Clinical signs, Symptoms and management of poisoning: cases with pesticides, fumigants, solvents, vapors, gases, food toxins, cyanides, poisons, cosmetics, toxins of animal origin, over-doses of drugs, drug interactions etc. 9. The mechanism of toxin action: DNA damage and its repair, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, cell death and apoptosis, nuclear hormone receptor mediated toxicity, peroxisome proliferators and environmental oestrogens, neurotoxicity, intra cellular free radicals, risk assessment and toxicity testing. Recommended Books:
1. Principle of Clinical Pharmacology- Atkinson.
2. Workbook for Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics- Hart.
3. Handbook of Clinical Research- Lioyd.
4. Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics- Walker
5. Handbook of Toxicology -Edited by Michael J. Derelanko, Mannfred A. Hollinger, Published by
6. Introduction to Toxicology- John A. Timbrell, Published by Taylor & Francis.
An oral examination on the syllabus of third year (semester I & II) will be taken after the final examination of theory and practical courses. 4th Year Semester-I
BPH 411: Medicinal Chemistry -III
(Pre-requisite-Medicinal Chemistry-I & II) 1. Combinatorial chemistry: a) Combinatorial synthesis: Introduction to drug discovery process, b) library synthesis on resin beads- solid phase chemistry, resin beads, speeding up of peptide synthesis, mix and split library synthesis, c) solution phase, indexed combinatorial libraries, template-based libraries, liquid phase combinatorial synthesis, d) encoded combinatorial synthesis- encoded requirements, examples of tagged libraries, e) solid phase library, chemistry of linkers, carboxylic acid linkers, carboxamide linkers, alcohol linkers, amine linkers, traceless linkers, light-cleavable linkers, selected solid phase chemistry, f) analysis of products with different analytical techniques g) combinatorial chemistry: applications and impact on drug discovery. 2. Knowledge of the chemistry (including synthesis), structure activity relationships and physicochemical properties of the following groups of medicinal substances: a. Proton pump inhibitors b. Tranquilizing agents c. Anti-asthmatic agents d. Antitubercular agents e. Anti-diarrheal agents f. Anti-malarial agents g. Anti-cancer agents h. Membrane acting drugs: Drugs acting on Ca++, K+, Na+ channels i. Antithyroid drugs h. Oral contraceptives and steroidal hormones, hormone replacement therapy 3. Natural products and secondary metabolites as drugs: a) Vitamins: The clinical aspects of the vitamins and their effects on free radicals, synthesis of the vitamins such as vit-B1, vit-C, nicotinamide, pyridoxine, mechanism of action of vitamins. b) Alkaloids: Alkaloids as pharmaceutical raw materials, opium and analogues of opium, synthesis of papaverine and ephedrine, clinical comparison of ephedrine and epinephrine. c) Glycosides: Chemical and clinical aspects of digoxin and other digitalis glycosides.
BPH 411P: Medicinal Chemistry-III Practical
1. Synthesis and characterization of different compounds of medicinal importance: a) Benzoic acid b) Aspirin c) Paracetamol d) PABA 2. Preparation of different analogs of drugs by: b) Methylation c) Oxidation d) Reduction Recommended Books:
1. Willson and Gisvold's Textbook of Organic Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry- Jaime
N. Delgado & Willium A. Remers, 10th edition, Lippincott- Raven, Philadelphia, Newyork. 2. Burger's Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery- Donald J. Abraham, 6th edition, John Wiley 3. Essentials of Medicinal chemistry- Andrejus Korolkovas, 2nd edition, John Wiley and Sons. 4. Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry- David A. Williams and Thomas L. Lemke, 5th edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 5. Medicinal Chemistry: Principles and Practice- Frank D. King, The Royal Society of Chemistry. 6. An Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry- Graham L. Patrick, 2nd edition, Oxford University
BPH 412: Pharmaceutical Technology-III
1. Parenteral products: Route of administration, selection of vehicles, added substances, containers, suspension and emulsion for injections, production facilities, environmental control, personnel, cleaning of containers and closures, sterilization of equipment, compounding the products, filtration of solutions, filling and sealing procedures, sterilization of products, various quality control tests for parenteral products. 2. Design and operation of clean rooms: Source of contamination, classification of clean rooms, airflow systems-conventional flow, unidirectional flow, laminar, airflow units; air filtration mechanisms, fibrous filters and HEPA filters, temperature and humidity control, building, construction and use, personnel, protective clothing, cleaning and disinfection, commissioning tests of clean and aseptic rooms, routine monitoring tests, the operation of clean and aseptic rooms, key factors in clean room operations. 3. Design and evaluation of ophthalmic pharmaceutical products: Anatomy of the eye and adnexa, pharmacology and therapeutics of ophthalmic medication, general safety considerations, absorption of drugs in the eye; formulation of eye drops, eye lotions, eye ointments: preparation, sterilizing, packaging; contact lens care products. 4. Aerosol science and technology: Definition and classification of aerosols, propellants for aerosol manufacturing, components of aerosol formulations, containers and valves for aerosols, metered dose delivery of aerosols, manufacturing of aerosols, testing and quality assurance of aerosols. 5. Packaging technology: Types of containers, materials used, closures, unit dose packaging, strip packaging materials, packaging of solid, parenterals, and ophthalmic dosage forms, packaging of other dosage forms, stability aspects of packaging. 6. Pilot plant study and scale-up techniques: Introduction, selected factors to be considered during development, types of organizational structures responsible for pilot operations, educational backgrounds of pilot plant personnel, pilot plant design for tablet development, paper flow between research, quality control, and production, use of the pilot plant scale-up to select the optimal procedure, problems caused by a change in excipient supplier, process variables and measures to overcome, selected process development projects of current interest, additional pilot plant responsibilities. 7. Appraisal of drug product quality and performance: Introduction, purity and identity of active ingredient, content uniformity, chemical stability, physical stability, bioavailability, inequivalent bioequivalence, relationship between in vitro tests and bioequivalence, factors influencing bioavailability data, quality control, manufacturer's reliability, manufacturer/drug information profile.
BPH 412P: Pharmaceutical Technology Practical-II
1. Preparation, problems encountered during preparation, physical evaluation of different dosage forms: a. Parenteral Products b. Opthalmic products c. Dry granulation (slugging). 2. Coating of tablets - sugar coating and film coating. 3. Strip packing of tablets. 4. Quality control of tablets. 5. Filling and sealing of hard gelatin capsules. 6. Preparation of an aerosol dosage form and its evaluation. Recommended Books:
1. The Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy- Leon Lachman, Herbert A. Liberman,
Joseph L. Kanig, 3rd edition, Varghese Publishing House Inc. 2. Sprowl's American Pharmacy- Lewis W. Dittert, 7th edition, J. B. Lippincott Company, 3. Pharmaceutics: The Science of Dosage form Design- Michael Aulton, 1993, E.L.B.S., London. 4. Remington's The Science & Practice of Pharmacy- Alfronso R. Gennaro, 20th edition, Mack Publishing Company, Easton, Pennsylvania. 5. Modern Pharmaceutics- Gilbert S. Banker and Christopher T. Rhodes, Drug & Pharmaceutical
BPH 413: Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics-II
1. Introduction: of pharmacokinetics in bioavailability and clinical practice, concepts, definition and explanation of terminologies used. 2. Compartment models: Concepts and their importance in the study of pharmacokinetics. 3. One compartment open model: Determination of pharmacokinetic parameters from plasma and urine data after intravenous injection and oral administration; percent absorbed time plot and absorption rates based on one compartment model. 4. Two compartment open model: Pharmacokinetics of single and multiple dose administration as applied to intravenous (rapid) and oral administration, intravenous transformation, dosage adjustment in patients with and without renal failure. 5. Pharmacokinetics of drug absorption: Zero-order absorption model, first- order absorption model, determination of absorption rate constants from oral absorption data. 6. Multiple dosage regimen (MDR): Drug accumulation, repetitive intravenous injection, multiple oral dosage regimens, loading dose and determination of bioavailability and bioequivalence from MDR. 7. Dosage adjustment in renal diseases: Pharmacokinetic considerations, general approaches for dose adjustment in renal disease, dose adjustment based on drug clearance, dose adjustment based on the elimination rate constant, measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), calculation of creatinine, dose adjustment based on nomogram, Giusti-Hayton method, Wagner method, extracorporeal removal of drugs. 8. Dosage adjustment in hepatic diseases: Pharmacokinetic considerations, general approaches for dose adjustment in hepatic disease, dose adjustment based on drug clearance by liver function. 9. Non-Linear pharmacokinetics: Special reference to one compartment model after intravenous drug administration, Michaeles Menton equation, detection of non-linearity (saturation mechanism). 10. Relationship between pharmacokinetic and pharmacologic responses.
BPH 413P: Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics-II Practical 1 credit
1. Determination of bioavailability of marketed formulations by plasma concentration analysis.
2. Determination of bioavailability of marketed formulations by urinary excretion method.
3. Determination of relative bioavailability of paracetamol using different dosage forms.
4. Drug release from capsules, effect of diluents etc.
5. Effect of protein binding by egg albumin; dialysis method.
1. Biopharmaceutics & Clinical Pharmacokinetics- Milo Gibaldi, 4th edition, Le & Febiger,
2. Biopharmaceutics & Clinical Pharmacokinetics- Notari, R. E., 4th editions, Marcel Dekker Inc. 3. Biopharmaceutics & Relevant Pharmacokinetics- T. G. Wagner and M. Pernarowski, 5th Hamilton Drug Intelligence Publication. 4. Biopharmaceutics & Drug Interactions- Donald E. Cadwallader, 3rd editions, Raven Press, 5. Pharmacokinetics- M. Gibaldi & D. Perrier.
BPH 414: Advanced Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Control 3 credits
(Pre-requisite-Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Control-I & II)
1. Ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy in structural analysis.
2. 1H NMR spectroscopy: Introduction and theory, relaxation process, instrumentation, solvents,
sampling procedures including micro-tubes, chemical shift, factors affecting chemical shift, spin-spin coupling, factors affecting coupling constants, different spin systems, coupling constants, spin-spin decoupling, long range coupling, simplification of spectra, improvement of resolutions, presaturation, etc. 3. 13C NMR spectroscopy: Introduction, principle, chemical shift, spin-spin coupling, DEPT, J- modulated 13C NMR, INEPT, applications. 4. Mass spectroscopy: Introduction, theory, the mass spectrum, types of spectrometers and component parts, determination of molecular formula, ionization techniques (EI, CI, ESI, FAB, MALDI, etc.), recognition of molecular ion, fragmentation process, applications. Principle of Tandem Mass spectroscopy of complex compounds, Application of GC-MS and LC-MS spectrometers in structure elucidation of small and macromolecule. 5. Atomic absorption spectroscopy: Theory, instrumentation, and applications of atomic absorption spectroscopy in pharmaceutical field. 6. Bioassay of vitamins and antibiotics with statistical evaluation: Introduction, reference standard and units of activity, agar diffusion assay, theory of zone formation, factors affecting diffusion assay, dose response curve, large plate assay using Latin square design, statistical interpretation of microbiological assay methods.
BPH 414P: Advanced Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Control Practical 1 credit
1. Identification of medicinal substances by ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy.
2. Recording of IR spectra of various drugs and interpretation of data.
3. Assay of drugs by IR spectroscopy.
1H NMR spectra of simple organic compounds. Recommended Books:
2. Organic Spectroscopy- Philip Crews, Jamie Rodriguez & Marcel Jaspurs, 1998. 3. Organic Structure for Spectra- L. D. Field, S. Sternhell, J. R. Kalman, 2nd edition, John Willey & Sons, New York, Singapore. 4. Introduction to Spectroscopy- Donald L. Pavia, Gary M. Lampman, George S. Kriz, 3rd edition, Books/ Cole, Thomson Learning. 5. Spectroscopic Methods in Organic Chemistry- Dudley H. Willams, Ian Flemming, 5th edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. 6. Interpretation of NMR Spectra: An Empirical Approach, Roy H. Bible, 5th printing, Plenum Press, New York. 7. One and Two Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy - Alta-UV Rahman, Elsevier, Amsterdem, Oxford, Newyork, Tokyo 1984. 8. Introduction to Mass Spectrometry, H.C.Hill, 1966, Heyden & Son Limited.
9. Interpretation of Mass Spectra, Fred W. McLafferly, 1967, W.A Benjamin Inc., New York.
BPH 415: Pharmaceutical Quality Control & Analytical Method Validation 3 credits
1. Quality control overview: Introduction, general information & significance of quantitative and
qualitative analysis of quality control, sampling techniques, different techniques of analysis, raw material for drugs, sources of impurities in pharmaceuticals, packaging and labeling controls, quality control of packaging materials and filling equipments, pharmacopeal tests and specifications, standardization of pharmaceuticals and formulated products, quality control system for drugs and pharmaceuticals, causes of poor quality and general requirements, theory and basic concepts of GLP, ISO 9000, ISO 9001,ISO 17025,TQM. 2. Terminology and validation overview: Introduction, terminology used in the validation of analytical procedures, regulatory basis for process validation. 3. Validation of analytical methods: Strategy and parameters for the validation of methods, verification of standard methods, validation of non-routine methods, analytical validation within the paracetamol environment, validation of standard operating procedures. 4. Overviews of pharmaceutical product development and its associated quality system: Discovery research, preclinical phase, clinical phases, regulatory submission, quality system for the analytical development laboratory. 5. Potency method validation: Validation practices, strategies and validation parameters, potency method revalidation, common problems and solutions. 6. Method validation for HPLC analysis: Introduction, background information, method validation experiments, common problems and solutions. i. Performance verification of HPLC: Introduction, performance verification practices, operation tips for HPLC performance verification. ii. Performance verification of UV-Vis spectrophotometers: Introduction, performance attributes, practical tips in UV-Vis spectrophotometers. iii. Karl fisher apparatus and its performance verification: Introduction, instrumentation, performance verification, common problems and solutions. 8. Bioanalytical method validation: definition of bioanalytical method validation, regulatory guidance on bioanalytical method validation, current validation practice, common problems and solutions. 9. Statistical methods in data analysis Recommended Books:
Analysis- A Textbook of Pharmacy, Student and Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Churchill Livingston (1999). 2. Conners K.A.A Textbook of Pharmaceutical Analysis. 2nd editon, Wiley Interscience, New York, ISB No. 471-16855. 3. Higuchi T. and Brochmann Hanssen E. Pharmaceutical Analysis. Interscience, New York. 4. Backet and Stenlake. Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Royel Press, London (1998) 5. Quality assurance of Pharmaceuticals- a compendium of guidelines and related materials; Volume-1; World Health Organization- Geneva, 1997.
BPH 416: Pharmaceutical Management
1. Nature and principles of management: Style of management, the MBO system and improving decision-making. 2. Managerial role of pharmacists, Pharmacists in different services of health and pharmaceutical industry, marketing & sales, regulatory affairs, hospital pharmacy, community pharmacy etc. 3. Organization structures: Social organization and legal organization, the sole proprietorship, the general partnership, private and public limited companies, their relative advantages and disadvantages. 4. Personnel management and industrial relations: Objectives and functions of personnel department, employment and development of personnel; industrial relations: problems of labor management relations, causes of industrial disputes, remedies, industrial dispute act, trade union grievance and grievance handling procedure, causes of grievances and remedies. Methods-intuitive, systematic wantbook, perpetual inventory, open-to-buy, stock, record card, economic order quality, selection of optimum methods, effect of inventory control. 6. Purchasing and store keeping: Objectives, organisation and responsibilities of purchasing department, methods and types of purchasing- centralised and decentralised purchasing; types of stores, depot, location and layout of a store, problems and development. Recommended Books:
1. Principles and Methods of Pharmacy Management by H. A. Smith.
2. Management: A global Perspective by Weirich, Heinz & Koontz.
3. Personnel management and Industrial Relations, by R. S. Davar.
4. Personnel management, by Mamoria.
5. Purchasing and Store Keeping, by D. R. Gupta, R. K. Rajput.
6. Materials management, by Gopalkrisnan,and R. K. Rajput.
7. Managing Drug Supply: management sciences for health,
8. Quantitative Techniques for Managerial Decision Making, by U.K. Srivastava and S. C.
BPH 417: Industrial Training
At the end of the third year, the students will undergo implant training program for 4 to 6 weeks in
pharmaceutical industries. After completion of the training program successfully the students will
have to submit a report to the department.
4th Year, Semester-II
BPH 421: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
1. Introduction of biotechnology and its application in medicine, foods, forensic science, microbial and plant genetics; different dimension of biotechnology and pharmaceutical biotechnology. 2. Biophysical and biochemical analysis of recombinant proteins: Protein structure, protein folding, analytical techniques. 3. Recombinant DNA technology and production of biotech compounds: Basic principle, genetic recombination; cloning, gene expression, restriction endonuclease, ligase and other enzymes used in gene cloning, cloning vectors. Transfection method, knock out and transgenic animals. Cultivation and downstream processing, issues to consider in production and purification of proteins. 4. Formulation of biotech products: Microbiological considerations, excipients used in parenteral formulations of biotech products, delivery of proteins, routes of administration and absorption enhancement. 5. Delivery of proteinous drugs: Approaches for rate controlled and target site specific delivery. 6. Additional biotechnology related techniques: Polymerase chain reaction, Genetically engineered animals for the production of protein drugs, Protein engineering, Nucleic acid technologies, oligonucleotides 7. Gene therapy: Ex vivo versus in vivo gene therapy, potential target diseases for gene therapy, gene transfer methods, non-viral gene transfer. 8. Pharmaceutical production a) Short study of current biotech products: Interleukins and interferons, insulin, vaccines, monoclonal antibody-based pharmaceuticals, follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH). b) Dispensing of biotechnology products: Storage- temperature requirements, storage in dosing and administration devices, light protection, handling, mixing and shaking, travel requirements, preparation & administration. Recommended Books:
1. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology- D. Commelin.
2. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology- Vyas.
BPH 422: Pharmaceutical Engineering
1. Refrigeration and air conditioning: Refrigeration: Theory of refrigeration, refrigeration current cycle and equipments employed for large scale refrigeration. Air conditioning: Theory of air conditioning, application and types, humidification and dehumidification, cooling towers. Humidity: Determination methods, methods of increasing and decreasing humidity, application of humidity control in pharmaceutical industries. 2. Size reduction and size separation: Definitions, principles of size reduction, objectives of size reduction, factors affecting size reduction; principles, laws and factors affecting energy requirements, different methods of size reduction, study of hammer mill, fluid energy mill and disintegrator; various methods and equipments employed for size separation e. g., sieving, sedimentation, centrifugal elutriation, microscopic methods. 3. Mixing and homogenization: Theory of mixing: solid-solid, solid-liquid, liquid-liquid and semisolid mixing; study of different types of mixers used in pharmaceuticals like planetary mixers, sigma mixers, turbo dispensers, double cone mixers, colloid mill, triple roller mill. 4. Clarification and filtration: Definitions, theory and factors affecting filtration, types of filter media, filter aids, and selection of filters; equipments like gravity filter, pressure filter, vacuum filters, filter press, leaf filters, continuous rotary drum filter, edge filter, sand filter, membrane filters; centrifugal type filters: batch, semi continuous & continuous type. 6. Drying: Theory of drying - principles, equilibrium moisture content, rate of drying; drying of dilute solutions and suspensions - drum dryer, spray dryer; drying of solids - convection type, tray dryer, tunnel dryer, rotary dryer, fluidized bed dryer, vacuum dryer, oven dryer, freeze dryer, radiant heat dryers; automation in drying process. 7. Pharmaceutical plant design: Manufacturing facilities for pharmaceutical products, manufacturing site selection, materials of fabrication: desirable properties and selection, chemical factors, physical factors, strength, weight, wearing qualities, ease of fabrication, thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, cleaning, sterilization, transparency, economic factors; materials used in fabrication: metals, non-metals; corrosion.
BPH 422P: Pharmaceutical Engineering Practical
1. Experiment on filtration-determination of specific cake and filter medium resistance. 2. Experiment on fluidized bed apparatus- determination of pressure drop at different fluidized 3. Experiment on cabinet tray dryer and vacuum tray dryer. 4. To study the performance of laboratory fluidized bed dryer and spray dryer. 5. To study the performance of laboratory colloid mill. 6. 10. Elementary engineering drawing, drawing instruments and their uses, lines, 7. lettering and dimensions, orthographic projections, isometric projections, 8. Conversion of pictorial views into orthographic views. Recommended Books:
1. Coulson and Richardson's Chemical Engineering- J. F. Richardson and J.M.Coulron and R.
K. Sinott, 3rd edition, Butterworth- Heinemann. 2. Introduction to Chemical Engineering- Walter L. Badger and J.T. Banchero, 1955, Mc Graw- Engineering- Robert H. Perry & Don W. Green, Mc Graw-Hill 4. Chemical Engineering Techniques- Lauer & Heckmann. 5. Elementary Engineering Drawing- N. D. Bhatt and V. M. Panchal, 43rd edition, Charotor BPH 423: Cosmetology
1. Raw materials used for cosmetic preparations: Surfactants, humectants, antiseptics, preservatives, antioxidants, herbal materials, perfumes, colors. 2. Hair care products: Introduction to hair structure; shampoos: detergents, additives, formulation of shampoos, shampoo powders, dry shampoos, liquid dry shampoos, clear liquid shampoos, liquid cream or lotion shampoos, shampoo pastes or creams, aerosol shampoos, anti-dandruff and medicated shampoos, conditioning shampoos, safety and quality evaluation of shampoos; brilliantine and hair oils, hair setting lotions, hair lacquers or sprays, hair bleaches and dyes. 3. Skin care products: Introduction to anatomy and physiology of skin; formulation of cosmetic cream, liquefying cleansing creams, cold cream, cleansing creams, cleansing lotions, moisturizing creams, all purpose creams; foundation creams: properties of alkalis, manufacture, pearliness, stability, perfume, formulations, colored foundation products; skin tonics, sun screen products. 4. Color cosmetics: Lipsticks: Purpose and use, composition, formula, manufacture and quality control. Nail products: Powder nail polishes, nail enamels, selection of solvents, additives, manufacture; enamel removers, nail white, strengtheners and elongators. 5. Dental products: Anatomical structure of teeth; tooth pastes: cleansing and polishing materials, detergent and foaming materials, humectants, binding agents, sweetening and flavoring materials, formulation, manufacture; tooth powders, liquid dentifrices and mouthwashes. 6. Rouges and eye cosmetics: Liquid rouges, powder rouges, rouge creams; eye make-up: eyebrow pencils, eyeshadow, wax or cream bases and sticks, powder eyeshadow, eyeliners, mascara, eye make-up removers and eye lotion. 7. Personal hygiene products: Shaving creams: Purpose of use, formulation and manufacture, brushless shaving creams, aerosol shaving lathers, pre-electric shave preparations, electric shave powders. After-shave preparations: Purpose of use, clear lotion, after-shave gel and cream, after-shave powders. Antiperspirants and deodorants: Deodorants, astringents and antiperspirants, antiperspirant creams and lotion, roll-on antiperspirants, antiperspirants and deodorant sticks, aerosol deodorants.
BPH 423P: Cosmetology Practical
Preparation and quality control tests for: 1. Cold cream, vanishing cream, cleansing lotion and cream, moisturizing cream etc. 2. Hair 4. Shampoos 5. Hair 6. Shaving creams & after shave lotions 7. Tooth powders & tooth pastes Recommended Books:
1. Chemistry and Technology of the Cosmetics and Toileteries Industry- D. F. Williams and W.
H. Schmitt, Hardcover 1992, Kluwer Academic Publications. 2. Harry's Cosmeticology- J. B. Wilkinson & R. J. Moore, 7th edition, Longman Scientific & 3. Modern Cosmetics: Perfumes, Cosmetics and Soaps, Vol. I, II and III- W. A. Poucher, 8th edition, Chapman & Hall, London.
BPH 424: Nutraceuticals, Dietary Supplements and Herbal Products 3 credits
2. Food Science and nutrition: Overview on medical foods, nutraceuticals, functional foods and
dietary supplements 3. Food components and nutrition: Food composition, macronutrients, micronutrients, protein, carbohydrate, fats and oils vitamins, minerals, dietary fibers and fiber-like ingredients, trans fatty acids and omega 3,6,9 fatty acid, sugar and fat substitutes. 4. Food, nutrition, health and diseases: Relationship of nutrition and health, dietary guidelines/food pyramid, food habit and obesity, effects of trans and omega 3,6,9 fatty acid on health and diseases. 5. Food processing and food products developments: Food preservation, food irradiation, fermentation, processing of dairy foods, confectionary foods, cereals ad grains, beverages, special infant foods and formulas, Microorganism in food, food packaging 6. Nutraceuticals in herbal products, fruits, vegetables ad grains with health benefits; effects of nutraceutical on cancer, immune system, phytochemicals and their roles in prevention of specific diseases. Antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory a hypolipedimic herbs and nutraceuticals 7. Pharmacological aspects of herbal medicines: Used recipe, dosage, pharmacological action, side effects, toxicity, contraindications, precautions, adverse effects etc. of traditional medicaments. 8. Formulation and dosage forms of herbal medicines: Types and methods, use of modern technology and pharmaceutical knowledge. 9. Quality control of herbal drugs: Introduction, detection of adulterants including the presence of API, determination of foreign matters, development of standardization parameters, phytoconstituents and their analysis, analytical procedures for some bioactive materials, antimicrobial and parasiticidal screenings of herbal drugs. 10. Food Biotechnology: Genetic engineering, improving plant and animal products, improving Recommended Books:
1. Shils, ME, Olson, JA, Shike, M. 1994 Modern Nutrition in Health & Disease. 8th Edition.
2. Schulz, V., Hansel, R., Tyler, V. 1998. Rational Phytotherapy.
3. (A Physicians Guide to Herbal medicine.Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York)
4. Labuza, T.P. 2000 Functional Foods & Dietary Supplements:
5. Herbal medicine for human health- Chowdhury , B. R.(WHO Publication)
6. Medicinal plants of Bangladesh (2nd edition) – Abdul Ghani
7. Medical herbal – H.M. Said (Hamdard publication)
BPH 425: Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs
1. Regulations and laws governing the practices of pharmacy in Bangladesh (The Pharmacy Ordinance 1976). 2. Policies, sales, regulation and laws concerning to the manufacture, possession, distribution, sale of drugs and poisons: 3. The Drug Act 1940, The Poisons Act 1919 and related amendments, The drug ordinance 1982, The Drug Policy 1982, The Drug (control) ordinance 1982, The Narcotics (control) Act 1990, The drug policy 2005. 4. Approval process, format and registration of pharmaceuticals in Bangladesh. 5. Rules and regulations for controlling poisons and narcotic materials in Bangladesh. 6. Control of drug advertisements and prices, patented and trade marked medicine, proprietary medicine, regulation of cosmetics and poison control. 7. Schedules of drugs and poisons. 8. Drug authority of Bangladesh: Functions and activities of Directorate of Drug, Registration methods in Bangladesh, Drug Control committee (DCC) and related technical committees. 9. Pharmacy Council of Bangladesh: introduction, Ordinance, different Committees, Scope and functions of Pharmacy Council of Bangladesh. Recommended Books:
1. The Pharmacy Ordinance, 1976, Ministry of Law and Parliamentary affairs, Government of Bangladesh, Dhaka. 2. The Drugs (Control) Ordinance, 1982, Ministry of Law and Land Reforms, Government of Bangladesh, Dhaka. 3. Drug Policy of Bangladesh, Ministry of Health and Population Control, Health Division, Dhaka.
4. Pharmacist's Code of Ethics, Pharmacy Council of Bangladesh.
BPH 426: Project Work
A project / thesis work will be given to the students by the teachers of the department and a dissertation should be submitted by the students to the department after completing the project. The students will have to present his / her work using multimedia / over head projector. Oral Assessment-IV
An oral examination on the syllabus of fourth year (semester I & II) will be taken after the final examination of theory and practical courses. Name of the Full time Faculty Members
and Staff of the Department of Pharmacy
Name of the full time teachers :
1. Professor Dr. Shamsul Haque
Professor and Head, Dept of pharmacy,DIU.
2. Dr. Zakia Sultana Sathi
Assistant professor, Dept. of Pharmacy, DIU.
3. Mr. Arifur Rahman
Lecturer, Dept. of Pharmacy, DIU.
4. Mr. Shaheen Sarwar
Co-ordinator, Dept. of Pharmacy, DIU.
5. Md. Jasimuddin
Lecturer , Dept. of CSE, DIU.
6. Naimul Hasan
Lecturer, Dept of CSE, DIU.
7. Mrs. Susmita Rani
Lecturer, Dept. of English, DIU.
8. Md. Fuad
Lecturer of Bangladesh Studies, DIU.
Name of the part time teachers :
1. Professor Dr. Rebecca Banoo.
Professor, Dept. of Pharmaceutical chemistry, University of Dhaka.
2. Professor Dr. Abdur Rashid.
Professor and Dean, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka.
3. Professor Dr. Shawkat Ali
Professor, Dept of Pharmacology, University of Dhaka.
4. Mrs Bilkis Begum
Associate Professor, Dept. of Pharmacology, University of Dhaka.
5. Dr. Md. Zakir Sultan
Post Doctoral fellow, COE, University of Dhaka.
6. Dr. Siraji Arif Mahmud.
Assistant professor, Dept. of Biotechnology, North-South University.
Metformin in Gestational Diabetes: The Offspring Follow-Up (MiG TOFU)Body composition at 2 years of age ANET A. ROWAN, MBCHB MALCOLM BATTIN, MD that because of continued exposure to nu- LAINE C. RUSH, PHD TRECIA WOULDES, PHD trient excess in utero, the subcutaneous ICTOR OBOLONKIN, BSC WILLIAM M. HAGUE, MD fat stores become overloaded and, thus,the fetus develops leptin and insulin re-sistance and deposits excess nutrients as