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INDICATORS for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals
and Sources United Nations Development Group
United Nations Population Fund United Nations Development Programme Department of Economic and Social Affairs–Statistics Division Indicators for Monitoring the
Millennium Development Goals

Definitions Rationale Concepts and Sources The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication donot imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the United Nationsconcerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities,or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The term "country" asused in the text of this report refers, as appropriate, to territories or areas. The des-ignations of "developed". "developing" and "least developed" countries are intendedfor convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage reachedby a particular country or area in the development process. Reference to "dollars" ($)indicates United States dollars, unless otherwise stated.
ST/ESA/STAT/SER.F/95United Nations PublicationSales No. E.03.XVII. 18ISBN 92-1-161467-8Copyright United Nations 2003All rights reserved Graphic design and Desktop composition Andy Musilli Building on the United Nations global conferences of the 1990s, the United NationsMillennium Declaration of 2000 marked a strong commitment to the right to devel-opment, to peace and security, to gender equality, to the eradication of the manydimensions of poverty and to sustainable human development. Embedded in thatDeclaration, which was adopted by 147 heads of State and 189 states, were whathave become known as the eight Millennium Development Goals, including 18 time-bound targets.
To monitor progress towards the goals and targets, the United Nations system,including the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, as well as theDevelopment Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Co-operationand Development, came together under the Office of the Secretary-General andagreed on 48 quantitative indicators. The indicators built upon an intergovernmen-tal process to identify relevant indicators in response to global conferences. TheSecretary-General presented the goals, targets and indicators to the GeneralAssembly in September 2001 in his report entitled "Road map towards the imple-mentation of the United Nations Millennium Declaration".
The present handbook provides guidance on the definitions, rationale, concepts andsources of data for each of the indicators that are being used to monitor the goals andtargets. It expands on an earlier exercise to provide the metadata for the socio-eco-nomic indicators that make up the United Nations Common Country AssessmentIndicator Framework. The indicators for goals 1–7 are a subset of that framework. Preparation of the handbook was directed by an inter-agency working group of theUnited Nations Development Group, including the World Bank, chaired by the UnitedNations Population Fund and co-chaired by the United Nations Statistics Division andthe United Nations Development Programme. On behalf of the United NationsDevelopment Group, I would like to thank all the agencies and individuals (see below)who contributed to this handbook, including the Department for InternationalDevelopment of the Government of the United Kingdom, which funded the servicesof a short-term consultant who contributed to the handbook. I believe that this tangible example of interagency collaboration will prove useful tothe international community by strengthening national statistical capacity andimproving monitoring. And I sincerely hope that this will be sustained through futurerevisions in the same spirit. Mark Malloch BrownChairmanUnited Nations Development Group Acknowledgements Goals, targets and indicators Proportion of population below $1 purchasing power parity (PPP) per day Poverty headcount ratio (percentage of population below the national poverty line) Poverty gap ratio (incidence multiplied by depth of poverty) Share of poorest quintile in national consumption Prevalence of underweight children under 5 years of age Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption Net enrolment ratio in primary education Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5 Primary completion rate Literacy rate of 15–24 year-olds Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education Ratio of literate women to men, 15–24 years old Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments Under-five mortality rate Infant mortality rate Proportion of 1-year-old children immunized against measles Maternal mortality ratio Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel HIV prevalence among pregnant women aged 15–24 years Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate 19A. Condom use at last high-risk sex 19B. Percentage of population aged 15–24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge Contraceptive prevalence rate Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged 10–14 years Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria Proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under DOTS oportion of .
maintain . .
biological div .
consumption .
ozone-depleting . . . chlorofluorocarbons (ODP tons) population .
oportion of . .
population .
ustainable ac .
source, urban and rural population . .
Proportion of households with access to secure tenure Net ODA, total and to the least developed countries, as a percentage of OECD/DAC donors' gross national income.
Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation) Proportion of bilateral ODA of OECD/DAC donors that is untied ODA received in landlocked countries as a proportion of their gross national incomes ODA received in small island developing States as a proportion of their gross national incomes Proportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding arms) from developing countries and from the least developed countries, admitted free of duty Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and clothing from developing countries Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as a percentage of their gross domestic Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC decision points and number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative) Debt relief committed under HIPC Initiative Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services Unemployment rate of young people aged 15–24 years, each sex and total Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per 100 population Personal computers in use per 100 population Internet users per 100 population Additional socio-economic common country assessment indicators Proportion of children under age 15 who are working Employment to population of working age ratio Unemployment rate Informal sector employment as a percentage of employment Number of persons per room, or average floor area per person Number of intentional homicides per 100,000 inhabitants Household surveys and other national data sources Web sites (see also references in the metadata sheets) World summits and conferences Translated publications available in Arabic, Chinese, English,French, Russian and Spanish, at http://unstats.un.org.unsd/pubs/ common country assessment cost, insurance and freight Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire in Africa Development Assistance Committee of the OECD Demographic and Health Survey internationally recommended tuberculosis control strategy diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccine Expanded Programme on Immunization Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations gross domestic product gross national income gross national product household budget survey Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative income, consumption and expenditure survey Internatonal Labour Organization International Monetary Fund International Standard Classification of Education, 1997 version International Standard Industrial Classification of All EconomicActivities International Telecommunication Union International Union for Conservation of Nature and NaturalResources–The World Conservation Union least developed countries labour force surveys Living Standards Measurement Study Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey National Center for Health Statistics official development assistance Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development personal computers purchasing power parity trade capacity-building database Trade Analysis and Information System United Nations Human Settlements Programme Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS United Nations Development Programme United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization MEMBERS AND CONTRIBUTORS TO THE UNITED NATIONSDEVELOPMENT GROUP WORKING GROUP ON INDICATORS United Nations Human Settlements Programme
Laura Licchi
United Nations Population Fund
Richard Leete, Chair World Food Programme
Kourtoum NacroMickie Schoch Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations

Department of Economic and Social
Affairs Statistics Division
Stefan Schweinfest, Vice ChairRobert Johnston International Labour Organization
Francesca Perucci International Telecommunication Union
United Nations Development Programme
Esperanza Magpantay Diana Alarcon, Vice ChairJan Vandemoortele United Nations Educational, Scientific and
United Nations Development Group Office
Gerton van den AkkerAlain Nickels World Bank
Tom Griffin (consultant) Makiko HarrisonEric Swanson Executive Office of the Secretary-General
Madhushree Dasgupta
World Health Organization
Christopher Murray
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
World Trade Organization
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for
Human Rights
United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS
United Nations Children's Fund
Gareth JonesTessa Wardlaw Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development

United Nations Development Fund for Women
United Nations Environment Programme
Stuart Chape
Marion Cheatle
Volodymyr Demkine
Eugene Fosnight
Phillip Fox
Gerald Mutisya
Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals: Definitions, Rationale,Concepts and Sources contains basic metadata on the agreed list of quantitativeindicators for monitoring progress towards the eight goals and 18 targets derivedfrom the United Nations Millennium Declaration (table). The list of indicators, devel-oped using several criteria, is not intended to be prescriptive but to take intoaccount the country setting and the views of various stakeholders in preparingcountry-level reports. Five main criteria guided the selection of indicators. Indicators should: ■ Provide relevant and robust measures of progress towards the targets of the Millennium Development Goals ■ Be clear and straightforward to interpret and provide a basis for international ■ Be broadly consistent with other global lists and avoid imposing an unnecessary burden on country teams, Governments and other partners ■ Be based to the greatest extent possible on international standards, recommen- dations and best practices ■ Be constructed from well-established data sources, be quantifiable and be con- sistent to enable measurement over time The present handbook is designed to provide United Nations country teams andnational and international stakeholders with guidance on the definitions, rationale,concepts and sources of the data for the indicators that are being used to monitorthe Millennium Development Goals. Just as the indicator list is dynamic and will nec-essarily evolve in response to changing national situations, so will the metadatachange over time as concepts, definitions and methodologies change.
A consultation process, generally involving the national statistical office or othernational authority, should be initiated in the selection and compilation of country-specific indicators. The consultation should take into account national developmentpriorities, the suggested list of indicators and the availability of data. The UnitedNations country team should work collaboratively to help build ownership and con-sensus on the selected indicators.
NATIONAL SOURCES
Country data should be used for compiling the indicators where such data are avail-
able and of reasonable quality. The data source for each indicator and the quantita-
tive value of the indicator should be decided by consensus among the key stake-
holders, especially the national statistical system. The national statistical system
should own the data and related indicators.
For any given indicator, a wide range of data sources may be available within thecountry, and each source should be critically reviewed. Existing data sources andreporting systems should be used where possible, particularly where line ministrieshave their own statistical systems. International data sources should be consulted for validation and in the absence of national sources. METADATA SHEETS
For each indicator used to measure progress towards the targets and goals, the
handbook provides all or some of the following information:
■ A simple operational definition ■ The goal and target it addresses ■ The rationale for use of the indicator ■ The method of computation ■ Sources of data ■ References, including relevant international Web sites ■ Periodicity of measurement ■ Gender and disaggregation issues ■ Limitations of the indicator ■ National and international agencies involved in the collection, compilation or dissemination of the data The intention is not to provide an exhaustive amount of information for each item,but to provide a reference point and guidance for country teams and national stake-holders. The amount of information varies by indicator and tends to reflect theextent of national and international debate on its relevance. Limited information isavailable for some of the less well-established indicators. With further use of theindicators and greater recognition of the need for such data, fuller information isexpected to become available.
Monitoring of the Millennium Development Goals is taking place globally, throughannual reports of the United Nations Secretary-General to the General Assembly andthrough periodic country reporting. For global reporting, use is made of indicatorscompiled by international organizations. Internationally compiled indicators, basedon standard concepts, definitions and methodologies, more readily facilitate cross-country comparisons. For country reporting, use is generally made of indicators com-piled from national sources, generally by the national statistical system. The meta-data sheets for the indicators reflect national and international standards.
ANNEX 1 provides metadata for some additional indicators included in the commoncountry assessment indicator framework; the indicators for Millennium DevelopmentGoals 1–7 are a subset of that framework. ANNEX 2 supplies information on the house-hold surveys and national sources mentioned in the metadata for constructing theindicators. ANNEX 3 gives the World Wide Web addresses of the agencies involved. ANNEX 4 lists the major world summits and conferences that have helped to shape theMillennium Development Goals and indicators. Goals, targets and indicators Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per daya
less than one dollar a day Poverty headcount ratio (percentage of population below the national poverty Poverty gap ratio [incidence x depth of poverty] Share of poorest quintile in national consumption Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from Prevalence of underweight children under 5 years of age Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able Net enrolment ratio in primary education to complete a full course of primary schooling Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5b
Literacy rate of 15–24 year-olds TARGET 4 :Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015 Ratio of literate women to men, 15–24 years old Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament TARGET 5 :Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate Under-five mortality rate Infant mortality rate Proportion of 1 year-old children immunized against measles TARGET 6 :Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal Maternal mortality ratio mortality ratio Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel TARGET 7 :Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS HIV prevalence among pregnant women aged 15–24 years Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence ratec
19A. Condom use at last high-risk sex 19B. Percentage of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowl- edge of HIV/AIDSd
19C. Contraceptive prevalence rate Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged 10–14years TARGET 8 :Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria other major diseases Proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measurese
Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under DOTS TARGET 9 :Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies Proportion of land area covered by forest and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area Energy use (kg oil equivalent) per $1 GDP (PPP) Carbon dioxide emissions per capita and consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs Proportion of population using solid fuels TARGET 10 :Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water drinking water and basic sanitation source, urban and rural Proportion of population with access to improved sanitation, urban and rural TARGET 11 :By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least Proportion of households with access to secure tenure 100 million slum dwellers Some of the indicators listed below are monitored separately for the least developedcountries (LDCs), Africa, landlocked countries and small island developing States. TARGET 12 : Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trad- Official development assistance ing and financial system Net ODA, total and to the least developed countries, as a percentage of OECD/DAC donors' gross national income Includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic reduction – both nationally and internationally social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and TARGET 13 : Address the special needs of the least developed countries Proportion of bilateral official development assistance of OECD/DAC donors that is Includes: tariff and quota free access for the least developed countries' exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for heavily indebted poor ODA received in landlocked countries as a proportion of their gross national countries (HIPC) and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more gen- erous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction ODA received in small island developing States as proportion of their gross nation- al incomes TARGET 14 : Address the special needs of landlocked countries and small island devel- Market access oping States (through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Proportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding arms) from Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the developing countries and and from the least developed countries, admitted free of twenty-second special session of the General Assembly) Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and tex- TARGET 15 : Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries tiles and clothing from developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sus- Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as a percentage of their gross tainable in the long term domestic product Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC decision points and num- ber that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative) Debt relief committed under HIPC Initiative Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services TARGET 16 : In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strate- Unemployment rate of young people aged 15-24 years, each sex and total gies for decent and productive work for youth TARGET 17 : In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to afford- Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable able essential drugs in developing countries TARGET 18 : In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits 47. Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per 100 population of new technologies, especially information and communications 48A. Personal computers in use per 100 population and Internet users per 100 population 48B. Internet users per 100 population THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS and targets come from the Millennium Declaration, signed by 189 countries,
including 147 heads of State and Government, in September 2000 (http://www.un.org.millennium/declaration/
ares552e.htm). The goals and targets are interrelated and should be seen as a whole. They represent a partnership
between the developed countries and the developing countries "to create an environment – at the national and global
levels alike – which is conducive to development and the elimination of poverty".
Note: Goals, targets and indicators effective 8 September 2003. a For monitoring country poverty trends, indicators based on nation- healthy-looking person can transmit HIV. However, since there are al poverty lines should be used, where available.
currently not a sufficient number of surveys to be able to calculatethe indicator as defined above, UNICEF, in collaboration with b An alternative indicator under development is "primary completion UNAIDS and WHO, produced two proxy indicators that represent two components of the actual indicator. They are the following: (a) c Among contraceptive methods, only condoms are effective in pre- percentage of women and men 15-24 who know that a person can venting HIV transmission. Since the condom use rate is only meas- protect herself from HIV infection by "consistent use of condom"; ured among women in union, it is supplemented by an indicator on (b) percentage of women and men 15-24 who know a healthy- condom use in high-risk situations (indicator 19a) and an indicator looking person can transmit HIV. on HIV/AIDS knowledge (indicator 19b). Indicator 19c (contracep- e Prevention to be measured by the percentage of children under 5 tive prevalence rate) is also useful in tracking progress in other sleeping under insecticide-treated bednets; treatment to be meas- health, gender and poverty goals. ured by percentage of children under 5 who are appropriately d This indicator is defined as the percentage of population aged 15- 24 who correctly identify the two major ways of preventing the f An improved measure of the target for future years is under devel- sexual transmission of HIV (using condoms and limiting sex to one opment by the International Labour Organization.
faithful, uninfected partner), who reject the two most commonlocal misconceptions about HIV transmission, and who know that a PROPORTION OF POPULATION tion) curves weighted by household size. In all 1 BELOW $1 PURCHASING POWER cases measures of poverty to obtain Lorenz PARITY(PPP) PER DAY curves are calculated from primary datasources rather than existing estimates. DEFINITION
Proportion of population below $1 per day
is
Poverty in a country is estimated by converting the percentage of the population living on less the one dollar a day poverty line to local curren- than $1.08 a day at 1993 international prices.
cy using the latest purchasing power parity The one dollar a day poverty line is compared (PPP) exchange rates for consumption taken to consumption or income per person and from World Bank estimates. Local consumer includes consumption from own production price indices are then used to adjust the inter- and income in kind. This poverty line has national poverty line in local currency to prices fixed purchasing power across countries or prevailing around the time of the surveys. This areas and is often called an "absolute poverty international poverty line is used to identify how line" or measure of extreme poverty.
many people are below the one dollar a daythreshold.
GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
The PPP-based international poverty line is Target 1. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the
required only to allow comparisons across proportion of people whose income is less countries and to produce estimates of pover- than one dollar a day ty at the aggregate level. Most countries alsoset their own poverty lines (SEE INDICATOR 1A).
RATIONALE
The indicator allows for comparing and aggre-
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
gating progress across countries in reducing the The indicator is produced by the World Bank number of people living under extreme poverty Development Research Group based on data and for monitoring trends at the global level. obtained from government statistical officesand World Bank country departments. It is not METHOD OF COMPUTATION
normally calculated by national agencies.
The World Bank regularly estimates povertybased on the one dollar a day poverty line.
Data on household income, consumption and Estimates are based on incomes or consump- expenditure, including income in kind, are tion levels derived from household surveys.
generally collected through household budget Whenever possible, consumption is preferred surveys or other surveys covering income and to income for measuring poverty. When con- sumption data are not available, income isused.
When available, household consumption dataare preferred to income data. National statis- Consumption, which includes consumption tical offices, sometimes in conjunction with for own production, or income per person, and other national or international agencies, usu- its distribution are estimated from household ally undertake such surveys. surveys. Household consumption or income isdivided by the number of people in the house- Only surveys that meet the following criteria are hold to establish the income per person. used: they are nationally representative, includea sufficiently comprehensive consumption or The distribution of consumption or income is income aggregate (including consumption or estimated using empirical Lorenz (distribu- income from own production), and they allow for the construction of a correctly weighted distri- The one dollar a day poverty measure is used bution of consumption or income per person.
to assess and monitor poverty at the globallevel, but like other indicators it is not equally The most recent estimates of PPP for devel- relevant in all regions because countries have oping countries are based on data collected between 1993 and 1996, standardized to Measurements of poverty in countries are 1993 international prices. Global price com- generally based on national poverty lines.
parisons are carried out by the InternationalComparison Programme of the World Bank PPP exchange rates are used because they and others. New estimates of PPPs are take into account the local prices of goods expected in 2006.
and services that are not traded internation-ally. Although PPP rates were designed for PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
Household budget or income surveys are accounts, they may not fully reflect the com- undertaken at different intervals in different parative cost of goods typically consumed by countries. In developing countries they typi- cally take place every three to five years.
There are also problems in comparing poverty PPP surveys are conducted at infrequent measures within countries, especially for urban- intervals. The last price survey through the rural differences. The cost of living is typically International Comparison Programme was higher in urban than in rural areas, so the urban completed in 1996, and the next will begin in monetary poverty line should be higher than the 2003. It is, however, possible to extrapolate rural monetary poverty line. However, it is not from PPP surveys, and the World Bank con- always clear that the difference between the version factors are calculated in this way. two poverty lines found in practice properlyreflects the difference in the cost of living. GENDER ISSUES
Households headed by women tend to have
In considering whether to use income or con- lower incomes and are therefore more likely sumption as a welfare indicator, income is to have incomes per person lower than one generally more difficult to measure accurate- dollar. However, this relationship should be ly, and consumption accords better with the carefully studied to take into account nation- idea of the standard of living than income, al circumstances and the definition of head of which can vary over time even if the standard household adopted in data collection, which is of living does not. Nevertheless, consumption not necessarily related to being the chief data are not always available, and when they source of economic support. Whether house- are not there is little choice but to use income.
holds are headed by women or men, genderrelations affect intrahousehold resource allo- There is also a problem with comparability cation and use. It is not possible to estimate across surveys: household survey question- sex-disaggregated poverty rates from avail- naires can differ widely, and even similar sur- veys may not be strictly comparable becauseof differences in quality. DISAGGREGATION ISSUES
It is sometimes possible to disaggregate this
Even if surveys are entirely accurate, the indicator by urban-rural location. measure of poverty can miss some importantaspects of individual welfare. First, using COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
household consumption ignores inequalities within households. Second, the measure does not reflect people's feeling about relative deprivation or their concerns about uninsured  WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
risks to their income and health.
Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
Table 2.6. Washington, D.C. Available in Comparisons across countries at different levels part from http://www.worldbank.org/data.
of development may also pose a problem, owing  WORLD BANK (2003). Data and Statistics.
to differences in the relative importance of con- Internet site http://www.worldbank.org/ sumption of non-market goods.
data . Washington, D.C.
 WORLD BANK (2003). Poverty Reduction
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
Strategy Sourcebook, vol. 1, Core tech- niques: Poverty Measurement and Analysis.
 CHEN, SHAOCHUA, and MARTIN RAVALLION
Washington, D.C. Available from http:// (2002). How Did the World's Poorest Fare in the 1990s?, Working Paper No. 2409, pp.1-5.
sourcons.htm .
Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Availablefrom http://www.worldbank.org/research/  HESTON, ALAN, ROBERT SUMMERS and BETTINA
ATEN (2002). Penn World Tables 6.1. Internet
site
http://datacentre2.chass.utoronto.ca/pwt .
POVERTY HEADCOUNT RATIO (PER-  UNITED NATIONS (1992). Handbook of the
CENTAGE OF POPULATION BELOW International Comparison Programme.
THE NATIONAL POVERTY LINE) Series F, No. 62 (United Nations publica-tion, Sales No. E.92.XVII.12). Available from http://unstats.un.org/unsd/pubs. (A, C, E, The poverty headcount ratio is the proportion of the national population whose incomes are  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
below the official threshold (or thresholds) set Database. Statistics Division Internet site by the national Government. National poverty lines are usually set for households of various  UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
compositions to allow for different family (2003 and annual). Human Development sizes. Where there are no official poverty Report. New York: Oxford University Press.
lines, they may be defined as the level of Available from http://hdr.undp.org.
income required to have only sufficient food  UNITED NATIONS, COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN
or food plus other necessities for survival. COMMUNITIES, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND,
ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND

GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
DEVELOPMENT AND WORLD BANK (1994).
Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA Target 1. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the
1993), Series F, No. 2, Rev. 4 (United Nations proportion of people whose income is less publication, Sales No. E.94.XVII.4), paras.
than one dollar a day 9.45, 16.80-16.83. Available with updatesfrom http://unstats.un.org/unsd/sna1993.
 WORLD BANK (2001). Poverty Reduction and
The indicator allows for monitoring the pro- the World Bank: Progress in Operationaliz- portion of the national population that is con- ing the World Development Report sidered poor by a national standard. Most 2000/01. Washington, D.C. Available from poverty analysis work for countries is based on national poverty lines. National poverty cally take place every three to five years.
lines tend to increase in purchasing power with the average level of income of a country.
Households headed by women tend to havelower incomes and are therefore more likely METHOD OF COMPUTATION
to have incomes per person below the pover- Household income (or consumption) and its ty line. However, this relationship should be distribution are estimated from household carefully studied to take into account nation- surveys (SEE INDICATOR 1). The incomes of various al circumstances and the definition of head of household types, by composition, may then household adopted in data collection, which is be compared with the poverty lines for those not necessarily related to being the chief types of household. If the poverty lines are source of economic support. Whether house- expressed in terms of income per adult equiv- holds are headed by women or men, gender alent or some similar measure, the incomes of relations affect intrahousehold resource allo- the households must be measured on a simi- lar basis. Household income may be convert-ed to income per adult equivalent by using the modified equivalence scale of the Disaggregation of the poverty headcount Organisation for Economic Co-operation and index is normally limited by the size of the Development (OECD)—in which the first household survey. It is common, however, for household member over 16 equals 1, all others indices to be produced for urban and rural over 16 equal 0.5, all under 16 equal 0.3 —or areas and for some subnational levels as the some other equivalence scale. Household sample allows. Estimates at low levels of dis- incomes are then divided by the "equivalized" aggregation may be made using "poverty number of people in the household (two adults mapping" techniques, which use the lower would equal 1.5 according to the OECD scale) levels of disaggregation available from popu- to establish income per person.
lation censuses, particularly where the timingof the population census and household sur- Once the number of households that are vey is relatively close. Wherever household below the poverty line has been estimated, surveys provide income or consumption data the number of people in those households is disaggregated by sex of household heads, aggregated to estimate the percentage of the these data should be used.
population below the line.
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
The advantage of this indicator is that it is Data on household income, consumption and specific to the country in which the data are expenditure, including income in kind, are collected and where the poverty line is estab- generally collected through household budget lished. While the one dollar a day poverty line surveys or other surveys covering income and helps in making international comparisons, national poverty lines are used to make moreaccurate estimates of poverty consistent with National statistical offices, sometimes in con- the characteristics and level of development junction with other national or international of each country. The disadvantage is that agencies, usually undertake such surveys.
there is no universally agreed poverty line,even in principle, and international compar- PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
isons are not feasible.
Household budget or income surveys areundertaken at different intervals in different There are also problems in comparing poverty countries. In developing countries they typi- measures within countries, especially for urban and rural differences. The cost of living POVERTY GAP RATIO (INCIDENCE is typically higher in urban than in rural areas, MULTIPLIED BY DEPTH OF POVER- so the urban monetary poverty line should be higher than the rural monetary poverty line.
But it is not always clear that the difference between the two poverty lines found in prac- Poverty gap ratio is the mean distance sepa- tice properly reflects the difference in the rating the population from the poverty line cost of living.
(with the non-poor being given a distance ofzero), expressed as a percentage of the REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
poverty line.
 CANBERRA GROUP ON HOUSEHOLD INCOME
GOALAND TARGET ADDRESSED
(2001). Expert Group on Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Household Income Statistics: Final Report Target 1. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the
and Recommendations. Ottawa. Available proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day  SWEDEN, STATISTICS SWEDEN (1996). Engendering
Statistics: A Tool for Change. Stockholm. The indicator measures the "poverty deficit"  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
of the entire population, where the poverty Database. Statistics Division Internet site deficit is the per capita amount of resources that would be needed to bring all poor people  UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
above the poverty line through perfectly tar- (2003 and annual). Human Development geted cash transfers. Report. New York, Oxford University Press.
Available from http://hdr.undp.org.
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
 WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
The poverty gap ratio is the sum of the Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
income gap ratios for the population below Notes to table 2.6. Washington, D.C.
the poverty line, divided by the total popula- Available in part from http://www.world tion, which can be expressed as follows: ORLD BANK (2003). Poverty Reduction
z yi Strategy Sourcebook, vol. 1, Core Techniques: n i=1  z Poverty Measurement and Analysis.
Washington, where z is the poverty line, Yi is the income of individual i, q is the number of poor people and n is the size of the population. The povertygap can also be expressed (and thus calculated) as the product of the average income gap National statistical offices ratio of poor people and the headcount ratio, PG = I * H z y the distance is meaningful. For example, the poverty gap in education could be the number of years of education missing to reach the defined threshold.
All the formulas are calculated based on data REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
on individuals (yi as individual income or con- sumption). If household-level data are used,  CHEN, SHAOCHUA, and MARTIN RAVALLION (2002).
the formulas have to be adjusted by the How Did the World's Poorest Fare in the weight wi, which is the household size times 1990s? Working Paper No. 2409, pp.1-5.
sampling expansion factor for every house- World Bank, Washington, D.C. Available hold i.
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
 UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
When based on the $1 a day poverty line, this Database. Statistics Division Internet site indicator is calculated by the World Bank.
When based on national poverty lines, the  WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
indicator is commonly calculated by national Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
Washington, D.C. Available in part fromhttp://www.worldbank.org/data .
The data required are the same as those for  WORLD BANK (2003). Poverty Reduction
Strategy Sourcebook, vol. 1, Core Techniques:Poverty Measurement and Analysis.
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
Household budget or income surveys are undertaken at different intervals in different countries. In developing countries, they typi-cally take place every three to five years.
Households headed by women may be con-centrated in the bottom fifth. However, thisrelationship should be carefully studied to SHARE OF POOREST QUINTILE IN take into account national circumstances and NATIONAL CONSUMPTION the definition of head of household adoptedin data collection, which is not necessarily related to being the chief source of economic Share of the poorest quintile in national con- support. Whether households are headed by sumption is the income that accrues to the women or men, gender relations affect intra- poorest fifth of the population.
household resource allocation and use. GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
The comments under indicators 1 and 1A also Target 1. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the
proportion of people whose income is lessthan one dollar a day This measure can also be used for non-mone-tary indicators, provided that the measure of World Bank tries to produce comparable data The indicator provides information about the for international comparisons and for analysis distribution of consumption or income of the at the aggregated level (regional or global).
poorest fifth of the population. Because the Survey data provide either per capita income consumption of the poorest fifth is expressed or consumption. Whenever possible, con- as a percentage of total household consump- sumption data are used rather than income tion (or income), this indicator is a "relative data. Where the original household survey inequality" measure. Therefore, while the data are not available, shares are estimated absolute consumption of the poorest fifth from the best available grouped data.
may increase, its share of total consumptionmay remain the same (if the total goes up by PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
the same proportion), decline (if the total Household budget or income surveys are goes up by a larger proportion) or increase (if undertaken at different intervals in different the total goes up by a smaller proportion). countries. In developing countries, they typi-cally take place every three to five years.
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
Household income and its distribution are
estimated from household surveys. Household Households headed by women may be con- income is adjusted for household size to pro- centrated in the bottom fifth. However, this vide a more consistent measure of per capita relationship should be carefully studied to income for consumption. Household income is take into account national circumstances and divided by the number of people in the house- the definition of head of household adopted hold to establish income per person. The pop- in data collection, which is not necessarily ulation is then ranked by income. The income related to the chief source of economic sup- of the bottom fifth is expressed as a percent- port. Whether households are headed by age of aggregate household income. The cal- women or men, gender relations affect intra- culations are made in local currency, without household resource allocation and use. adjustment for price changes or exchangerates or for spatial differences in cost of living INTERNATIONAL DATA COMPARISONS
within countries, because the data needed for Since the underlying household surveys differ such calculations are generally unavailable.
in method and type of data collected, the dis-tribution indicators are not easily comparableacross countries. These problems are dimin- DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
ishing as survey methods improve and For international purposes, this indicator is become more standardized, but achieving calculated by the World Bank, but it may also strict comparability is still impossible (see be calculated by national agencies. The "COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS" for INDICATOR 1).
Development Research Group of the WorldBank Group produces the indicator based on COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
primary household survey data obtained from Two sources of non-comparability should be government statistical agencies and World noted. First, the surveys can differ in many Bank country departments. respects, including whether they use incomeor consumption as the indicator of living stan- Data on household income or consumption dards. The distribution of income is typically come from household surveys. Since underly- more unequal than the distribution of con- ing household surveys differ across countries sumption. In addition, the definitions of in methods and type of data collected, the income usually differ among surveys. Con- sumption is normally a better welfare indica- PREVALENCE OF UNDERWEIGHT CHIL- tor, particularly in developing countries (see DREN UNDER 5 YEARS OF AGE "COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS" for INDICATOR 1).
Second, households differ in size (number of Prevalence of (moderately or severely) under- members), extent of income sharing among weight children is the percentage of children members, age of members and consumption under five years old whose weight for age is needs. Differences among countries in these less than minus two standard deviations from respects may bias comparisons of distribution.
the median for the international referencepopulation ages 0–59 months. The interna- The percentile chosen here is the bottom fifth tional reference population was formulated (quintile). The proportionate share of national by the National Center for Health Statistics household income of this group may go up (NCHS) as a reference for the United States while the proportionate share of some other and later adopted by the World Health percentile, such as the bottom tenth (decile), Organization (WHO) for international use may go down, and vice versa.
(often referred to as the NCHS/WHO refer-ence population).
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
COMPARISONS

GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
 RAVALLION, MARTIN, and SHAOHUA CHEN (1996).
Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
What Can New Survey Data Tell Us about Target 2. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the
Recent Change in Distribution and Poverty? proportion of people who suffer from hunger World Bank Economic Review. Washington,D.C. 11/2:357-82.
 UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators of
Child malnutrition, as reflected in body Sustainable Development: Guidelines and weight, is selected as an indicator for several Methodologies. Department of Economic reasons. Child malnutrition is linked to poverty, and Social Affairs, Division for Sustainable low levels of education and poor access to Development. Sales No. E.01.II.A.6.
health services. Malnourishment in children, Available from http:// www.un.org/esa/ even moderate, increases their risk of death, inhibits their cognitive development, and  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
affects health status later in life. Sufficient Database. Statistics Division Internet site and good quality nutrition is the cornerstone for development, health and survival of cur-  WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
rent and succeeding generations. Healthy Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
nutrition is particularly important for women Washington, D.C. Available in part from during pregnancy and lactation so that their children set off on sound developmentalpaths, both physically and mentally. Only when optimal child growth is ensured for the National statistical offices majority of their people will Governments be successful in their efforts to accelerate eco-nomic development in a sustained way.
The under-five underweight prevalence is aninternationally recognized public health indi-cator for monitoring nutritional status and health in populations. Child malnutrition is may be a sensitive issue in the country.
also monitored more closely than adult mal- Gender differences may also be more pro- nounced in some social and ethnic groups.
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
The weights of the under-five child population The weight-for-age indicator reflects body in a country are compared with the weights mass relative to chronological age and is influ- given in the NCHS/WHO table of child weights enced by both the height of the child (height for each age group. The percentages of chil- for age) and weight-for-height. Its composite dren in each age group whose weights are nature makes interpretation complex. For more than 2 standard deviations less than the example, weight for age fails to distinguish median are then aggregated to form the total between short children of adequate body percentage of children under age 5 who are weight and tall, thin children.
Low height for age or stunting, defined as minus DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
two standard deviations from the median At the national level, data are generally avail- height for the age of the reference population, able from national household surveys, includ- measures the cumulative deficient growth ing Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple asociated with long-term factors, including Indicator Cluster Surveys and national nutri- chronic insufficient daily protein intake.
Low weight for height, or wasting, defined as For international comparisons and global or below minus 2 standard deviations from the regional monitoring, the United Nations median weight for height of the reference pop- Children's Fund (UNICEF) and WHO compile ulation, indicates in most cases a recent and international data series and estimate region- severe process of weight loss, often associat- al and global figures based on data from ed with acute starvation or severe disease. national surveys. When possible, all three indicators should be PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
analysed and presented since they measure and Household surveys are generally conducted reflect different aspects of child malnutrition.
every three to five years.
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
The data from national household surveys gen-  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (2003).
erally show no significant differences in under- Progress since the World Summit for weight prevalence between boys and girls.
Children. New York. Available from However, those trends should continue to be monitored, particularly at the subnational  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (annual).
level and within subgroups of the population.
The State of the World's Children. New York.  UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators of
Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Indicators of malnutrition generally show dif- Methodologies. Department of Economic ferentials between rural and urban settings. In and Social Affairs, Division for Sustainable some countries, child nutrition may vary Development. Sales No. E.01.II.A. Available across geographical areas, socio-economic from http:// www.un.org/esa/sustdev/ groups or ethnic groups. However, showing and analysing data on specific ethnic groups  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
Database. Statistics Division Internet site The indicator measures an important aspect  WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
of the food insecurity of a population.
Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
Sustainable development demands a concert- Washington, D.C. Available in part from ed effort to reduce poverty, including finding solutions to hunger and malnutrition.
 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1986). The
Alleviating hunger is a prerequisite for sus- Growth Chart: A Tool for Use in Infant and tainable poverty reduction since undernour- Child Health Care. Geneva.
ishment seriously affects labour productivity  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002 and
and earning capacity. Malnutrition can be the annual). World Health Report. Geneva.
outcome of a range of circumstances. In order Available from http://www.who.int/whr/ to work, poverty reduction strategies must address food access, availability (physical and  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003). Global
economic) and safety. Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition.
Internet site http://www.who.int/nut- METHOD OF COMPUTATION
growthdb/. Geneva.
Estimation of the proportion of people withinsufficient food (undernourishment) involves UNICEF and WHO produce international data specification of the distribution of dietary sets based on survey data. In some countries, energy consumption, considering the total ages may have to be estimated.
food availability (from national global statis-tics) and inequality in access to food (from national household surveys). The distribution Ministries of health is assumed to be unimodal and skewed. The United Nations Children's Fund log-normal function is used in estimating the World Health Organization proportion of the population below a mini-mum energy requirement level or cut-offpoint. The cut-off point is estimated as a pop- PROPORTION OF THE POPULATION ulation per capita average value, based on 5 BELOW MINIMUM LEVEL OF dietary energy needed by different age and DIETARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION gender groups and the proportion of the pop-ulation represented by each age group.
DEFINITION
Proportion of the population below the mini-

The estimates are not normally available in mum level of dietary energy consumption is countries. The Food and Agriculture the percentage of the population whose food Organization of the United Nations (FAO) pre- intake falls below the minimum level of pares the estimates at the national level. They dietary energy requirements. This is also are then aggregated to obtain regional and referred to as the prevalence of under-nour- global estimates.
ishment, which is the percentage of the pop-ulation that is undernourished.
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
The main data sources are country statistics
GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
on local food production, trade, stocks and Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
non-food uses; food consumption data from Target 2. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the
national household surveys; country anthro- proportion of people who suffer from hunger pometric data by sex and age and UnitedNations country population estimates, in totaland by sex and age.
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
nificance of resulting estimates for assess- Estimates for the most recent period and for ment and policy-making. First, the estimates selected benchmark periods (expressed as are based on food acquired by (or available three-year averages) are reported every year.
to) the households rather than the actualfood intake of individual household members.
Second, any inequity in intrahousehold access Intrahousehold access to food may show dis- to food is not taken into account. Third, parities by gender. Also, cultural patterns of changes in relative inequality of food distribu- distribution and nutritional taboos may affect tion through the assessed periods are not women's nutrition. Women's higher require- considered. However, FAO is monitoring any ments for iron during pregnancy and breast- evidence of significant changes over time that feeding may result in iron deficiency anemia, would require adjustment to the current esti- which affects the result of pregnancy and mation procedure. may increase women's susceptibility to dis-eases. Although food consumption data do Indicators should not be used in isolation.
not allow for disaggregation by sex, whenev- Monitoring of the hunger reduction target er household survey data are available by sex, addresses two related problems: food depri- efforts should be made to conduct a gender- vation and child malnutrition. Analysis of food based analysis.
deprivation is based on estimates of theprevalence of undernourishment in the whole population. Analysis of child malnutrition is In assessing food insecurity, it is important to based on estimates of underweight prevalence consider geographical areas that may be par- in the child population. This is an indicator of ticularly vulnerable (such as areas with a high nutritional status of individual children (ade- probability of major variations in production quate weight for a given age), and the final or supply or areas subject to natural disas- outcome depends not only on food adequacy ters) and the population groups whose access but also on other multiple factors such as to food is precarious or sporadic (due to struc- infections, environmental conditions and care.
tural or economic vulnerability), such as eth- Therefore, the combined use of both indica- nic or social groups. However, showing and tors would enhance the understanding of the analysing data on specific ethnic groups may changes in the food and nutrition situation.
be a sensitive issue in the country. Gender dif-ferences may also be more pronounced in REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
some social and ethnic groups.
 FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE
Considering the need for disaggregated esti- UNITED NATIONS (2002). FAO Methodology
mates, the FAO methodology has been expand- ed to measure the extent of food deprivation at Undernourishment. In Proceedings of the subnational levels, making appropriate use of International Scientific Symposium on available household survey data. To support Measurement and Assessment of Food countries in preparing disaggregated esti- Deprivation and Undernutrition. Rome.
mates, FAO is conducting capacity-building  FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE
activities for national statistical offices.
UNITED NATIONS (annual). The State of Food
Insecurity in the World
. Rome. Available
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
The methods and data used by FAO have implications for the precise meaning and sig-  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1985). Energy
and Protein Requirements: Report of a Joint dren might be enrolled at other levels of edu- FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. World Health Organization Technical Report 724.
Geneva.
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
The indicator is calculated as the number of
enrolled students within the appropriate age Food and Agriculture Organization of the cohort according to school records as report- ed to ministries of education, divided by thenumber of children of primary school age.
NET ENROLMENT RATIO IN PRI- DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
Data on school enrolment are usually record-ed by the country ministry of education or compiled from surveys and censuses. Data on Net primary enrolment ratio is the ratio of the the population in the official age group for the number of children of official school age (as primary level are available from national sta- defined by the national education system) tistical offices, based on population censuses who are enrolled in primary school to the total and vital statistics registration. Nationally population of children of official school age.
reported values will be the same as interna- Primary education provides children with tionally reported values only if the same basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills methods and population estimates are used.
along with an elementary understanding ofsuch subjects as history, geography, natural For international comparisons and estimates science, social science, art and music of regional and global aggregates, theUNESCO Institute for Statistics regularly pro- GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
duces data series on school enrolment based Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education
on data reported by education ministries or Target 3. Ensure that, by 2015, children every-
national statistical offices and United Nations where, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling For countries for which administrative data are not available, household survey data may be The indicator is used to monitor progress used to assess school attendance rather than towards the goal of achieving universal pri- enrolment. Among international surveys, the mary education, identified in both the Indicator Cluster Survey and Millennium Development Goals and the Demographic and Health Surveys (and some- Education for All initiative. It shows the pro- times Living Standards Measurement Surveys portion of children of primary school age who are enrolled in primary school. Net enrolment Questionnaires in Africa) provide school refers only to children of official primary attendance data.
school age. (Gross enrolment includes childrenof any age.) Net enrolment rates below 100 PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
per cent provide a measure of the proportion Enrolment data are recorded regularly by min- of school age children who are not enrolled at istries of education and are available on a yearly the primary level. This difference does not basis. Data derived from surveys and census- necessarily indicate the percentage of stu- es, when administrative records on enrolment dents who are not enrolled, since some chil- by age and sex are not available, are less fre- quent. Net enrolment rates produced by repeat years may mistakenly be included in UNESCO are available on an annual basis for the net figures. Children's ages may be inac- two thirds of countries, but usually one year curately estimated or misstated. Census data after the reference year. The United Nations may be out of date or unreliable. There may Population Division estimates population by also be insufficient data on school enrolment individual years of age biannually, although by sex, but existing measurement problems estimates may be based on population cen- make it difficult to assess the situation cor- suses conducted every 10 years in most countries. Household survey data, such asthose from the Multiple Indicator Cluster The indicator attempts to capture the educa- Survey and Demographic and Health Surveys, tion system's coverage and efficiency, but it are available for many developing countries at does not solve the problem completely. Some regular intervals of three to five years. children fall outside the official school agebecause of late or early entry rather than because of grade repetition.
In situations of limited resources, families makedifficult choices about sending their children Enrolment data compiled by UNESCO are to school. They may perceive the value of ed- adjusted to be consistent with the ucation differently for boys and girls. Girls are International Standard Classification of more likely than boys to suffer from limited Education, 1997 (ICSCED) and are therefore access to education, especially in rural areas.
comparable across countries. National data Nevertheless, where basic education is widely derived from administrative records are not accepted and overall enrolment is high, girls necessarily based on the same classification tend to equal or outnumber boys at primary over time and may not be comparable with and secondary levels.
data for other countries, unless exactly thesame classification is used. Similarly, the con- cepts and terms in household surveys and Rural and urban differences are particularly censuses do not necessarily remain constant important in the analysis of enrolment data owing to significant differences in schoolfacilities, available resources, demand on chil- REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
dren's time for work and dropout patterns. It is also important to consider disaggregation  ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK. Gender Issues in
by geographical areas and social or ethnic Basic and Primary Education. In Gender groups. However, showing and analysing data Checklist:Education. Manila. Available from on specific ethnic groups may be a sensitive issue in the country. Gender differences may also be more pronounced in some social and  UNITED NATIONS (1998). Principles and
ethnic groups.
Recommendations for Population andHousing Censuses, Revision 1. Series M, No.
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
67, Rev. 1, para. 2.156 Sales No.
School enrolments may be overreported for E.98.XVII.1. Available from http://unstats.
various reasons. Survey data may not reflect un.org/unsd/pubs (A, E, F, S).
actual rates of attendance or dropout during  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
the school year. Administrators may report Database. Statistics Division Internet site exaggerated enrolments, especially if there is a financial incentive to do so. Children who  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (2003).
Monitoring Methods. New York. Internet sitehttp:// unicef.org/reseval/methodr. html.
GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (annual).
Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education
The State of the World's Children. New York.
Target 3. Ensure that, by 2015, children every-
UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
where, boys and girls alike, will be able to (2003 and annual). Human Development complete a full course of primary schooling Report. New York: Oxford University Press.
Available from http://hdr.undp.org .
 UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND
The indicator measures an education sys- CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (1978). Revised
tem's success in retaining students from one Recommendations Concerning the Inter- grade to the next as well as its internal effi- national Standardization of Educational ciency. Various factors account for poor per- Statistics. Paris. See also UNESCO Statistical formance on this indicator, including low qual- Yearbook, 1998, chap.2.
ity of schooling, discouragement over poor per-  UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND
formance and the direct and indirect costs of CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (1997). International
schooling. Students' progress to higher grades Standard Classification of Education, 1997 may also be limited by the availability of teachers, classrooms and educational materials.
http://www.uis.unesco.org. Path: CoreTheme Education, Technical Guides.
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
 WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
The indicator is typically estimated from data Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
on enrolment and repetition by grade for two Washington, D.C. Available in part from consecutive years, in a procedure called the reconstructed cohort method. This methodmakes three assumptions: dropouts never UNESCO data since 1998 follow the 1997 return to school; promotion, repetition and version of the International Standard dropout rates remain constant over the entire Classification of Education, 1997 ISCED, which period in which the cohort is enrolled in enables international comparability between school; and the same rates apply to all pupils countries. The time series data before 1998 enrolled in a given grade, regardless of are not consistent with data for 1998 and after.
whether they previously repeated a grade.
The calculation is made by dividing the total Ministries of education number of pupils belonging to a school cohort UNESCO Institute for Statistics who reach each successive grade of the spec-ified level of education by the number ofpupils in the school cohort (in this case stu- PROPORTION OF PUPILS STARTING dents originally enrolled in grade 1 of primary 7 GRADE 1 WHO REACH GRADE 5 education) and multiplying the result by 100. When estimated from household survey data, The proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who the proportion is estimated as the product of reach grade 5, known as the survival rate to the proportions of transition for each grade grade 5, is the percentage of a cohort of up to grade 5. The estimation follows the pupils enrolled in grade 1 of the primary level method of the United Nations Educational, of education in a given school year who are Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). expected to reach grade 5. The method of computation has limits in DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
measuring the degree to which school The indicator proposed by the UNESCO entrants survive through primary education Institute for Statistics is based on grade-specif- because flows caused by new entrants, re- ic enrolment data for two successive years for a entrants, grade skipping, migration or transfers country and on grade repeater data. during the school year are not considered.
Household survey data are obtained from Wherever possible, the indicator should be Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and complemented by the grade 1 intake rate, be- Demographic and Health Surveys in a standard cause together the indicators give a much way and include information on current and last better sense of the proportion of children in the year school grade and level of attendance.
population who complete primary education.
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
Where the data are available, they are pub- lished annually about two years after the ref-  UNITED NATIONS (1998). Principles and
erence year. Household surveys, such as Recommendations for Population and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Housing Censuses, Revision 1, Series M, No.
Demographic and Health Surveys, are gener- 67, Rev. 1, para. 2.156. Sales No.
ally conducted every three to five years.
E.98.XVII.1. Available from http://unstats.
un.org/unsd/pubs . (A, E, F, S)  UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators of
Frequency and dropout patterns vary Sustainable Development: Guidelines and between girls and boys. Reasons for leaving Methodologies. Department of Economic school also differ for girls and boys and by and Social Affairs, Division for Sustainable age. Families' demand on children's time to Development. Sales No. E.01.II.A.6.
help in household-based work is an important Available from http://www.un.org/esa/ factor and is often greater for girls. Also impor- tant for girls are security, the proximity of  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
school facilities and the availability of ade- Database. Statistics Division Internet site quate sanitation and other services in schools.
 UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (2000).
Monitoring Progress toward the Goals of the Rural and urban differences are particularly World Summit for Children: The End- important in the analysis of education data, Decade Multiple Indicator Survey Manual.
owing to significant differences in school New York. Available at http://www.unicef.
facilities, available resources, demand on chil- dren's time for work, and dropout patterns. It  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (annual).
is also important to consider disaggregation The State of the World's Children. New York. by geographical area and social or ethnic  UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
groups. However, showing and analysing data (2003 and annual). Human Development on specific ethnic groups may be a sensitive Report. New York: Oxford University Press.
issue in the country. Gender differences may Available at http://hdr.undp.org .
also be more pronounced in some social and  UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND
ethnic groups.
CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (1978). Revised
Recommendations

concerning COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
International Standardization of Educational Statistics. Paris. Also contained in UNESCO PRIMARY COMPLETION RATE Statistical Yearbook 1998, chap.2.
 UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND
CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (1997). International
Standard Classification of Education, 1997 Primary completion rate is the ratio of the (ISCED). Montreal. Available at http://www.
total number of students successfully com- uis.unesco.org. Select: Core Themes/ pleting (or graduating from) the last year of primary school in a given year to the total  UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND
number of children of official graduation age CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (2003). Education for
in the population.
All: Year 2000 Assessment, TechnicalGuidelines. Paris. Available at http://www.
GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education
 UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND
Target 3. Ensure that, by 2015, children every-
(2003). World where, boys and girls alike, will be able to Education Indicators. complete a full course of primary schooling  WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
The indicator, which monitors education sys- Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
tem coverage and student progression, is Washington, D.C. Available in part from intended to measure human capital formation and school system quality and efficiency.
Comparable survival rates are produced by The indicator focuses on the share of children UNESCO for about 40 per cent of countries who ever complete the cycle; it is not a meas- based on data from national administrative ure of "on-time" primary completion. Various records. The number of countries reporting factors may lead to poor performance on this data for this indicator has increased over time indicator, including low quality of schooling, in part because of recent inclusion of esti- discouragement over poor performance and mates obtained from household surveys such the direct and indirect costs of schooling.
as Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Students' progress to higher grades may also Demographic and Health Surveys.
be limited by the availability of teachers,classrooms and educational materials.
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
UNESCO Institute for Statistics The numerator may include over-age childrenwho have repeated one or more grades of primary school but are now graduating suc-cessfully. For countries where the number ofprimary graduates is not reported, a proxyprimary completion rate is calculated as theratio of the total number of students in thefinal year of primary school, minus the num-ber of students who repeat the grade in a typical year, to the total number of children ofofficial graduation age in the population.
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
obvious anomalies and estimates that are The indicator is compiled by staff in the suspect. The current database is a mixture of Education Group of the World Bank's Human enrolment data and data based on different Development Network based on two basic data systems of graduation (examinations, diplo- sources used to compute gross and net enrol- mas, automatic promotion), limiting interna- ment ratios: enrolment data from national ministries of education and population datafrom the UNESCO Institute for Statistics. The The indicator captures the final output of the World Bank and the UNESCO Institute for primary education system, so responses to Statistics are committed to monitoring this policy changes will register only with time.
indicator annually in the future.
The age-specific estimates are less reliable PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
than overall population estimates. This is particularly an issue in countries with rela-tively rapid changes in population and its age and sex distribution resulting from such caus- More understanding is needed on the pat- es as internal and international migration, terns of completion by gender.
civil unrest and displacement. When age-spe-cific population breakdowns are not available, the primary completion rate cannot be esti- Rural and urban differences are particularly important in the analysis of education dataowing to significant differences in school Primary completion rates based on primary facilities, available resources, demand on chil- enrolment have an upward bias, since they do dren's time for work and dropout patterns. It not capture those who drop out during the is also important to consider disaggregation final grade. This implies that once the data on by geographical area and social or ethnic actual graduates become available for a groups. However, showing and analysing data country, the completion rate of the country on specific ethnic groups may be a sensitive would appear to decline. issue in the country. Gender differences mayalso be more pronounced in some social and REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
ethnic groups.
 UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (1997). International
The indicator reflects the primary school Standard Classification of Education, 1997 cycle as nationally defined according to the (ISCED). Montreal. Available at http://www.
International Standard Classification of uis.unesco.org. Select: Core Themes/ Education, as is the case for gross and net enrolment ratios.
 WORLD BANK (2003). Millennium Development
Goals: Achieve universal primary education.
While the World Bank and the UNESCO Internet site http://www.development Institute for Statistics are committed to mon- goals.org/Education.htm. Washington, D.C.
itoring this indicator annually, systems forcollecting and standardizing the data from 155 developing countries are not yet in place.
Ministries of education As a result, the current database has many UNESCO Institute for Statistics gaps, particularly for small countries, earlier years and gender breakdowns, as well as LITERACY RATE OF 15–24 YEAR-OLDS DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
Literacy data may be derived from populationcensuses, household surveys and literacy sur- veys, and total population is derived from Literacy rate of 15–24 year-olds, or the youth national censuses or sample surveys. However, literacy rate, is the percentage of the popula- not all censuses or surveys include specific tion 15–24 years old who can both read and questions for assessing literacy. In some write with understanding a short simple countries where literacy questions are not statement on everyday life. The definition of included, a person's educational attainment literacy sometimes extends to basic arith- (years of schooling completed) is used to metic and other life skills.
assess literacy status. A common practice isto consider those with no schooling as illiter- GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
ate and those who have attended grade 5 of Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education
primary school as literate. Target 3. Ensure that, by 2015, children every-
where, boys and girls alike, will be able to
Many household surveys, including the Multiple complete a full course of primary schooling Indicator Cluster Surveys, Demographic andHealth Surveys, Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaires in Africa and Living Standards The youth literacy rate reflects the outcomes Measurement Studies, collect literacy data, of primary education over the previous 10 which can provide complementary data for years or so. As a measure of the effectiveness countries without a recent census. However, of the primary education system, it is often definitions are not necessarily standardized seen as a proxy measure of social progress (see "COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS").
and economic achievement. The literacy ratefor this analysis is simply the complement of Most of the available data on literacy are the illiteracy rate. It is not a measure of the based on reported literacy rather than on quality and adequacy of the literacy level tested literacy and in some cases are derived needed for individuals to function in a society.
from other proxy information.
Reasons for failing to achieve the literacystandard may include low quality of school- PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
ing, difficulties in attending school or drop- Youth literacy rates may change more quickly ping out before reaching grade 5.
than adult literacy rates and therefore need tobe measured more often. Since population METHOD OF COMPUTATION
censuses normally occur only every 10 years, The usual method of computation is to divide input from more frequently administered the number of people ages 15–24 who are lit- labour force and household surveys are used erate by the total population in the same age for annual estimates. Data are available for group and to multiply the total by 100. Since consecutive five-year age cohorts starting at literacy data are not always available for all 15–19 years old. Household surveys are gen- countries and all censuses, the UNESCO erally conducted every three to five years in Institute for Statistics uses modeling tech- most developing countries.
niques to produce annual estimates based onliteracy information obtained from national censuses and surveys. Higher illiteracy rates for women are the resultof lower school enrolment and early drop-outs. Moreover, because women generally have less access to information and training REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
COMPARISONS

and literacy programmes, estimates based onenrolments may overestimate literacy for girls.
 UNITED NATIONS (1998). Principles and
Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses, Revision 1, Series M, No.
Rural and urban differences are particularly 67, Rev. 1. Sales No. E.98.XVII.1. Available important in the analysis of education data from http://unstats. un.org/unsd/pubs (A, because of significant differences in school facilities, available resources, demand on chil-  UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators of
dren's time for work and dropout patterns. It Sustainable Development: Guidelines and is also important to consider disaggregation Methodologies. Sales No. E.01.II.A.6.
by geographical area and social or ethnic Available from http://www.un.org/esa/ groups. However, showing and analysing data on specific ethnic groups may be a sensitive  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
issue in the country. Gender differences may Database. Statistics Division Internet site also be more pronounced in some social and ethnic groups.
 UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (annual).
The State of the World's Children. New York. COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
 UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
Measurements of literacy can vary from sim- (2003 and annual). Human Development ply asking "Are you literate or not?" to testing Report. New York: Oxford University Press.
to assess literacy skills. In some cases, literacy Available at http://hdr.undp.org.
is measured crudely in population censuses,  UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND
either through self-declaration or by assuming CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (1978). Revised Rec-
that people with no schooling are illiterate.
ommendations concerning the International This causes difficulty for international com- Standardization of Educational Statistics.
parisons. Comparability over time, even for Paris. See also UNESCO Statistical the same survey, may also be a problem Yearbook, 1998, chap. 2.
because definitions of literacy used in the  UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND
surveys are not standardized. The latest revi- CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (2003). Education for
sion of Principles and Recommendations for All: The Year 2000 Assessment: Technical Population and Housing Censuses advises Guidelines. countries against adopting a proxy measure- ment based on educational attainment. It rec- efa2000/tech.htm .
ommends that literacy questions be adminis-  UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND
tered as part of national censuses and house- CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (2003). UNESCO
hold surveys, or as part of a post-census sam- Institute for Statistics. Internet site ple enumeration.
 WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
Shortcomings in the definition of literacy, Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
measurement problems and infrequency of Washington, D.C. Available in part from censuses and literacy surveys weaken this indicator as a means of monitoring educationoutcomes related to the goal of achieving uni- The main international source of data is the versal primary education.
UNESCO international data series of annualand projected estimates based on informa-tion from national population censuses and labour force, household and other surveys.
data are not available, household survey data The estimates are available for approximately may be used, although household surveys 130 countries.
usually measure self-reported attendancerather than enrolment as reported by schools.
Among international surveys, Multiple Indicator Ministries of education Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health National statistical offices Surveys (and sometimes also Living Standards UNESCO Institute for Statistics Measurement Studies and Core WelfareIndicators Questionnaires in Africa) provideschool attendance data.
RATIO OF GIRLS TO BOYS IN PRI- 9 MARY, SECONDARY AND TERTIARY For international comparison and estimation of regional and global aggregates, the UNESCOInstitute for Statistics data series on school enrolment can be used. The series is based on Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and data reported by education ministries or tertiary education is the ratio of the number national agencies for enrolment.
of female students enrolled at primary, sec-ondary and tertiary levels in public and pri- UNESCO produces ratios of girls to boys at vate schools to the number of male students. country, regional and global levels for use inmonitoring the Millennium Development Goals.
GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
They are available at the Millennium Indicators Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower
web site http://millenniumindicators.un.org.
women
Target 4. Eliminate gender disparity in primary
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
and secondary education preferably by 2005, Where official enrolment data are available, and in all levels of education no later than 2015 estimates from UNESCO are normally availableannually about one year after the reference year. Data from household surveys may be The indicator of equality of educational oppor- available for selected countries at various tunity, measured in terms of school enrolment, is a measure of both fairness and efficiency.
Education is one of the most important aspects Official data on higher education are not as of human development. Eliminating gender frequently reported as data on primary and disparity at all levels of education would help to increase the status and capabilities ofwomen. Female education is also an impor- tant determinant of economic development. In situations of limited resources, familiesmake difficult choices about sending their METHOD OF COMPUTATION
children to school. They may perceive the The indicator is a ratio of the number of en- value of education differently for boys and rolled girls to enrolled boys, regardless of ages.
girls. Girls are more likely than boys to sufferfrom limited access to education, especially in DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
rural areas. However, where basic education is Data on school enrolment are usually record- widely accepted and overall enrolment is high, ed by the ministry of education or derived girls tend to equal or outnumber boys at the from surveys and censuses. If administrative primary and secondary levels. The pattern is similar in higher education, but with larger  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (annual).
differences between the two genders.
The State of the World's Children. New York.  UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
(2003 and annual). Human Development Some 50 countries have no system of higher Report. New York: Oxford University Press.
education. Private education tends to be Available at http://hdr.undp.org .
underreported, but international coverage  UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND
has improved over the last four cycles of the CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (1978). Revised
UNESCO Institute for Statistics survey.
Recommendations concerning the Inter- Household survey data may include higher national Standardization of Educational and private education, but may not be com- Statistics. Paris. See also UNESCO parable between surveys. Statistical Yearbook, 1998, chap. 2.
 UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND
The indicator is an imperfect measure of the CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (1997). International
accessibility of schooling for girls because it Standard Classification of Education, 1997 does not allow a determination of whether (ISCED). Montreal. Available at http://www.
improvements in the ratio reflect increases in uis.unesco.org. Select: Core Themes/ girls' school attendance (desirable) or decreases in boys' attendance (undesirable). It also does  UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND
not show whether those enrolled in school CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (2003). Education for
complete the relevant education cycles.
All: The Year 2000 Assessment, TechnicalGuidelines. Paris. Available at http://www.
Another limitation of the indicator is that the ratio reflects the sex structure of the school-  UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND
age population. When the sex ratio in the (2003). World school age population deviates significantly Education Indicators. Internet site http:// from 1, the indicator will not adequately reflect the actual differences between girls' and dicators/indic0.htm. Montreal. boys' enrolment. This happens in countries  WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
where boys outnumber girls at younger ages.
Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
Washington, D.C. Available in part from A ratio based on net enrolment (indicator 6) or gross enrolment is a better measure forthis indicator as it takes into account the pop- ulation structure of the country.
Ministries of educationUNESCO Institute for Statistics REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
COMPARISONS

 UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
Database. Statistics Division Internet sitehttp://millenniumindicators.un.org .
 UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (2000).
Monitoring Progress towards the Goals ofthe World Summit for Children: The End-Decade Multiple Indicator Survey Manual.
New York. Available at http://www.unicef.
org/reseval/methodr.html.
RATIO OF LITERATE WOMEN TO Health Surveys, Core Welfare Indicators 10 MEN, 15–24 YEARS OLD Questionnaires in Africa and Living StandardsMeasurement Surveys, collect literacy data, which can provide complementary data for The ratio of literate women to men, 15–24 countries without a recent census. However, years old (literacy gender parity index) is the definitions are not necessarily standardized ratio of the female literacy rate to the male (see "COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS").
literacy rate for the age group 15–24. PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
Since population censuses normally occur Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower
every 10 years, input from more frequently administered labour force, household and Target 4. Eliminate gender disparity in primary
other surveys are used for annual estimates.
and secondary education preferably by 2005, Household surveys are generally conducted and in all levels of education no later than 2015 every three to five years in most developingcountries.
RATIONALE
The indicator measures progress towards
gender equity in literacy and learning oppor- Higher illiteracy rates for women are the tunities for women in relation to those for result of lower school enrolment and early men. It also measures a presumed outcome of dropouts. Moreover, since women generally attending school and a key indicator of have less access to information, training and empowerment of women in society. Literacy literacy programmes, estimates based on is a fundamental skill to empower women to enrolments may overestimate literacy for girls.
take control of their lives, to engage directlywith authority and to gain access to the wider COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
world of learning.
Measurements of literacy can vary from simplyasking "Are you literate or not?" to testing to METHOD OF COMPUTATION
assess literacy skills. In some cases, literacy is The indicator is derived by dividing the litera- measured crudely in population censuses, cy rate of women ages 15–24 by the literacy either through self-declaration or by assuming rate of men ages 15–24.
that people with no schooling are illiterate. Thiscauses difficulty for international comparisons.
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
Comparability over time, even for the same Literacy data may be derived from population survey, may also be a problem because defini- censuses, household surveys and literacy sur- tions of literacy used in the surveys are not veys. However, not all censuses or surveys standardized. The latest revision of Principles include specific questions for assessing literacy.
and Recommendations for Population and In some countries where literacy questions Housing Censuses advises countries against are not included, a person's educational adopting a proxy measurement based on edu- attainment (years of schooling completed) is cational attainment. It recommends that litera- used to assess literacy status. A common cy questions be administered as part of nation- practice is to consider those with no schooling al censuses and household surveys or as part as illiterate and defining those who have of a post-census sample enumeration.
attended grade 5 of primary school as literate. Many household surveys, including the Multiple Shortcomings in the definition of literacy, Indicator Cluster Surveys, Demographic and measurement problems and infrequency of censuses and literacy surveys weaken this tion censuses and labour force, household indicator as a means of monitoring education and other surveys. These estimates are avail- outcomes related to the goal of achieving uni- able for some 130 countries.
versal primary education.
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
Ministries of education National statistical offices  UNITED NATIONS (1998). Principles and
UNESCO Institute for Statistics Recommendations for Population andHousing Censuses, Revision 1, Series M, No.
67, Rev. 1, Sales No. E.98.XVII.1. Available SHARE OF WOMEN IN WAGE EMPLOY- at http://unstats. un.org/unsd/pubs. (A, E, MENT IN THE NON-AGRICULTURAL  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
Database. Statistics Division Internet site The share of women in wage employment in  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (annual).
the non-agricultural sector is the share of The State of the World's Children. New York. female workers in the non-agricultural sector  UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
expressed as a percentage of total employ- (2003 and annual). Human Development ment in the sector. Report. New York, Oxford University Press.
Available at http://hdr.undp.org.
The non-agricultural sector includes industry  UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND
and services. Following the International CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (1978). Revised
Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) of All Recommendations concerning the Inter- Economic Activities, industry includes mining national Standardization of Educational and quarrying (including oil production), man- Statistics. Paris. See also UNESCO Statistical ufacturing, construction, electricity, gas and Yearbook, 1998, chap. 2.
water. Services includes wholesale and retail  UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND
trade; restaurants and hotels; transport, stor- CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (2003). Education for
age and communications; financing, insurance, All: The Year 2000 Assessment: Technical real estate and business services; and com- Guidelines. Paris. Available at http://www.
munity, social and personal services.  UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND
Employment refers to people above a certain CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (2003). UNESCO
age who worked or held a job during a refer- Institute for Statistics Internet site ence period. Employment data include both full-time and part-time workers whose remu-  WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
neration is determined on the basis of hours Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
worked or number of items produced and is Washington, D.C. Available in part from independent of profits or expectation of profits.
GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
The main source of international data is the Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's international data Target 4. Eliminate gender disparity in primary
series of annual and projected estimates and secondary education preferably by 2005, based on information from national popula- and in all levels of education no later than 2015 on other sources may be available annually or The indicator measures the degree to which less frequently in some developing countries. labour markets are open to women in industryand service sectors, which affects not only equal employment opportunity for women There are large differences between women and but also economic efficiency through flexibili- men in non-agricultural employment, in particu- ty of the labour market and, therefore, the lar in developing countries. This is the result of economy's ability to adapt to change. differences between rates of participation inemployment for women and men as well as the A significant global increase over the last kind of employment in which they participate. In decade in women's share in paid employment many regions, women are more likely than men in the non-agricultural sector indicates that to be engaged in informal sector activities and working women have become more integrat- subsistence or unpaid work in the household.
ed into the monetary economy through par-ticipation in the formal and informal sectors.
Wage employment in most of Africa and much However, labour markets remain strongly of Asia and the Pacific is a middle-class, urban segregated. In many countries, productive phenomenon. Outside of urban areas, most work under conditions of freedom, equity and employment is agricultural, often for family human dignity is in short supply, and this dis- subsistence. However, where non-agricultural proportionately affects women. Women are employment is available, it is more likely to go much more likely than men to work as con- to male members of the household. tributing family workers, without their ownpay, and in the informal sector, although there As economies develop, the share of women in are large differentials between countries and non-agricultural wage employment becomes at regional and national levels, often mirroring increasingly important. A higher share in paid the relative importance of agriculture. employment could secure for them betterincome, economic security and well-being.
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
However, this shift is not automatic, nor does The total number of women in paid employ- it account for differentials in working condi- ment in the non-agricultural sector is divided tions between men and women. Other vari- by the total number of people in paid employ- ables need to be considered, such as level of ment in that same sector. education, level of remuneration and wagedifferentials, and the extent to which women DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCES:
and men benefit from labour legislation and Data are obtained from population censuses, social programmes. Men more often hold reg- labour force surveys, enterprise censuses and ular and better remunerated jobs, whereas surveys, administrative records of social women are frequently in peripheral, insecure, insurance schemes and official estimates less valued jobs, as home workers, casual based on results from several of these workers or part-time or temporary workers. sources. Enterprise surveys and administra-tive records are likely to cover only large pri- COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
vate and public sector employers, in particu- Although there are clear international stan- lar in developing countries. The other sources dards for the relevant concepts, countries may cover the whole relevant population.
may use different defini tions for employmentstatus, especially for part-time workers, stu- PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT:
dents, members of the armed forces and Results from population censuses are normally household or contributing family workers. Also, available every 10 years, while estimates based different sources of data may use different def- initions and have different coverage, with limit-  UNITED NATIONS (1998). Principles and
ed comparability across countries and over Recommendations for Population and time within the same country. The employment Housing Censuses, Revision 1, Series M, No.
share of the agricultural sector is severely 67, Rev. 1. Sales No. E.98.XVII.1. Available underreported. In addition, studies have shown from http://unstats. un.org/unsd/pubs. (A, that employment activity questions on stan- dard censuses tend to grossly underestimate  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
the extent of female employment of any kind.
Database. Statistics Division Internet sitehttp://millenniumindicators.un.org.
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
 WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
 ANKER, R., M.E. KHAN and R.B. GUPTA (1988).
Washington, D.C. Available in part from Women's Participation in the Labour Force: A Methods Test in India for Improving ItsMeasurement. International data are compiled by the Development 16. Geneva: International International Labour Organization based on Labour Office.
data reported by countries. An increasing  INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE (1988). Assessing
number of countries report economic activity Contribution according to the ISIC.
Development. Geneva.  INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE (2002). Women
and Men in the Informal Economy: A statis- Ministries of labour tical picture. Geneva. available from http:// National statistical offices International Labour Organization  INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (2000).
Current International Recommendations on PROPORTION OF SEATS HELD BY Labour Statistics, 2000 Edition. Geneva.
WOMEN IN NATIONAL PARLIAMENTS  INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (2003).
Laborsta—an International Labour Office database on labour statistics operated by The proportion of seats held by women in the ILO Bureau of Statistics. Internet site national parliaments is the number of seats held by women expressed as a percentage of  INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (annual).
all occupied seats. Key Indicators of the Labour Market.
Geneva. GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower
 INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (annual).
Yearbook of Labour Statistics. Geneva.
Target 4. Eliminate gender disparity in primary
Available at http://laborsta.ilo.org .
and secondary education preferably by 2005,  SWEDEN,
and in all levels of education no later than 2015 Engendering Statistics: A Tool for Change.
Stockholm.  UNITED NATIONS (1990). International
Women's representation in parliaments is one Standard Industrial Classification of All aspect of women's opportunities in political Economic Activities (ISIC). Series M, No. 4, and public life, and it is therefore linked to Rev. 3.1. available from http://unstats.un.
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
the resources, respect or constituency to The indicator is obtained by dividing the num- exercise significant influence.
ber of parliamentary seats occupied by womenby the total number of seats occupied.
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
National parliaments consist of one or two chambers. For international comparisons, INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION (2003). Women
generally only the single or lower house is in National Parliaments. Internet site considered in calculating the indicator.
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
At the national level, the data come from the Database. Statistics Division Internet site records of national parliaments. National par- liaments also report the total number of par- UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT FUND FOR WOMEN
liamentary seats and the number occupied by (2000). Progress of the World's Women. New women and men to the Inter-Parliamentary York. available from http://www.unifem.
Union (IPU), which regularly compiles interna- tional data series and global and regional UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
(2003 and annual). Human DevelopmentReport. New York: Oxford University Press.
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
Available at http://hdr.undp.org.
The data are commonly available from nationalparliaments and updated after an election.
The IPU regularly compiles international data National parliaments also transmit their data series and global and regional aggregates. to the IPU at least once a year and when thenumbers change significantly, such as after an election.
National parliamentsInter-Parliamentary Union GENDER ISSUES
Women are underrepresented in all decision-
making bodies and within political parties,
UNDER-FIVE MORTALITY RATE particularly at the higher echelons. Womenstill face many practical obstacles to the fullexercise of their role in political life.
DEFINITION
The under-five mortality rate is the probability
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
(expressed as a rate per 1,000 live births) of a Parliaments vary considerably in their inde- child born in a specified year dying before pendence and authority, though they generally reaching the age of five if subject to current engage in law-making, oversight of age-specific mortality rates. Government and representation of the elec-torate. In terms of measuring women's real GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
political decision-making, this indicator may Goal 4. Reduce child mortality
not be sufficient, because women still face Target 5. Reduce by two thirds, between 1990
many obstacles in fully and efficiently carry- and 2015, the under-five mortality rate ing out their parliamentary mandate. Thus,being a member of parliament, especially in developing countries and emerging democra- The indicator, which relates directly to the cies, does not guarantee that a woman has target, measures child survival. It also reflects the social, economic and environmental con- ing countries. Household surveys that include ditions in which children (and others in society) questions on births and deaths are generally live, including their health care. Because data conducted every three to five years.
on the incidences and prevalence of diseases(morbidity data) frequently are unavailable, mortality rates are often used to identify vul- Under-five mortality rates are higher for boys nerable populations. The under-five mortality than for girls in countries without significant rate captures more than 90 per cent of global parental gender preferences. Under-five mor- mortality among children under the age of 18. tality better captures the effect of gender dis-crimination than infant mortality, as nutrition METHOD OF COMPUTATION
and medical interventions are more important Age-specific mortality rates are calculated in this age group, while biological differences from data on births and deaths in vital statis- have a higher impact during the first year of tics registries, censuses and household surveys life (see also indicator 14, infant mortality in developing countries. Estimates based on rate). There may be gender-based biases in household survey data are obtained directly the reporting of child deaths.
(using birth history, as in Demographic andHealth Surveys) or indirectly (Brass method, as in Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys). The Under-five mortality generally shows large data are then summed for children under five, disparities across geographical areas and and the results are expressed as a rate per between rural and urban areas. Under-five 1,000 live births.
mortality may also vary across socio-econom-ic groups. Children in some ethnic groups DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
might also be at higher risk of malnutrition, At the national level, the best source of data poorer health and higher mortality. However, is a complete vital statistics registration sys- showing and analysing data on specific ethnic tem—one covering at least 90 per cent of groups may be a sensitive issue in the coun- vital events in the population. Such systems try. Gender differences may also be more pro- are uncommon in developing countries, so nounced in some social and ethnic groups.
estimates are also obtained from sample sur-veys or derived by applying direct and indirect COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
estimation techniques to registration, census Data on under-five mortality is more com- or survey data. A wide variety of household plete and more timely than data on adult mor- surveys, including Multiple Indicator Cluster tality. The under-five mortality rate is consid- Surveys and Demographic and Health ered to be a more robust estimate than the Surveys, are used in developing countries.
infant mortality rate if the information isdrawn from household surveys. Several international agencies produce coun-try estimates based on available national data In developing countries, household surveys for purposes of international comparisons are essential to the calculation of the indica- and assessment of global and regional trends tor, but there are some limits to their quality.
(see below, "International data compar- Survey data are subject to recall error; in addition, surveys estimating under-fivedeaths require large samples because such PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
incidences are uncommon and representative Vital statistics are typically available once a households cannot ordinarily be identified for year, but they are unreliable in most develop- sampling. Moreover, the frequency of the sur- vey is generally only every three to five years.
Tenth Revision (ICD-10), vol. 1. Geneva.
Therefore, when using household surveys it is WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003). WHO
important to take sampling errors into Statistical Information System (WHOSIS)— account. In addition, indirect estimates rely Evidence and Information for Health Policy.
on estimated actuarial ("life") tables that may Internet site http://www3.who.int/whosis/ be inappropriate for the population con- menu.cfm. Geneva.
Mortality rates are among the most frequently There are also gender-based biases in the used indicators to compare levels of socio- reporting of child deaths.
economic development across countries. TheUnited Nations Population Division, the REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
United Nations Children's Fund and the World Health Organization regularly produce esti- (2001). Indicators of mates of under-five mortality based on avail- Sustainable Development: Guidelines and able national data. The data series may differ, Methodologies. Sales No. E.01.II.A.6.
however, owing to differences in methodolo- Available from http://www.un.org/esa/ gies used to estimate data and differences in reporting periods.
UNITED NATIONS (2001). Principles and
Recommendations for a Vital Statistics

System, Revision 2. Series M, No. 19, Rev. 2.
Ministries of health Sales No. 01.XVII.10. Available from http:// National statistical offices United Nations Children's Fund UNITED NATIONS (2003 and biennial). World
World Health Organization Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision,vol. 1. Comprehensive Tables (Sales No.
E.03.XIII.6) and vol. 2, Sex and Age distribu- INFANT MORTALITY RATE tion of the World Population (Sales No.
E.03.XIII.7). Available from http://esa.
un.org/unpp.
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (2000).
The infant mortality rate is typically defined Monitoring Progress towards the Goals of as the number of infants dying before reaching the World Summit for Children: The End- the age of one year per 1,000 live births in a Decade Multiple Indicator Survey Manual.
New York. Available from http://www.
unicef. org/reseval/methodr.html .
GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (annual).
Goal 4. Reduce child mortality
The State of the World's Children. New York.
Target 5. Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990
UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
and 2015, the under-five mortality rate (2003 and annual). Human DevelopmentReport. New York: Oxford University Press.
available from http://hdr.undp.org .
Although the target relates specifically to WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
under-five mortality, infant mortality is rele- Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
vant to the monitoring of the target since it Washington, D.C. Available in part from represents an important component of under-five mortality. International Statistical Classification of Infant mortality rates measure child survival.
Diseases and Related Health Problems, They also reflect the social, economic and environmental conditions in which children (and others in society) live, including their Girls have a survival advantage over boys dur- health care. Since data on the incidence and ing the first year of life, largely based on bio- prevalence of diseases (morbidity data) fre- logical differences. This is especially so during quently are unavailable, mortality rates are the first month of life when perinatal condi- often used to identify vulnerable populations. tions are most likely to be the cause or a con-tributing cause of death. While infant mortal- METHOD OF COMPUTATION
ity is generally higher for boys than for girls, in The indicator is the number of deaths of some countries girls' biological advantage is infants under one year of age in the indicated outweighed by gender-based discrimination year per 1,000 live births in the same year.
(see also INDICATOR 13, "Under-five mortalityrate"). However, under-five mortality better For data from vital statistics registrations captures the effect of gender discrimination (when reliable), the number of live births and than infant mortality, as nutrition and medical deaths in the same year of children under one interventions are more important after age year old are estimated. The number of deaths is divided by the number of births and theresult is multiplied by 1,000.
DISAGGREGATION ISSUES
Infant mortality generally shows large dispar-
For data from household surveys, infant mor- ities across geographical areas and between tality estimates are obtained directly (using urban and rural areas. Infant mortality may birth history, as in Demographic and Health also vary across socioeconomic groups, and Surveys) or indirectly (Brass method, as in the indicator is often used as a general indi- Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys). When cator of social distress in populations. Infants estimated indirectly, the under-one mortality in some ethnic groups might also be at higher estimates must be consistent with the under- risk of malnutrition, poorer health and higher five mortality estimates. mortality. However, showing and analysingdata on specific ethnic groups may be a sen- DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
sitive issue in the country. Gender differences The best source of data is a complete vital sta- may also be more pronounced in some social tistics registration system—one covering at and ethnic groups.
least 90 per cent of vital events in the popula-tion. Such systems are uncommon in developing COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
countries, so estimates are also obtained from The infant mortality rate is considered to be a sample surveys or derived by applying direct more robust estimate than the under-five and indirect estimation techniques to registra- mortality rate if the information is drawn from tion, census or survey data. A wide variety of vital statistics registration.
household surveys, including Multiple IndicatorCluster Surveys and Demographic and Health In developing countries, household surveys Surveys, are used in developing countries.
are essential to the calculation of the indica-tor, but there are some limits to their quality.
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
Survey data are subject to recall error, and Vital statistics are typically available once a surveys estimating infant deaths require large year, but they are unreliable in most develop- samples because such incidences are uncom- ing countries. Household surveys that include mon and representative households cannot questions on births and deaths are usually ordinarily be identified for sampling.
conducted every three to five years.
Moreover, the frequency of the surveys isgenerally only every three to five years.
Therefore, when using household survey esti- mates, it is important to take sampling errors United Nations Children's Fund and the World into account.
Health Organization regularly produce esti-mates of infant and under-five mortality REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
based on available national data. The data series may differ, however, owing to differ- ences in methodologies used to estimate data Demographic Dictionary. Population Studies, and differences in reporting periods.
No. 29. Sales No. E.58.XIII.4.
UNITED NATIONS (1999). World Population
Prospects: The 1998 Revision, vol. III, Ministries of health Analytical Report. Sales No. E.99.XIII.10.
National statistical offices UNITED NATIONS (2001). Principles and
United Nations Children's Fund Recommendations for a Vital Statistics World Health Organization System, Revision 2. Series M, No. 19, Rev. 2.
Sales No. 01.XVII.10. Available from http://unstats.un. org/unsd/pubs.
PROPORTION OF 1-YEAR-OLD UNITED NATIONS (2003 and biennial). World
CHILDREN IMMUNIZED AGAINST Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision, vol. 1. Comprehensive Tables (Sales No.
E.03.XIII.6) and vol. 2, Sex and Age distribu- tion of the World Population. (Sales No.
The proportion of 1-year-old children immu- E.03.XIII.7). Available from http://esa.
nized against measles is the percentage of children under one year of age who have UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (annual). The
received at least one dose of measles vaccine. State of the World's Children. New York.
UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
(2003 and annual). Human Development Goal 4. Reduce child mortality
Report. New York: Oxford University Press.
Target 5. Reduce by two thirds, between 1990
available from http://hdr.undp.org .
and 2015, the under-five mortality rate WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
Development Indicators
. Print and CD-ROM.
Washington, D.C. Available in part from The indicator provides a measure of the cov- erage and the quality of the child health-care system in the country. Immunization is an International Statistical Classification of essential component for reducing under-five Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth mortality. Governments in developing coun- Revision (ICD-10), vol.1. Geneva.
tries usually finance immunization against WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003). WHO
measles and diphtheria, pertussis (whooping Statistical Information System (WHOSIS)— cough) and tetanus (DPT) as part of the basic Evidence and Information for Health Policy.
health package. Among these vaccine-pre- Internet site http://www3.who.int/whosis/ ventable diseases of childhood, measles is the menu.cfm . Geneva.
leading cause of child mortality. Health andother programmes targeted at those specific Mortality rates are among the most frequently causes are one practical means of reducing used indicators to compare levels of socio- child mortality.
economic development across countries. TheUnited Nations Population Division, the METHOD OF COMPUTATION
The indicator is estimated as the percentage Immunization programmes are generally free of children ages 12–23 months who received of charge and should not discriminate at least one dose of measles vaccine either between boys and girls. However, in some any time before the survey or before the age countries of south-central Asia and northern of 12 months. Estimates of immunization Africa, girls' immunization rates are lower coverage are generally based on two sources than boys', probably due to cultural rather of empirical data: administrative data and than economic reasons.
coverage surveys (see "Data collection andsources"). For estimates based on administra- COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
tive data, immunization coverage is derived The first dose of measles vaccine is supposed by dividing the total number of vaccinations to be administered to all children at the age of by the number of children in the target popu- nine months or shortly after. By 2000, most lation. For most vaccines, the target popula- countries were providing a "second opportu- tion is the national annual number of births or nity" for measles vaccination, either through a number of surviving infants (this may vary two-dose routine schedule or through a com- depending on a country's policies and the bined routine schedule and supplementary specific vaccine). Immunization coverage sur- campaigns. Measles immunization coverage veys are frequently used in connection with is expressed as the percentage of children who have received at least one dose. DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
Vaccination coverage for measles needs to be The two sources available at the national level above 90 per cent to stop transmission of the are reports of vaccinations performed by service virus—not only because measles is so conta- providers (administrative data) and house- gious, but also because up to 15 per cent of hold surveys containing information on chil- children vaccinated at nine months fail to dren's vaccination history (coverage surveys).
develop immunity. Some countries in the Latin The principle types of surveys used as sources America and Caribbean region, for example, of information on immunization coverage are administer the measles vaccine at 12–15 Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) months of age. This has to be taken into 30 cluster surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster account in calculations of coverage based on Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys.
household surveys.
Routine data are compiled by national EPIprogramme managers.
In many developing countries, lack of preciseinformation on the size of the cohort of chil- The World Health Organization and the United dren under one year of age makes immuniza- Nations Children's Fund compile country data tion coverage difficult to estimate. series based on both types of data, gatheredthrough the WHO/UNICEF Joint Reporting REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
Form on Vaccine-Preventable Diseases.  GUNN, S.W.A., KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
(1990). Multilingual Dictionary of Disaster Administrative data are collected annually.
International Surveys are generally conducted every three Dordrecht, The Netherlands. English/ to five years.
 UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (2003).
Health. Internet site http://www.unicef.
org/health/index.html. New York.
occurring between six weeks and one year  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (2003).
after childbirth.
GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
dex.htm. New York.
Goal 5. Improve maternal health
 UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (annual).
Target 6. Reduce by three quarters, between
The State of the World's Children. New York.
1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1992).
International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, The indicator, which is directly related to the Tenth Revision (ICD-10), vol. 1. Geneva. target, monitors deaths related to pregnancy.
 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1999).
Such deaths are affected by various factors, Recommended Standards for Surveillance including general health status, education and of Selected Vaccine-Preventable Diseases.
services during pregnancy and childbirth. It is important to monitor changes in health condi-  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003).
tions related to sex and reproduction.
Measles. Internet site http://www.who.int/health_topics/measles/en. Geneva.
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003).
The maternal mortality ratio can be calculat- Surveillance. Internet site http://www.who.
ed by dividing recorded (or estimated) mater- nal deaths by total recorded (or estimated)live births in the same period and multiplying WHO and UNICEF compile country data series by 100,000. The indicator can be calculated based on administrative data and household directly from data collected through vital sta- surveys, gathered through the WHO/UNICEF tistics registrations, household surveys or Joint Reporting Form on Vaccine-Preventable hospital studies. However, those sources all have data quality problems (see "Data collec-tion and sources"). Alternative methods include a review of all deaths of women of Ministries of health reproductive age (so-called Reproductive Age United Nations Children's Fund Mortality Surveys, or RAMOS), longitudinal World Health Organization studies of pregnant women and repeatedhousehold studies. All these methods, howev-er, still rely on accurate reporting of deaths of MATERNAL MORTALITY RATIO pregnant women and of the cause of death, something that is difficult to obtain.
Another problem is the need for large sample The maternal mortality ratio is the number of sizes, which raises costs. This can be over- women who die from any cause related to or come by using sisterhood methods. The indi- aggravated by pregnancy or its management rect sisterhood method asks respondents (excluding accidental or incidental causes) four simple questions about how many of during pregnancy and childbirth or within 42 their sisters reached adulthood, how many days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective have died and whether those who died were of the duration and site of the pregnancy, per pregnant around the time of death. However, 100,000 live births. The 10th revision of the the reference period of the estimate is at least International Classification of Diseases makes 10–12 years before the survey. The direct sis- provision for including late maternal deaths terhood method used in Demographic and Health Surveys also asks respondents to PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
provide the date of death, which permits the Every 7–10 years.
calculation of more recent estimates, buteven then the reference period tends to cen- ter on 0–6 years before the survey.
The low social and economic status of girlsand women is a fundamental determinant of Maternal deaths should be divided into two maternal mortality in many countries. Low groups. Direct obstetric deaths result from status limits the access of girls and women to obstetric complications of the pregnant state education and good nutrition as well as to the (pregnancy, labour and puerperium); from inter- economic resources needed to pay for health ventions, omissions or incorrect treatment; or care or family planning services.
from a chain of events resulting from any ofthese. Indirect obstetric deaths result from pre- COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
viously existing disease or disease that devel- The indicator is generally of unknown reliability, oped during pregnancy and that was not direct- as are many other cause-specific mortality indi- ly due to obstetric causes but was aggravated cators, owing to the difficulty in distinguishing by the physiologic effects of pregnancy.
deaths that are genuinely related to pregnancy Published maternal mortality ratios should from deaths that are not. Even in industrialized always specify whether the numerator (number countries with comprehensive vital statistics of recorded maternal deaths) is the number of registration systems, misclassification and recorded direct obstetric deaths or the number underreporting of maternal deaths can lead to of recorded obstetric deaths (direct plus indi- serious underestimation. Because it is a relative- rect). Maternal deaths from HIV/AIDS and ly rare event, large sample sizes are needed if obstetrical tetanus are included in the maternal household surveys are used. Household surveys mortality ratio. such as the Demographic and Health Surveyattempt to measure maternal mortality by ask- DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
ing respondents about survivorship of sisters.
Good vital statistics registration systems are While the sisterhood method reduces sample rare in developing countries. Official data size requirements, it produces estimates cover- are usually obtained from health service ing some 6–12 years before the survey, which records, but few women in rural areas have renders the data problematic for monitoring access to health services. So in developing progress or observing the impact of interven- countries, it is more usual to use survey data.
tions. In addition, owing to the very large confi- The most common sources of data are the dence limits around the estimates, they are not Demographic and Health Surveys and similar suitable for assessing trends over time or for household surveys. Available data on levels of making comparisons between countries. As a maternal mortality are generally significantly result, it is recommended that process indica- underestimated because of problems of mis- tors, such as attendance by skilled health per- classification and underreporting of maternal sonnel at delivery and use of emergency obstet- deaths. The World Health Organization, the ric care facilities, be used to assess progress United Nation's Children's Fund and the United towards the reduction in maternal mortality.
Nations Population Fund have adjusted exist-ing data to take account of these problems The maternal mortality ratio should not be and have developed model-based estimates confused with the maternal mortality rate for countries with no reliable national data on (whose denominator is the number of women maternal mortality. It is those estimates that of reproductive age), which measures the are usually published in international tables.
likelihood of both becoming pregnant and dying during pregnancy or the puerperium  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, and UNITED
(six weeks after delivery). The maternal mor- NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (1997). The
tality ratio (whose denominator is the number Sisterhood Method for Estimating Maternal of live birth), takes fertility levels (likelihood of Mortality: Guidance Notes for Potential becoming pregnant) into consideration.
 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, UNITED NATIONS
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
and UNITED
POPULATION FUND (2001). Maternal Mortality
 UNITED NATIONS (2003 and biennial). World
in 1995. Geneva.
Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision,vol. 1. Comprehensive Tables (Sales No.
The World Health Organization, the United E.03.XIII.6) and vol. 2, Sex and Age distribu- Nation's Children's Fund and the United tion of the World Population (Sales No.
Nations Population Fund have adjusted exist- E.03.XIII.7). Available from http://esa.
ing data to account for the problems and have developed model-based estimates for coun-  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
tries with no reliable national data on mater- Database. Statistics Division Internet site nal mortality. It is those estimates that are usually published in international tables.
 UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (annual).
The State of the World's Children. New York.  UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
Ministries of health (2003 and annual). Human Development United Nations Children's Fund Report. New York: Oxford University Press.
World Health Organization Available from http://hdr.undp.org .
United Nations Population Fund  UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (1998).
Issues in measuring and monitoring mater-nal mortality: implications for programmes.
PROPORTION OF BIRTHS ATTENDED Technical and Policy Paper No.1. New York.
BY SKILLED HEALTH PERSONNEL  UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (annual).
State of World Population. Available from The proportion of births attended by skilled  WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
health personnel is the percentage of deliver- Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
ies attended by personnel trained to give the Washington, D.C. Available in part from necessary supervision, care and advice to women during pregnancy, labour and the  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1991).
post-partum period; to conduct deliveries on Maternal Mortality: A Global Factbook.
their own; and to care for newborns.
 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1992).
Skilled health personnel include only those International Statistical Classification of who are properly trained and who have appro- Diseases and Related Health Problems, priate equipment and drugs. Traditional birth Tenth Revision (ICD-10), vol. 1. Geneva. attendants, even if they have received a short  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1999).
training course, are not to be included.
Reduction of Maternal Mortality: A JointWHO/UNFPA/UNICEF/World Bank State- GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
ment. Geneva. Available from www.who.
Goal 5. Improve maternal health
Target 6. Reduce by three quarters, between
1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio tion of skilled health personnel is sometimesdifficult because of differences in training of health personnel in different countries.
Measuring maternal mortality accurately is Although efforts have been made to stan- unusually difficult, except where there is dardize the definitions of doctors, nurses and comprehensive registration of deaths and midwives and auxiliary midwives used in most causes of death. Several process indicators household surveys, it is probable that many have been proposed for tracking progress by "skilled attendants" would not meet the crite- focusing on professional care during pregnan- ria for a "skilled attendant" as defined by the cy and childbirth, particularly for the manage- World Health Organization. Moreover, it is ment of complications. The most widely avail- clear that skilled attendants' ability to provide able indicator is the proportion of women who appropriate care in an emergency depends on deliver with the assistance of a medically the environment in which they work. trained health-care provider.
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
Data are collected through household sur- The number of births attended by skilled veys, in particular Demographic and Health health personnel (doctors, nurses or mid- Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster wives) is expressed as a percentage of deliv- Surveys, as well as other national household eries (or births if those are the only data avail- able) in the same period.
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
The low social status of women in developing  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
countries limits their access to economic Database. Statistics Division Internet site resources and basic education and thus their ability to make decisions related to health and  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (annual).
nutrition. Some women are denied access to The State of the World's Children. New York. care when it is needed either because of cul-  UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
tural practices of seclusion or because deci- (2003 and annual). Human Development sion-making is the responsibility of other Report. New York: Oxford University Press.
family members. Lack of access to or use of Available from http://hdr.undp.org.
essential obstetric services is a crucial factor  UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (annual).
contributing to high maternal mortality.
State of World Population. Available fromhttp://www.unfpa.org/swp/swpmain.htm.
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
 WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
Household survey data on this indicator is Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
generally available every three to five years.
Washington, D.C. Available in part fromhttp://www.worldbank.org/data.
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2001).
The indicator is a measure of a health sys- Reproductive Health Indicators for Global tem's ability to provide adequate care for Monitoring: Report of the Second pregnant women. Concerns have been Interagency Meeting, 2001. WHO/RHR/ expressed that the term skilled attendant may 01.19. Geneva.
not adequately capture women's access to  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003). WHO
good quality care, particularly when compli- Statistical Information System (WHOSIS)— cations arise. Standardization of the defini- Evidence and Information for Health Policy.
Internet site http://www3.who.int/whosis/ percentage of all pregnant women in that age menu.cfm. Geneva.
group whose blood is tested.
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
Ministries of health Data on HIV in pregnant women come from United Nations Children's Fund tests on leftover blood samples taken for World Health Organization other reasons during pregnancy. The samples United Nations Population Fund come from selected antenatal clinics duringroutine sentinel surveillance, chosen to reflecturban, rural and other socio-geographic divi- HIV PREVALENCE AMONG PREG- sions in a country. HIV prevalence data in 18 NANT WOMEN AGED 15-24 YEARS groups with high-risk behaviour are collectedin serosurveys that are part of the surveil- lance system or in ad hoc prevalence surveys. HIV prevalence among 15–24 year-old preg-nant women is the percentage of pregnant Only the results of unlinked, anonymous women ages 15–24 whose blood samples screening of blood taken for other purposes test positive for HIV.
should be used in calculating this indicator ofHIV prevalence. Refusal and other forms of GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
participation bias are considerably reduced in Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
unlinked, anonymous HIV testing compared with other forms of testing, such as in pro- Target 7. Have halted by 2015 and begun to
grammes that offer counselling and voluntary reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS HIV testing for pregnant women to reducemother-to-child transmission.
The data are gathered by the World Health HIV infection leads to AIDS. Without treatment, Organization and the Joint United Nations average survival from the time of infection is Programme on HIV/AIDS. about nine years. Access to treatment isuneven, and no vaccine is currently available. PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
The data are collated annually in many devel-
About half of all new HIV cases are among peo- oping countries.
ple 24 years of age or younger. In generalizedepidemics (with prevalence consistently at more than 1 per cent among pregnant women), the Pregnant women are chosen for clinical sur- infection rate for pregnant women is similar to veillance, not because of gender issues, but the overall rate for the adult population.
because they offer a unique opportunity to Therefore, the indicator is a measure of the monitor HIV/AIDS.
spread of the epidemic. In low-level and concen-trated epidemics, HIV prevalence is monitored in Throughout the world, the unequal social status groups with high-risk behaviour because preva- of women places them at higher risk for con- lence among pregnant women is low.
tracting HIV. Women are at a disadvantage whenit comes to access to information about HIV pre- METHOD OF COMPUTATION
vention, the ability to negotiate safe sexual The number of pregnant women whose blood encounters and access to treatment for samples test positive for HIV expressed as a HIV/AIDS once infected. As a result of those inequities and the dynamics of the epidemic, the  UNAIDS (2002). Monitoring the Declaration
proportion of women among people living with of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: Guidelines on HIV/AIDS is rising in many regions.
Construction of Core Indicators. Geneva.
Available from http://www.unaids.org/en/ Data from surveillance of pregnant women at  UNAIDS (2003). Report on the Global
antenatal care clinics are broken into urban pop- HIV/AIDS Epidemic, 2002, biennial; AIDS ulations and populations living outside major Epidemic Update. Geneva. urban areas. In many countries, data from rural  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
areas are rare. The indicator for pregnant Database. Statistics Division Internet site women ages 15–24 should be reported as the median for the capital city, for other urban areas  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (annual).
and for rural areas.
The State of the World's Children. New York.
 UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND, UNAIDS
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
and WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002).
The indicator gives a fairly good idea of relative- Young People and HIV/AIDS: Opportunity in ly recent trends in HIV infection nationwide in Crisis. New York.
countries where the epidemic is generalized. In  UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT FUND FOR
areas where most HIV infections are confined to WOMEN (2000). Gender, HIV and Human
subpopulations with high-risk behaviours, Rights: A Training Manual. New York.
trends should be assessed in those populations.
In most countries, serosurveillance sites have  UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT FUND FOR WOMEN
not been selected as representative samples (2001). Turning the Tide: CEDAW and the of the country. Logistical, feasibility and cost Gender Dimensions of the HIV/AIDS Pan- issues guide the selection of these sites. In demic. New York. Available from http://www.
addition, in many countries, the sites included in the surveillance system have changed over  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002). Second
time, making interpretation of trends more Generation Surveillance for HIV. Geneva.
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002).
Strategic Information. Geneva. Available  CAROLINA POPULATION CENTER (2003).
National AIDS Programmes: A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluation. Chapel Hill.
Available from http://www.cpc.unc.edu/ measure/guide/guide.html . Ministries of health  PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003).
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS Fact Sheet: Gender and HIV/AIDS. World Health Organization United Nations Children's Fund United Nations Population Fund  SCHWARTLÄNDER, BERNARD, and OTHERS
(1999). Country-specific estimates andmodels of HIV and AIDS: methods and limi-tations. AIDS, vol. 13, No. 17.
CONDOM USE RATE OF THE CON- Irrespective of the contraceptive prevalence 19 TRACEPTIVE PREVALENCE RATE rate, if 10 per cent of those practising contra-ception use condoms, then the rate for indi- cator 19 is 10 per cent.
Condom use rate of the contraceptive preva-lence rate is the number of women aged The definition and method of calculation of 15–49 years in marital or consensual unions the indicator differ when it is used for moni- who are practising contraception by using toring contraceptive use only. In that case, condoms as a proportion of all of women of the numerator is the number of women ages the same age group in consensual unions who 15–49 in marital or consensual unions who are practising, or whose sexual partners are report that they are using a condom as their practising, any form of contraception.
main method of contraception.
GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
Contraceptive prevalence data are obtained mainly from household surveys, notably the Target 7. Have halted by 2015 and begun to
Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Indicator Cluster Surveys and contraceptiveprevalence surveys. For condom-use data, married women are asked whether they have The condom use rate is used to monitor ever heard of condoms and then whether progress towards halting and reversing the they are currently using condoms to prevent spread of HIV/AIDS, as condoms are the only contraceptive method effective in reducingthe spread of HIV. Since the condom use rate PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
is measured only among women in unions, the Household surveys, such as Demographic and indicator needs to be supplemented by an Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster indicator on condom use in high-risk situa- Surveys and contraceptive prevalence sur- tions (see indicator 19a).
veys, are generally conducted every three tofive years.
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
The number of women ages 15–49 in marital
or consensual unions who report that they are Statistics on contraception prevalence rates using a condom to avoid pregnancy (regard- are based primarily on women, mainly less of whether they are also using additional because contraception is more easily meas- methods) is divided by the total number of ured in this way. Further, contraception, or its women ages 15–49 in unions who are practis- absence, affects the health and well-being of ing, or whose sexual partners are practising, women more than it does their sexual partners.
Similarly, condom use is still at the discretionof male partners, and the female condom is The indicator is not equivalent to condom use not as widely available. The rising number of prevalence, which is the number of women women and girls infected by HIV/AIDS indi- ages 15–49 in marital or consensual unions cates that condom use needs further promo- who are practising (or whose sexual partners tion and that women need to be empowered are practising) contraception by using con- to refuse unprotected sex.
doms as a percentage of the total number ofwomen of the same age group (and same marital status, if applicable) in the survey.
Condom use, as it is the case in general for contraceptive use, may vary significantly across measuredhs.com. Calverton, Maryland.
socio-economic groups and regional and geo-  UNAIDS (2003). Internet site http://www.
graphical areas. It is important that the analysis unaids.org. Geneva.
address specific demographic groups, such as  UNITED NATIONS (1958). Multilingual
adolescents and unmarried women.
Demographic Dictionary. Population Studies,No. 29. Sales No. E.58.XIII.4.
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
 UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators of
The indicator does not reflect condom use for Sustainable Development: Guidelines and the unmarried population and people in groups Methodologies. Sales No. E.01.II.A.6.
with high-risk behaviour. Data are generally Available from http://www.un.org/esa/ collected for women in consensual unions and in a particular age range, while the population  UNITED NATIONS (2001). Levels and Trends of
of concern includes all women of reproductive Contraceptive Use as Assessed in 1998. age, irrespective of marital status.
Sales No. E.01.XIII.4. Available fromhttp://www.un.org/esa/population/unpop.
The spread of HIV through sexual relations depends on having unprotected sex with people  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
who also have other partners. Most monoga- Database. Statistics Division Internet site mous relationships are cohabiting, although the reverse is not necessarily true. Partners who do  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (2003).
not live together and who have sex only occa- Progress since the World Summit for sionally are most likely to have other partners Children. New York. Available from http:// over the course of a year. These partnerships www.childinfo.org; in Quick Access under therefore carry a higher risk of HIV transmission than partnerships that do not link into a wider  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (annual).
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Indicator 19, therefore, is not a practical indi- Available from http://www.unifem.undp.
cator for measuring the prevention of HIV/AIDS. Information should be collected on  UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
additional indicators on condom use in high- (2003 and annual). Human Development risk situations (indicator 19A) and on knowl- Report. New York: Oxford University Press.
edge and misconceptions of HIV/AIDS among Available from http://hdr.undp.org.
15-24 year-olds (indicator 19B). Such indica-  WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
tors give a better picture of the proportion of Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
the population that engages in relatively high- Washington, D.C. Available in part from risk partnerships and that is therefore more likely to be exposed to the sexual networks  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002 and
within which HIV can circulate.
annual). World Health Report. Geneva.
Available from http://www.who.int/whr/ REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
 ORC MACRO (2003). Demographic and Health
Surveys – Providing Information for Ministries of health Informed Decisions in Population, Health and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS Nutrition. United Nations Children's Fund United Nations Population Division of the number of respondents ages 15–24 World Health Organization who reported having had a non-regular sexu- United Nations Population Fund al partner in the last 12 months.
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
CONDOM USE AT LAST HIGH-RISK Household surveys, such as Demographic and Health Surveys, rural household surveys andbehavioural surveillance surveys, are general- ly conducted every three to five years.
Condom use at last high-risk sex is the per-centage of young people ages 15–24 report- ing the use of a condom during sexual inter- Women's risk of becoming infected with HIV course with a non-regular sexual partner in during unprotected sexual intercourse is the last 12 months.
higher than that of men. And the risk is evenhigher for younger women. Social and cultur- GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
al factors may increase women's vulnerability Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
to HIV infection. For instance, cultural norms related to sexuality often prevent girls from Target 7. Have halted by 2015 and begun to
taking active steps to protect themselves.
reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
A rise in the indicator is an extremely power- Consistent use of condoms in non-regular ful sign that condom promotion campaigns sexual partnerships substantially reduces the are having the desired effect among their risk of sexual HIV transmission. This is espe- principle target market. However, condom cially important for young people, who often promotion campaigns aim for consistent use experience the highest rates of HIV infection of condoms with non-regular partners rather because they have low prior exposure to than simply occasional use. infection and (typically) relatively high num-bers of non-regular sexual partnerships.
Some surveys have tried to ask directly about Consistent condom use with non-regular sex- consistent use, but the question is subject to ual partners is important even in countries recall bias and other biases. where HIV prevalence is low because it canprevent the spread of HIV in circumstances The current indicator is therefore considered where non-regular relationships are common.
adequate to address the target since it is Condom use is one measure of protection assumed that if consistent use rises, use at against HIV/AIDS. Equally important are last high-risk sex will also increase.
delaying age at first sex, reducing the numberof non-regular sexual partners and being DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
faithful to one partner.
Data on condom use with non-regular sexualpartners are available from household surveys METHOD OF COMPUTATION
(such as Demographic and Health Surveys, The number of respondents ages 15–24 who rural household surveys and behavioural sur- reported having had a non-regular (non-mar- veillance surveys) that collect information on ital and non-cohabiting) sexual partner in the sexual behaviour. last 12 months and using a condom the lasttime they had sex with this partner, as a share REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
transmit HIV.
 CAROLINA POPULATION CENTER (2003).
GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
National AIDS Programmes: A Guide to Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
Monitoring and Evaluation. Chapel Hill.
Available from http://www.cpc.unc.edu/ Target 7. Have halted by 2015 and begun to
reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS  UNAIDS (2002). Monitoring the Declaration
of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: Guidelines on Construction of Core Indicators. Geneva.
The indicator reflects the success of national Available from http://www.unaids.org/en/ information, education and communication programmes and other efforts in promoting  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (annual).
knowledge of valid HIV-prevention methods The State of the World's Children. New York. and reducing misconceptions about the dis-  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND, UNAIDS
ease. Common local misconceptions can be and WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002).
determined by the context of the country.
Young People and HIV/AIDS: Opportunity inCrisis. New York.
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, JOINT UNITED
Since there are not enough surveys to calcu- NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS and the
late the indicator as defined above, the UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (2002).
United Nations Children's Fund, in collabora- Epidemiological Fact Sheets. Geneva.
tion with the Joint United Nations Programme Available from http://www.who.int/emc- on HIV/AIDS and the World Health Organization, has produced two proxy indica-tors that represent two components of the actual indicator: Ministries of healthUnited Nations Children's Fund Percentage of women and men ages 15–24 United Nations Population Fund who know that a person can protect him orherself from HIV infection by "consistentuse of condom". The indicator is calculated PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION AGED as the number of respondents ages 15–24 19-B 15–24 YEARS WITH COMPREHEN- who, in response to prompting, correctly SIVE CORRECT KNOWLEDGE OF identify consistent use of condoms as a means of protection against HIV infection,as a percentage of the total number of respondents ages 15–24.
Percentage of population aged 15–24 yearswith comprehensive correct knowledge of Percentage of women and men ages 15–24 HIV/AIDS is the share of women and men who know a healthy-looking person can aged 15–24 years who correctly identify the transmit HIV. The indicator is calculated as two major ways of preventing the sexual the number of respondents ages 15–24 transmission of HIV (using condoms and lim- who, in response to prompting, correctly iting sex to one faithful, uninfected partner), note that a person who looks healthy may who reject the two most common local mis- transmit HIV, as a percentage of the total conceptions about HIV transmission and who number of respondents ages 15–24.
know that a healthy-looking person can DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
Available from http://www.unaids.org/en/ Data on knowledge of and misconceptions about HIV/AIDS are collected through house- Guidelines on construction of core indica- hold surveys (such as Demographic and Health Surveys, rural household surveys,  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (annual).
behavioural surveillance surveys and Multiple The State of the World's Children. New York. Indicator Cluster Surveys).  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND, UNAIDS
and WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002).
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
Young People and HIV/AIDS: Opportunity in Household surveys, such as Demographic and Crisis. New York.
Health Surveys, rural household surveys,  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, JOINT UN
behavioural surveillance surveys and Multiple PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS and the UNITED
Indicator Cluster Surveys, are generally con- NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (2002). Epidemio-
ducted every three to five years.
logical Fact Sheets. Geneva. Available fromhttp://www.who.int/emc-hiv/ fact_sheets.
GENDER ISSUES
Women's risk of becoming infected with HIV
during unprotected sexual intercourse is United Nations Children's Fund.
higher than that of men. The risk is even high-er for younger women. Social and cultural fac-tors may increase women's vulnerability to CONTRACEPTIVE PREVALENCE RATE HIV infection. For instance, cultural normsrelated to sexuality often prevent girls fromtaking active steps to protect themselves.
DEFINITION
The contraceptive prevalence rate is the per-
In many countries, girls are becoming infect- centage of women who are practising, or ed and dying younger than boys, for various whose sexual partners are practising, any reasons, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, the form of contraception. It is usually reported region most affected by HIV/AIDS.
for women ages 15–49 in marital or consen-sual unions.
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS:
See "Methods of computation".
GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
Target 7. Have halted by 2015 and begun to
 CAROLINA POPULATION CENTER (2003).
reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS National AIDS Programmes: A Guide toMonitoring and Evaluation. Chapel Hill.
Available from http://www.cpc.unc.edu/ The indicator is useful in tracking progress towards health, gender and poverty goals. It also  ORC MACRO (2003). Demographic and
serves as a proxy measure of access to repro- Health Surveys – Providing Information for ductive health services that are essential for Informed Decisions in Population, Health meeting many of the goals, especially the child and Nutrition. Internet site http://www.
and maternity mortality and HIV/AIDS goals.
measuredhs.com. Calverton, USA.  UNAIDS (2002). Monitoring the Declaration
Contraceptive methods include condoms, of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: Guidelines on female and male sterilization, injectable and Construction of Core Indicators. Geneva.
oral hormones, intrauterine devices, dia- phragms, spermicides and natural family plan- COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
ning, as well as lactational amenorrhoea (lack of Data are generally collected for women in menstruation during breastfeeding) where it is unions and in a particular age range, while the cited as a method. Since, among contraceptive population of concern includes all women of methods, only condoms are effective in pre- reproductive age, irrespective of marital status.
venting HIV infections, specific indicators oncondom use are also considered (SEE INDICATORS In addition, contraceptive methods may 19, 19A and 19B).
include traditional methods that are largelyineffective. It is important, to the extent possi- METHOD OF COMPUTATION
ble, to at least distinguish between traditional The number of women ages 15–49 in marital and modern methods.
or consensual unions who report that they arepractising (or whose sexual partners are prac- Underreporting can occur when the inter- tising) contraception is divided by the total viewer does not mention specific methods, number of women ages 15–49 (and same such as contraceptive surgical sterilization.
marital status, if applicable) in the survey.
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
Contraceptive prevalence data are obtained  ORC MACRO (2003). Demographic and Health
mainly from household surveys, notably the Surveys–Providing Information for Informed Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Decisions in Population, Health and Indicator Cluster Surveys and contraceptive Nutrition. prevalence surveys. measuredhs.com. Calverton, Maryland.
 UNITED NATIONS (1958). Multilingual
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
Demographic Dictionary, English Section, Household surveys, such as Demographic and Population Studies, No. 29. Sales No.
Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and contraceptive prevalence sur-  UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators of
veys, are generally conducted every three to Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies. Sales No. E.01.II.A.6.
Available from: http://www.un.org/esa/ Statistics on contraception prevalence rates  UNITED NATIONS (2001). Levels and Trends of
are based primarily on women, mainly Contraceptive Use as Assessed in 1998.
because contraception is more easily meas- Sales No. E.01.XIII.4. Available from ured in this way. Further, contraception, or its absence, affects the health and well-being of women more than it does their sexual partners.
 UNITED NATIONS (2002). World Contraceptive
Use 2001. Wall Chart. Sales No. E.02.XIII.7.
Available from http://www.un.org/esa/ Contraceptive use may vary significantly across socio-economic groups and regional and geographical areas. It is important that  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (annual).
the analysis address specific demographic The State of the World's Children. New York.
groups, such as adolescents and unmarried  UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT FUND FOR WOMEN
(2000). Gender, HIV and Human Rights: ATraining Manual. New York. Available from families and bringing up children. As a result, hivtraining .
orphan prevalence is rising steadily in many  UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
countries, while fewer relatives within the (2003 and annual). Human Development prime adult ages mean that orphaned chil- Report. New York: Oxford University Press.
dren face an increasingly uncertain future. Available from http://hdr.undp.org.
 UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (annual).
Orphanhood is frequently accompanied by prej- State of World Population. Available from udice and increased poverty—factors that can further jeopardize children's well-being.
 WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
Children and adolescents orphaned by AIDS Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
face decreased access to adequate nutrition, Washington, D.C. Available in part from basic health care, housing and clothing. They may turn to survival strategies that increase  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002 and
their vulnerability to HIV. They are likely to drop annual). World Health Report. Geneva.
out of school owing to discrimination, emotion- Available from http://www.who.int/whr/ al distress, inability to pay school fees or the need to care for parents or caretakers infectedwith HIV or for younger siblings. In sub-Saharan Africa, only 60 per cent of orphans (ages Ministry of health 10–14) who lost both parents attend school as United Nations Population Fund compared with 71 per cent of those with both United Nations Children's Fund parents still living. The limited countries with United Nations Population Division trend data indicate a widening of the gap. It isimportant, therefore, to monitor the extent towhich AIDS support programmes succeed in RATIO OF SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF 20 ORPHANS TO SCHOOL ATTENDANCE orphaned children.
OF NON-ORPHANS AGED 10–14YEARS METHOD OF COMPUTATION
The current school attendance rate of children
ages 10–14 for whom both biological parents Strictly defined, the number of children have died is divided by the current school orphaned by HIV/AIDS is the estimated num- attendance rate of children ages 10–14 whose ber of children who have lost their mother, parents are both still alive and who live with at father or both parents to AIDS before age 15.
least one biological parent.
In practice, the impact of the AIDS epidemicon orphans is measured through the ratio of DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
orphans to non-orphans who are in school. Data for the indicator are collected throughhousehold surveys (such as Demographic and GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
diseases
Target 7. Have halted by 2015 and begun to
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Household surveys, such as Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, are generally conducted every three HIV/AIDS is claiming the lives of ever-growing to five years.
numbers of adults just when they are forming and UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL
Boys and girls are both affected. However, girls DEVELOPMENT (2002). Children on the Brink
might be more likely than boys to leave school 2002: A Joint Report on Orphan Estimates to care for ill parents and younger siblings. and Program Strategies.  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND, UNAIDS
and WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002).
Data should be presented separately for boys Young People and HIV/AIDS: Opportunity in Crisis. New York.
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
The indicator is confined to children ages Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS 10–14 for comparability, as age at school entry United Nations Children's Fund varies across countries. Household surveys canmiss children in unstable households, andorphaned children are disproportionately likely PREVALENCE AND DEATH RATES to be in such households.
ASSOCIATED WITH MALARIA The indicator is not a direct measure of the number of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS, Prevalence of malaria is the number of cases despite the wording. The indicator does not of malaria per 100,000 people. Death rates directly distinguish the cause of orphanhood.
associated with malaria refers to the number However, it is believed that high proportions of of deaths caused by malaria per 100,000 deaths of adults with school-age children in areas of HIV epidemics are likely to be related toHIV/AIDS.
GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
Target 8. Have halted by 2015 and begun to
 CAROLINA POPULATION CENTER (2003).
reverse the incidence of malaria and other National AIDS Programmes: A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluation. Chapel Hill.
Available from http://www.cpc.unc.edu/ The indicator allows highly endemic countries  UNAIDS (2002). Monitoring the Declaration
to monitor disease and death from malaria, of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: Guidelines on which have been increasing over the last two Construction of Core Indicators. Geneva.
decades owing to deteriorating health sys- Available from http://www.unaids.org/en/ tems, growing drug and insecticide resist- ance, periodic changes in weather patterns,  UNITED NATIONS (1998). Principles and
civil unrest, human migration and population Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses, Revision 1, Series M, No.
67, Rev. 1. Sales No. E.98.XVII.1. Available METHOD OF COMPUTATION
from http://unstats. un.org/unsd/pubs (A, Where the only prevalence data available are reported through the administration of health  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (annual).
services, they are expressed per 100,000 The State of the World's Children. New York.
population, using population estimates as the  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND, UNAIDS
immunity to tropical diseases. Gender roles Where prevalence data on children under five and relations influence the degree of expo- come from household surveys, the data may sure to the relevant vectors and also to the be reported as percentages of children under access and control of resources needed to five with fever in the last two weeks. The per- protect women and men from being infected.
centage may be multiplied by 1,000 to Women's immunity is particularly compro- express the rate per 100,000.
mised during pregnancy, making pregnantwomen more likely to become infected and The World Health Organization also produces implying differential severity of the conse- model-based estimates of malaria-specific quences. Malaria during pregnancy is an important cause of maternal mortality.
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
Data come from administrative sources, All data should be classified by sex, as there household surveys and vital statistics regis- could be differential death rates.
trations. Administrative data are derived byhealth ministries from the administration of Rural populations carry the overwhelming health services. Multiple Indicator Cluster burden of disease, so urban and rural disag- Surveys collect information on the prevalence gregation of the data is important in tracking of fever in the last two weeks for children the progress made in rural areas. Multiple under five. The surveys also provide data on Indicator Cluster Surveys data have shown all causes of under-five mortality.
substantial difference by wealth quintiles, andwhere possible the data should be disaggre- Vital statistics registration systems collect gated by a wealth index.
data on cause of death, including deathscaused by malaria. Good quality information COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
requires that death registration be near uni- Malaria statistics are reported in countries versal, that the cause of death be reported where it is endemic, which includes almost all routinely on the death record and that it be developing countries. However, data reported determined by a qualified observer according by ministries are often only a fraction of the to the International Classification of Diseases.
number of cases in the population. Many Such information is not generally available in report only laboratory-confirmed cases. In developing countries but is now compiled by sub-Saharan Africa, clinically diagnosed WHO annually for approximately 70 (mainly cases also tend to be reported.
Differences between male and female preva- PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
lence and incidence rates are difficult to Administrative data are, in principle, available measure since malaria in women is more likely annually. Data from surveys are generally to be undetected. The fact that health services available every three to five years.
focus almost exclusively on women's repro-ductive function means that opportunities are lost for detection of multiple conditions, Potential differences between men and women including tropical diseases. Moreover, when are a function of the interaction between bio- incidence rates in women and men are similar, logical factors and gender roles and relations.
there are still significant differences between Biological factors vary between men and them in the susceptibility and the impact of women and influence susceptibility and tropical diseases.
menu.cfm. Geneva.  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION and UNITED
NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (2003). Africa
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
Malaria Report. Available from http://www.
 GUNN, S.W.A., KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS
amr_toc.htm .
(1990). Multilingual Dictionary of DisasterMedicine and International Relief. Dordrecht, The Netherlands. English/Français/Español Ministries of health United Nations Children's Fund  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (annual).
World Health Organization The State of the World's Children. New York.  UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
(2003 and annual). Human DevelopmentReport. New York: Oxford University Press.
PROPORTION OF POPULATION IN Available from http://hdr.undp.org.
 WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
EFFECTIVE MALARIA PREVENTION Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
AND TREATMENT MEASURES Washington, D.C. Available in part fromhttp://www.worldbank.org/data.
 WORLD BANK, UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S
Malaria prevention is measured as the per- FUND, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION and
centage of children ages 0–59 months sleep- UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
ing under insecticide-treated bednets.
(2003). Roll Back Malaria (RBM). A Global Malaria treatment among children is meas- Partnership. Internet site http://www.rbm.
ured as the proportion of children ages 0–59 who.int/. Geneva.
months who were ill with fever in the two  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1992).
weeks before the survey and who received International Statistical Classification of appropriate antimalarial drugs.
Diseases and Related Health Problems,Tenth Revision (ICD-10), vol. 1. Geneva.
GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1998). Gender
Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
Technical WHO/FRH/WHD/98.16. Geneva. Available Target 8. Have halted by 2015 and begun to
reverse the incidence of malaria and other health/publications. Select: Gender.
 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002 and
annual). World Health Report. Geneva.
Available from http://www.who.int/whr/ The Roll Back Malaria initiative, established in late 1998 by the World Health Organization,  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002). 2001-
the United Nations Children's Fund and the 2010: United Nations Decade to Roll Back World Bank, identifies four main interventions Malaria: Monitoring and Evaluation.
to reduce the burden of malaria in Africa: Geneva. Available from http://www.who.
■ Use of insecticide-treated bednets, which have been demonstrated to cut all-cause  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003). WHO
child mortality over the first two years by Statistical Information System (WHOSIS)— 20 per cent.
Evidence and Information for Health Policy.
■ Prompt access to effective treatment in or Internet site http://www3.who.int/whosis/ ■ Provision of antimalarial drugs to symp- tom-free pregnant women in high trans- mission areas.
Girls may have greater exposure than boys to ■ Improved forecasting, prevention and rapid malaria-infested areas owing to their role in response to malaria epidemics. the provision of fuel, water and other supplies.
In areas of sub-Saharan Africa with high levels of malaria transmission, regular use of an insecti- Disparities by sex, age, mother's education cide-treated bednet can reduce mortality in chil- and area of residence should be assessed.
dren under five years of age by as much as 20per cent and has a significant impact on anemia.
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
Similar or greater benefits have been achieved Survey data are subject to sampling errors in other regions and for pregnant women. The and are undertaken only every few years. As prevention indicator will allow countries to mon- the data on bednet use are new, no trend data itor widespread use of insecticide-treated mate- are yet available.
rials and other appropriate methods to limitcontact between humans and mosquitoes. REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
COMPARISONS

Detection of epidemics requires timely, com-  GUNN, S.W.A. (1990). Multilingual
plete surveillance of malaria cases and monitor- Dictionary of Disaster Medicine and ing of weather patterns. Reserve drug stocks, International transport and hospital capacity are needed to Netherlands: KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS.
mount an appropriate response. In some epi- demic zones, well-timed and targeted vector  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (2003). The
control activities have minimized the impact of Challenge – Scope of the Problem. Internet epidemics. The treatment indicator allows coun- tries to monitor detection and appropriate response to epidemics within two weeks of  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (annual).
The State of the World's Children. New York.  UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
(2003 and annual). Human Development For prevention, the indicator is calculated as the Report. New York: Oxford University Press.
percentage of children under five years of age Available from http://hdr.undp.org.
in the survey who slept under an insecticide-  WORLD BANK, UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S
treated bednet the previous night.
FUND, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION and
UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
(2003). Roll Back Malaria - A Global The only data sources are household surveys, Partnership. Internet site http://www.rbm.
mainly Demographic and Health Surveys and who.int. Geneva.
the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, malar-  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002). 2001-
ia surveys and malaria modules added to 2010: United Nations Decade to Roll Back other ongoing household surveys. Malaria: Monitoring and evaluation.
Geneva. Available from http://www.who.
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
Data on coverage of insecticide-treated bed-  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002 and
nets and treatment data should be collected annual). World Health Report. Geneva.
about every two to three years.
Available from http://www.who.int/whr/ pressed per 100,000 population, using the totalpopulation in the survey as the denominator.
Tuberculosis prevalence is sometimes ex- Ministries of health pressed in absolute numbers of cases, while United Nations Children's Fund tuberculosis incidence in a given period (usu- World Health Organization ally one year) is always per 100,000 people.
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
PREVALENCE AND DEATH RATES Direct measures of tuberculosis prevalence are 23 ASSOCIATED WITH TUBERCULOSIS uncommon, and recent population-based sur-veys have been confined largely to countries in East Asia and the Pacific . Direct measures of the Tuberculosis prevalence is the number of cases tuberculosis death rate come from vital statis- of tuberculosis per 100,000 people. Death tics registration. Reliable figures require that rates associated with tuberculosis refers to death registration be nearly universal and that the number of deaths caused by tuberculosis the cause of death be reported routinely on the per 100,000 people. A tuberculosis case is death record and determined by a qualified defined as a patient in whom tuberculosis has observer according to the International been bacteriologically confirmed or diag- Classification of Diseases. Such information is nosed by a clinician.
not generally available in developing countries.
Vital statistics registration systems tend to GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
underestimate tuberculosis deaths, although Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
time series data from some countries in Asia and the Americas give a useful indication of trends. Target 8. Have halted by 2015 and begun to
reverse the incidence of malaria and other
In the absence of direct measures of prevalence and death rates, a variety of techniques can beused to estimate these values. Administrative data are derived from the administration of Detecting tuberculosis and curing it are key health services. Data can also be obtained from interventions for addressing poverty and such household surveys as Multiple Indicator inequality. Prevalence and deaths are more Cluster Surveys or the Demographic and Health sensitive markers of the changing burden of Surveys, although they usually refer only to chil- tuberculosis than incidence (new cases), dren under five and do not provide death rates.
although data on trends in incidence are far Population data come directly or indirectly from more comprehensive and give the best overview of the impact of global tuberculosis control. PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
Administrative data are, in principle, available Where the only data available are data report- annually. Data from surveys are generally ed through the administration of health serv- available every three to five years. Results ices, they are expressed per 100,000 popula- from population censuses are generally avail- tion, using population estimates as the able every 10 years.
Where the data come from household surveys, At younger ages, the prevalence of infection is prevalence (and more rarely deaths) is ex- similar in boys and girls. At older ages, a higher prevalence has been found in men; in most of the world, more men than women are diag-  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1992).
nosed with tuberculosis and die from it.
International Statistical Classification of However, recent analyses comparing infection Diseases and Related Health Problems, and disease rates suggest that the propensity Tenth Revision (ICD-10), vol. 1. Geneva.
to develop the disease after infection with  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1998). Gender
mycobacterium tuberculosis (the progression and Health, Technical Paper. Geneva.
rate) may be greater among women of repro- Available from http://www.who.int/ ductive age than among men of the same age.
A recent review of socio-economic and cultur-  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002 and
al factors relating to the suggested differ- annual). World Health Report. Geneva.
ences called for further research to clarify such Available from http://www.who.int/whr/ differences in the epidemiology of tuberculosis.
 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003). Global
Although more men than women die of tuber- Tuberculosis Control – Surveillance, Planning, culosis, it is still a leading cause of death from Financing. WHO Report 2003. Geneva. infectious disease among women. Since  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003). WHO
tuberculosis affects women mainly in their Statistical Information System (WHOSIS)— economically and reproductively active years, Evidence and Information for Health Policy.
the impact of the disease is also strongly felt Internet site http://www3.who.int/whosis/ by their children and families. menu.cfm. Geneva.
It is important to compile data by sex and to Ministries of health.
take a gender perspective in the analysis.
World Health Organization.
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
Tuberculosis prevalence and death rate data
PROPORTION OF TUBERCULOSIS reported by ministries in developing countries CASES DETECTED AND CURED UNDER are usually only a fraction of the number of cases and deaths from tuberculosis in the TB CONTROL STRATEGY REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
The tuberculosis detection rate is the percent- age of estimated new infectious tuberculosis  GUNN, S.W.A.
cases detected under the internationally rec- Dictionary of Disaster Medicine and ommended tuberculosis control strategy International DOTS. DOTS combines five elements—politi- Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publis-
cal commitment, microscopy services, drug hers . English/Français/Español/Arabic.
supplies, surveillance and monitoring systems  UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
and use of highly efficacious regimes—with (2003 and annual). Human Development direct observation of treatment. The cure Report. New York: Oxford University Press.
rate is the percentage of new, registered Available from http://hdr.undp.org.
smear-positive (infectious) cases that were  WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
cured or in which a full course of DOTS was Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
completed. A tuberculosis case is defined as a Washington, D.C. Available in part from patient in whom tuberculosis has been bateri- ologically confirmed or diagnosed by a clini- the numerator.
cian.
GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
Data on both the detection rate and the treat- ment success rate are derived from World Target 8. Have halted by 2015 and begun to
Health Organization DOTS programmes, which reverse the incidence of malaria and other monitor and report cases detected, treatment progress and programme performance.
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
Since tuberculosis is an airborne contagious Administrative data are, in principle, available disease, primary control is effected through annually. Household surveys are generally finding and treating infectious cases and thus available annually. Household surveys are limiting the risk of acquiring infection. The generally available every three to five years.
recommended approach to primary control is Data from DOTS programmes, though incom- the DOTS strategy, an inexpensive strategy plete, are updated frequently.
that could prevent millions of tuberculosiscases and deaths over the coming decade. GENDER ISSUES
At younger ages, the prevalence of infection is
DOTS is a proven system based on accurate similar in boys and girls. At older ages, a higher diagnosis and consistent treatment with a prevalence has been found in men; in most of full course of a mixture of anti-tuberculosis the world, more men than women are diagnosed drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, with tuberculosis and die from it. However, streptomycin and ethambutol). DOTS requires recent analyses comparing infection and disease government commitment, careful detection, rates suggest that the propensity to develop consistent treatment, uninterrupted supply of the disease after infection with mycobacteri- anti-tuberculosis drugs and a monitoring and um tuberculosis (the progression rate) may be reporting system to evaluate treatment out- greater among women of reproductive age comes for each patient. than among men of the same age. A recentreview of socio-economic and cultural factors METHOD OF COMPUTATION
relating to the suggested differences called The case detection rate is the ratio of smear- for further research to clarify such differences positive case notifications in a given year to the in the epidemiology of tuberculosis.
estimated number of new smear-positive casesarising in that year. For some countries, there Tuberculosis is nevertheless a leading cause is a margin of uncertainty in the estimation of of death from infectious disease among the denominator of this ratio.
women. Since tuberculosis affects womenmainly in their economically and reproductively The treatment success rates is the ratio of active years, the impact of the disease is also new, registered smear-positive (infectious) strongly felt by their children and families. cases that were cured or that completed a fullcourse of DOTS to the total number of new, COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
registered cases. Treatment success rates can Tuberculosis cases reported by ministries in be monitored directly and accurately in developing countries are usually only a fraction cohorts of patients treated under the DOTS of the number of cases in the population. It is strategy. Systematic evaluation of patient estimated that in 2000 only 27 per cent of progress and treatment outcomes provides new cases were notified under DOTS and only about 19 per cent of cases were successfully tations. It refers to land with an existing or expected tree canopy of more than 10 per REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
cent and an area of more than 0.5 hectare where the trees should be able to reach a min-  GUNN, S.W.A., (1990). Multilingual Diction-
imum height of five metres. Forests are iden- ary of Disaster Medicine and International tified by both the presence of trees and the Relief. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer
absence of other land uses. Land from which forest has been cleared but that will be refor- Español/Arabic. ested in the foreseeable future is included.
 STOP TB PARTNERSHIP (2003). Stop Tuber-
Excluded are stands of trees established pri- culosis, the Stop TB Partnetship. Internet marily for agricultural production, such as site http://www.stoptb.org .
fruit tree plantations.
 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1992).
International Statistical Classification of GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
Diseases and Related Health Problems, Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability
Tenth Revision (ICD-10), vol. 1. Geneva.
Target 9. Integrate the principles of sustainable
 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002 and
development into country policies and pro- annual). World Health Report. Geneva.
grammes and reverse the loss of environmen- Available from http://www.who.int/whr/  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003). Global
Tuberculosis Control – Surveillance, Planning, The indicator provides a measure of the rela- Financing. WHO Report 2003. Geneva.
tive importance of a forest in a country.
 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003). WHO
Changes in forest area reflect the demand for Statistical Information System (WHOSIS)— land for other competitive uses.
Evidence and Information for Health Policy.
Internet site http://www3.who.int/whosis/ Forests fulfil a number of functions that are menu.cfm. Geneva.
vital for humanity, including the provision ofgoods (timber and non-timber products) and services such as protection against flooding, Ministries of health habitat for biodiversity, carbon sequestration, World Health Organization watershed protection and soil conservation.
Large areas of the world's forests have beenconverted to other uses or severely degraded.
PROPORTION OF LAND AREA COV- While substantial areas of productive forest 25 ERED BY FOREST remain, there is now widespread recognitionthat the resource is not infinite and that its wise and sustainable use is needed for The Proportion of land area covered by forest humanity's survival. is the forest areas as a share of total landarea, where land area is the total surface area METHOD OF COMPUTATION
of the country less the area covered by inland The proportion of forest in the total land area waters, such as major rivers and lakes. As is calculated from information provided by defined by the Food and Agriculture countries or from satellite images or other Organization of the United Nations in Global remote sensing information analysis. Changes Forest Resources Assessmen, 2000, forest in the proportion should be computed to iden- includes both natural forests and forest plan- tify trends.
The proportion of total forest cover (including DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
both natural forest and plantation) may FAO global forest resource assessments, underestimate the rate at which natural for- regional forest resource assessments, special est is disappearing in some countries.
studies and surveys, national forest invento-ries and satellite images.
It is also recommended that immediate usersor beneficiaries of wooded land be identified.
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
FAO global forest resource assessments are
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
carried out every 5–10 years, incorporating national forest resource variables, which  FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE
are measured in the national forest inventory UNITED NATIONS (2000). Global Forest
process at different intervals (often 5–10 years).
Resources Assessment, 2000. Rome.
Available forestry/fo/fra. Men and women use forest products in different  FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE
ways. Women typically gather forest products UNITED NATIONS (2003 and biennial). State of
for fuel, fencing, food for the family, fodder the World's Forests. Available from http:// for livestock, medicine and raw materials for income-generating activities. Women are also often the chief sources of information on the  UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR
use and management of trees and other for- EUROPE (2000). Forest Resources of Europe,
est plants. Men, on the other hand, tend to CIS, North America, Australia, Japan and use non-wood forest products, but also more New Zealand. Sales No. 99.II.E.96. Available often cut wood to sell or use for building from http://www.unece.org/ trade/tim- materials. Women's access to forest products may not be ensured—even where women  UNITED NATIONS. ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR
have ownership rights to land.
EUROPE. CONFERENCE OF EUROPEAN STATISTICS
(1989).
Classification of Land Use. Geneva.
FAO provides a breakdown of forest cover Available from http://www.unescap.org/ between natural forest and plantation for developing countries only.
 UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME
(2003). Internet site http://www.unep.org.
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
National forest inventories and forest surveys  WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
are irregular in some countries and may be Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
significantly out of date. Owing to climatic Washington, D.C. Available in part from and geographical differences, forest areas vary in importance among countries. Overtime, changes in area covered by forests as Although the FAO forestry-related definitions well as area covered by forests should be doc- are clear and applied at the international level, umented. Longer time series may be difficult countries have historically used their own to compare directly without analysis of differ- definitions in conducting national forest inven- ences in definitions, methods and underlying tories and assessments. Considerable efforts have been made to adjust data based on national definitions to comparable internation- harbouring an untold wealth of genetic re- al ones, and FAO documents those adjust- sources; supporting thriving recreation and ments in Global Forest Resources Assessment. tourism industries; providing for science,research and education; and forming a basis for cultural and other non-material values.
Ministries of environment Those values continue to grow in importance.
Food and Agriculture Organization of theUnited Nations METHOD OF COMPUTATION
Protected areas, both terrestrial and marine,
are totalled and expressed as a percentage of
RATIO OF AREA PROTECTED TO the total surface area of the country. The total 26 MAINTAIN BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY surface area of the country includes terrestri- al area plus any territorial sea area (up to 12nautical miles).
DEFINITION
The ratio of area protected to maintain biolog-
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
ical diversity to surface area is defined as Data are collected by ministries of environ- nationally protected area as a percentage of ment and other ministries responsible for the total surface area of a country. The generally designation and maintenance of protected accepted IUCN–World Conservation Union areas. Data are stored in the World Database definition of a protected area is an area of land on Protected Areas and can be accessed at or sea dedicated to the protection and main- http://sea.unep-wcmc. org/ wdbpa/UN.cfm.
tenance of biological diversity and of naturaland associated cultural resources and man- PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
aged through legal or other effective means. Data are constantly updated in the WorldDatabase on Protected Areas as new informa- GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
tion is received from countries.
Goal 7 Ensure environmental sustainability
Target 9. Integrate the principles of sustain-
able development into country policies and Mainstream agricultural, environmental and programmes and reverse the loss of environ- related policies and programmes tend to envi- sion farmers as men and often fail to recog-nize women's work, knowledge, contributions and needs. This tendency has important con- Habitat conservation is vital for stemming the sequences for biodiversity as well as for gen- decline in biodiversity. The establishment of protected areas is an important mechanismfor achieving that aim. Some areas, such as COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
scientific reserves, are maintained in their The designation of an area as protected is natural state and closed to extractive use.
not confirmation that protection measures Others are partially protected and may be are actually in force. The indicator provides a used for recreation or tourism.
measure of Governments' will to protect bio-diversity. It does not measure the effective- In addition to protecting biodiversity, protect- ness of policy tools in reducing biodiversity ed areas have become places of high social loss, which ultimately depends on a range of and economic value: supporting local liveli- management and implementation factors not hoods; protecting watersheds from erosion; covered by the indicator.
WORLD CONSERVATION MONITORING CENTRE
The indicator provides no information on areas (2003). World Database on Protected Areas.
that are not designated as protected but that Internet site http://sea.unep-wcmc.org .
may also be important for conserving biodi- Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Biodiversity Policy Coordination Division.
The data also do not include sites protected Internet site http://www.iucn.org/themes/ under local or provincial law.
No quantified target has been established for COMMISSION OF PROTECTED AREAS with the
this indicator.
assistance of the WORLD CONSERVATION
MONITORING CENTRE
(1994). Guidelines for
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
Protected Area Management Categories.
Cambridge, United Kingdom. Available from  ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
COMMITTEE (2003). Biodiversity and equality
between women and men. In Tipsheets for
Improving Gender Equality. Available from Ministries of environment United Nations Environment Programme, World Conservation Monitoring Centre  RAMSAR CONVENTION BUREAU and UNITED
IUCN–World Conservation Union NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL
ORGANIZATION

Convention on Wetlands. Internet site ENERGY USE (KILOGRAM OIL EQUIVALENT) PER $1 GROSS  UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators of
DOMESTIC PRODUCT (PPP) Sustainable Development: Guidelines andMethodologies. Sales No. E.01.II.A.6.
Available from http://www.un.org/esa/ Energy use (kilogram oil equivalent) per $1 gross domestic product (PPP) is commercial  UNITED NATIONS. ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR
energy use measured in units of oil equivalent EUROPE. CONFERENCE OF EUROPEAN STATISTICS
per $1 of gross domestic product converted (1989). ECE Standard Statistical Classifica- from national currencies using purchasing tion of Land Use. Geneva. Available from power parity conversion factors. GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
 UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND
Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability
CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (2003). The MAB
Target 9. Integrate the principles of sustain-
Programme: World Network of Biosphere able development into country policies and Reserves. Internet site http://www.unesco.
programmes and reverse the loss of environ-  UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND
CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (2003). World Heritage.
Internet site http://whc.unesco.org/nwhc/ The indicator provides a measure of energy intensity (it is the inverse of energy efficiency).
 UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME–
Differences in this ratio over time and across countries reflect structural changes in the  INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY (annual). Energy
economy, changes in the energy efficiency of Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Paris.
particular sectors and differences in fuel mixes.
 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY (annual).
In principle, the lower the ratio, the better the Energy Balances of OECD Countries. Paris.
energy efficiency.
 UNITED NATIONS (1987). Energy Statistics –
Definitions, Units of Measure and Conversion METHOD OF COMPUTATION
Factors, Series F, No. 44. Sales No.
Total commercial energy consumption is con- E.86.XVII.21. Available from http://unstats.
verted to metric ton oil equivalence using un.org/unsd/ pubs. (E, F, R, S) standard tables. GDP data must be converted  UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators of
using PPP tables so that real output is compared Sustainable Development: Guidelines and with real energy input. National total GDP is Methodologies. Department of Economic deflated (currently to 1995 US PPP dollars) by and Social Affairs, Division for Sustainable reference to PPP tables derived from the International Comparison Programme. Energy Available from http://www.un.org/esa/ input is divided by GDP to derive the ratio.  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Energy Statistics.
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
Internet site http://unstats.un.org/unsd/ Energy consumption is calculated from national energy balance sheets. Real GDP comes from  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium
the national income accounts deflated by Indicators Database. Statistics Division reference to PPP tables prepared by the Internet site http://millenniumindicators.
Traditional fuels, such as animal and vegetable  UNITED NATIONS. COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN
waste, fuel wood and charcoal, are excluded.
COMMUNITIES, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND,
ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND

PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
DEVELOPMENT and WORLD BANK (1994).
Data are available annually.
System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA1993), Series F, No.2, Rev. 4. Sales No.
E.94.XVII.4. Available with updates from This is a relatively crude indicator and needs to be broken down by sector of industry to be  WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
Washington, D.C. Available in part from COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
As the input is commercial energy, it shouldbe compared with the output from that ener- gy, deflated by the purchasing power parities International Energy Agency relevant to that output. Changes in the ratio over time are influenced almost as much by United Nations Statistics Division changes in the structure of the economy asby changes in sectoral energy intensities.
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
COMPARISONS

 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY (2003).
Internet site http://www.iea.org . Paris.
programmes and reverse the loss of environ- CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS PER 28 CAPITA AND CONSUMPTION OF CARBONS (ODP TONS) The indicators signify the commitment toreducing carbon dioxide emissions and progress in phasing out the consumption of CFCs by Carbon dioxide emissions per capita is the countries that have ratified the Montreal total amount of carbon dioxide emitted by a Protocol. Carbon dioxide emissions are largely country as a consequence of human (produc- a by-product of energy production and use.
tion and consumption) activities, divided by They account for the largest share of green- the population of the country. In the global house gases associated with global warming.
carbon dioxide emission estimates of theCarbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center The Vienna Convention for the Protection of of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the the Ozone Layer (1985) and the Montreal United States, the calculated country emis- Protocol (1987) are now recognized as having sions of carbon dioxide include emissions been successful in preventing the global envi- from consumption of solid, liquid and gas ronmental catastrophe that could have been fuels; cement production; and gas flaring.
caused by stratospheric ozone depletion. The National reporting to the United Nations Montreal Protocol aims to reduce and eventu- Framework Convention on Climate Change, ally eliminate the emissions of anthropogenic which follows the Intergovernmental Panel on ozone-depleting substances by ceasing their Climate Change guidelines, is based on production and consumption. The phasing out national emission inventories and covers all of ozone-depleting substances and their sources of anthropogenic carbon dioxide replacement with less harmful substances or emissions as well as carbon sinks (such as new processes are aimed at the recovery of the ozone layer. Consumption of ozone-depleting chlorofluoro- CFCs are considered most representative of carbons (CFCs) in ODP (ozone-depleting poten- the protocol's efforts to phase out the use of tial) tons is the sum of the consumption of the ozone-depleting substances since they were weighted tons of the individual substances in the first to be targeted for elimination.
the group—metric tons of the individual sub-stance (defined in the Montreal Protocol on METHOD OF COMPUTATION
Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer) Carbon dioxide emissions per capita are cal- multiplied by its ozone-depleting potential.
culated by dividing carbon dioxide emissions An ozone-depleting substance is any sub- by the number of people in the national pop- stance containing chlorine or bromine that ulation. Carbon dioxide emission estimates destroys the stratospheric ozone layer. The from 1950 to the present are derived primari- stratospheric ozone layer absorbs most of the ly from energy statistics published by the biologically damaging ultraviolet radiation.
United Nations, using the methods outlined in"Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels: a GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
procedure for estimation and results for Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability
1950–82". National reporting to the United Target 9. Integrate the principles of sustain-
Nations Framework Convention on Climate able development into country policies and Change is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guidelines. Carbon ecosystem response.
dioxide emissions can be expressed in terms REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
of carbon dioxide or converted to carbon con-  CARBON DIOXIDE INFORMATION ANALYSIS CENTRE
(CDIAC) (2003). Global, Regional, and The consumption of CFCs is the national pro- National Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions: duction plus imports, minus exports, minus destroyed quantities, minus feedstock uses of reg.htm. Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
individual CFCs. National annual consump-  CARBON DIOXIDE INFORMATION ANALYSIS CENTRE
tion of CFCs is the sum of the weighted tons (consumption in metric tons multiplied by the http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/. Oak Ridge, estimated ozone-depleting potential) of the individual CFCs.
 MARLAND, G., and R.M. ROTTY (1984).
Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels: DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
a procedure for estimation and results for National carbon dioxide emissions are esti- 1950–82. Tellus, 36(B): 232–61.
mated from detailed data on emission sources,  UNITED NATIONS (1996). Glossary of
using source-specific emission factors. Emission Environmental Statistics, Series F, No. 67 inventories are usually compiled by energy or (United Nations publication, Sales No.
environment ministries. Annex I parties (dev- eloped countries) to the United Nations http://unstats. un.org/unsd/pubs. (A, C, E, Framework Convention on Climate Change sub- mit their data on greenhouse gas emissions to  UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators of
the organization's secretariat through an Sustainable Development: Guidelines and annual reporting format. Reporting of Non- Methodologies. Sales No. E.01.II.A.6.
annex I parties is voluntary and occasional.
Available from http:// www.un.org/esa/ Where national emission inventories are absent, official sources are supplemented by other  UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME
sources and estimates.
(2002). Production and Consumption ofOzone-Depleting Substances under the Estimation of the consumption of CFCs requires Montreal Protocol, 1986-2000. Available data on national production plus imports, minus exports, minus stocks destroyed.
Those can be derived from national produc-  UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME
tion and international trade statistics.
(2003). The Ozone Secretariat. Internet sitehttp://www.unep.org/ozone/. Nairobi.
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON
Data are usually collected annually. CLIMATE CHANGE (2003). Greenhouse Gas
Inventory Database (GHG)
. Internet site
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
http://ghg.unfccc.int. Bonn, Germany.
For carbon dioxide emissions, trend data are  UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON
more reliable than data comparisons between CLIMATE CHANGE (2003). Internet site
http://www.unfccc.int. Bonn, Germany.
 WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
For ozone depletion, the indicator does not Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
reveal much about current trends in deterio- Washington, D.C. Available in part from ration of the ozone layer owing to delays in  WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION AND
complex phenomenon and depends on inter- UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME.
actions of pollution source (fuel and stove type), INTER-GOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE
pollution dispersion (housing and ventilation) (2003). Internet site http://www.ipcc.ch.
and the time-activity budget of household members. The type of fuel and participation in cooking tasks have consistently been the EarthTrends: The Environment Information most important predictors of exposure. Portal. Internet site http://earthtrends.
wri.org. Washington, D.C.
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
The indicator is computed as the ratio of
households using one or more unprocessed solid fuels (dung and crop residues, wood, char- United Nations Framework Convention on coal, and coal) for cooking and heating, to the total population, expressed as a percentage.
United Nations Statistics Division DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
United Nations Environment Programme, Data can be derived from household surveys, Ozone Secretariat such as Living Standard Measurement studysurveys and Demographic and Health Surveysand from population censuses. Standard PROPORTION OF THE POPULATION questions for inclusion in all nationally repre- 29 USING SOLID FUELS sentative household surveys have not yetbeen developed and no internationally com- parable data are available.
Proportion of population using solid fuels isthe proportion of the population that relies on biomass (wood, charcoal, crop residues and More than half the world's households cook dung) and coal as the primary source of with unprocessed solid fuels, exposing prima- domestic energy for cooking and heating. rily women and children to indoor air pollu-tion, which can result in serious health prob- GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
lems, such as acute respiratory diseases. In Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability
addition, women spend more time than men Target 9. Integrate the principles of sustain-
gathering wood for fuel.
able development into country policies andprogrammes and reverse the loss of environ- COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
Development of standard questions for inclu-sion in all nationally representative household surveys and censuses is needed to obtain Incomplete and inefficient combustion of data for calculating the indicator and allowing solid fuels results in the emission of hundreds comparisons across countries. of compounds, many of which are health-damaging pollutants or greenhouse gases Since the use of solid fuels affects both the that contribute to global climate change. There environment and the population as a whole are also important linkages between house- and the health status of those directly hold solid fuel use, indoor air pollution, defor- exposed, guidelines should clearly set defini- estation and soil erosion and greenhouse gas tions and measurement standards for what is emissions. Exposure to indoor air pollution is a intended by "exposure".
PROPORTION OF POPULATION WITH REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
SUSTAINABLE ACCESS TO AN IMPROVED WATER SOURCE, URBAN  BRUCE, NIGEL, ROGELIO PEREZ-PADILLA and
RACHEL ALBALAK (2000). Indoor air pollution
in developing countries: a major environ-
mental and public health challenge. Bulletin The proportion of the population with sustain- of the World Health Organization 78 (9), able access to an improved water source, 1078-1092 Geneva.
urban and rural, is the percentage of the pop-  STAKEHOLDER FORUM (2002). Earth Summit
ulation who use any of the following types of Forum 2002. Internet site http://www.earth water supply for drinking: piped water, public tap, borehole or pump, protected well, pro- tected spring or rainwater. Improved water  UNITED NATIONS (1982). Concepts and
sources do not include vendor-provided Methods in Energy Statistics, with Special water, bottled water, tanker trucks or unpro- Reference to Energy Accounts and tected wells and springs. Balances: A Technical Report, Series F, No.
29. Sales No. E.82.XVII.13 and corrigen- GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
dum. Available from http://unstats.un.org/ Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability.
unsd/pubs (E, F, R).
Target 10: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of
 UNITED NATIONS (1987). Energy Statistics –
people without sustainable access to safe Definitions, Units of Measure and Conversion drinking water and basic sanitation.
Factors, Series F, No. 44. Sales No.
E.86.XVII.21. Available from http://unstats.
un.org/unsd/pubs (E, F, R, S).
The indicator monitors access to improved  WORLD BANK (2003). Briefing Notes on
water sources based on the assumption that Gender and Development - Energy.
improved sources are more likely to provide Available from http://www.worldbank.org/ safe water. Unsafe water is the direct cause of many diseases in developing countries.
 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002). World
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
Health Report 2002 – Reducing Risks, The indicator is computed as the ratio of the Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva. Available number of people who use piped water, public tap, borehole or pump, protected well, protectedspring or rainwater to the total population, The World Health Organization has produced expressed as a percentage. The same method estimates of regional aggregates for this indi- applies for the urban and rural breakdown. cator. However, no country data series areavailable to allow comparison across coun- Access to safe water refers to the percentage tries or assessment of trends.
of the population with reasonable access toan adequate supply of safe water in their dwelling or within a convenient distance of National statistical offices their dwelling. The Global Water Supply and World Health Organization Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report definesreasonable access as "the availability of 20litres per capita per day at a distance nolonger than 1,000 metres". However, access and volume of drinking water are difficult to measure, so sources of drinking water that Women and men usually have different roles are thought to provide safe water are used as in water and sanitation activities. The differ- ences are particularly pronounced in ruralareas. Women are most often the users, The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) providers and managers of water in rural and the World Health Organization (WHO), households and the guardians of household through the Joint Monitoring Programme, hygiene. If a water system breaks down, assess trends in "access to improved drinking women are more likely to be affected than water sources" by drawing a regression line men because they have to travel farther for through the available household survey and water or use other means to meet the house- census data for each country (details are avail- hold's water and sanitation needs.
able at http://www.childinfo.org). Regionaland global estimates are aggregated from the national estimates, using population-weight- The indicator should be monitored separately ed averages.
for urban and rural areas. Because of nation-al differences in characteristics that distin- DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
guish urban from rural areas, the distinction Since the late 1990s, data have routinely been between urban and rural population is not collected at the national and subnational levels amenable to a single definition applicable to in more than 100 countries using censuses and all countries. National definitions are most surveys by national Governments, often with commonly based on size of locality, with rural support from international development agen- population as the residual of population that cies. Two data sources are common: administra- is not considered urban.
tive or infrastructure data that report on newand existing facilities, and data from household COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
surveys, including Multiple Indicator Cluster When data from administrative sources are Surveys, Demographic and Health Surveys and used, they generally refer to existing sources, Living Standards Measurement study surveys.
whether used or not. Despite official WHO defi- Before the population-based data were avail- nitions, the judgment about whether a water able, provider-based data were used.
source is safe is often subjective. In addition, theexistence of a water supply does not necessari- Evidence suggests that data from surveys are ly mean that it is safe or that local people use it.
more reliable than administrative records and For those and other reasons, household survey provide information on facilities actually used data are generally better than administrative by the population. data, since survey data are based on actual useof sources by the surveyed population rather PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
than the simple existence of the sources.
Administrative data are often available annu-ally. Household surveys are generally con- While access is the most reasonable indicator ducted every three to five years.
for water supply, it still involves severe method-ological and practical problems. Among them: WHO and UNICEF annually compile interna- ■ The data are not routinely collected by "the tional data and prepare regional and global sector" but by others outside the sector as estimates based on household survey data. part of more general surveys.
■ Water quality is not systematically addressed.
■ The timing of collection and analysis of household survey data is irregular, with long  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002 and
intervals between surveys annual). World Health Report. Geneva.
Available from http://www.who.int/whr/ REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION AND UNITED
 ORC MACRO (2003). Demographic and
NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (2000). Global
Health Surveys – Providing Information for Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment Informed Decisions in Population, Health 2000 Report, pp.77-78. Geneva. Available and Nutrition. Internet site http://www.
measuredhs.com. Calverton, Maryland.
 UNITED NATIONS (1998). Principles and
Recommendations for Population andHousing Censuses, Revision 1, Series M, No.
67, Rev. 1. Sales No. E.98.XVII.1. Available National statistical offices from http://unstats.un.org/unsd/pubs (A, United Nations Children's Fund World Health Organization  UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators of
Sustainable Development: Guidelines andMethodologies. Sales No. E.01.II.A.6.
PROPORTION OF POPULATION WITH Available from http://www.un.org/esa/ ACCESS TO IMPROVED SANITATION,  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
Database. Statistics Division Internet site Proportion of the urban and rural population  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (2003).
with access to improved sanitation refers to Progress since the World Summit for the percentage of the population with access Children. New York. Available from http:// to facilities that hygienically separate human excreta from human, animal and insect con-  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (annual).
tact. Facilities such as sewers or septic tanks, The State of the World's Children. New York. poor-flush latrines and simple pit or ventilat-  WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
ed improved pit latrines are assumed to be Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
adequate, provided that they are not public, Washington, D.C. Available in part from according to the World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund's Global  WORLD BANK (2003). Briefing Notes on
Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Gender Development - Water and Sanitation.
Report. To be effective, facilities must be cor- Washington, D.C. Available from http:// rectly constructed and properly maintained. GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
 WORLD BANK (2003). The Living Standards
Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability
Measurement Study of the World Bank Target 10. Halve, by 2015, the proportion of
(LSMS). Internet site http://www.world- people without sustainable access to safe bank.org/lsms. Washington, D.C.
drinking water and basic sanitation  WORLD BANK (2003). Toolkit on Gender in
Water and Sanitation. Washington, D.C.
Available from http://www.worldbank.org/ Good sanitation is important for urban and rural populations, but the risks are greater in urban areas where it is more difficult to avoid con- holds and the guardians of household hygiene.
tact with waste. If a water system breaks down, women aremore likely to be affected than men because METHOD OF COMPUTATION
they have to travel farther for water or use The indicator is computed as the ratio of the other means to meet the household's water number of people in urban or rural areas with and sanitation needs.
access to improved excreta-disposal facilitiesto the total urban or rural population, expressed as a percentage. The indicator should be monitored separatelyfor urban and rural areas. Owing to national DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
differences in characteristics that distinguish Since the late 1990s, data have routinely been urban from rural areas, the distinction collected at national and subnational levels in between urban and rural population is not more than 100 countries using censuses and amenable to a single definition applicable to surveys by national Governments, often with all countries. National definitions are most support from international development commonly based on size of locality, with rural agencies. Two data sources are common: ad- population as the residual of population that ministrative or infrastructure data that report is not considered urban.
on new and existing facilities, and data fromhousehold surveys including Multiple Indicator COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
Cluster Surveys, Demographic and Health When data are from administrative sources, Surveys, and LSMS surveys. Before those they generally refer to existing sanitation population-based data were available, facilities, whether used or not. Household sur- provider-based data were used.
vey data are therefore generally better thanadministrative data, since survey data are Evidence suggests that data from surveys are based on actual use of facilities by the sur- more reliable than administrative records and veyed population rather than the simple exis- provide information on facilities actually used tence of the facilities.
by the population. While access is the most reasonable indicator Rural and urban population statistics come for sanitation facilities, it still involves severe directly from population censuses.
methodological and practical problems,including the following: PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
■ The data are not routinely collected by "the Administrative data are often available annu- sector" but by others outside the sector as ally. Household surveys are generally conducted part of more general surveys every three to five years. WHO and UNICEF ■ Facility quality is not systematically annually compile international data and pre- pare regional and global estimates based on ■ The timing of collection and analysis of household survey data. household survey data is irregular, withlong intervals between surveys GENDER ISSUES
Women and men usually have different roles
The definition of access to improved sanita- in water and sanitation activities. The differ- tion facilities and methods for assessing it are ences are particularly pronounced in rural even more contentious than those for water, areas. Women are most often the users, pro- with national definitions of "acceptable" sani- viders and managers of water in rural house- tation varying widely.
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
PROPORTION OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH ACCESS TO SECURE TENURE  ORC MACRO (2003). Demographic and
Health Surveys – Providing Information for Informed Decisions in Population, Health The proportion of households with access to and Nutrition. Internet site http://www.
secure tenure is 1 minus the percentage of measuredhs.com. Calverton, Maryland.
the urban population that lives in slums. In the  UNITED NATIONS (1998). Principles and
absence of data on number of slum dwellers, Recommendations for Population and the United Nations Human Settlements Housing Censuses, Revision 1, Series M, No.
Programme (UN-HABITAT) produces estimates 67, Rev. 1. Sales No. E.98.XVII.1. Available based on a definition of slums as agreed by from http://unstats.un.org/unsd/pubs (A, the Expert Group Meeting on Urban Indicators in 2002. Those indicators will be adjusted,  UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators of
and the definitions of secure tenure and Sustainable Development: Guidelines and slums will be refined through future consulta- Methodologies. Sales No. E.01.II.A.6.
tions with Expert Group Meeting participants Available from http://www.un.org/esa/ and their related networks of professionals.
 UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
Secure tenure refers to households that own Database. Statistics Division Internet site or are purchasing their homes, are renting pri- vately or are in social housing or subtenancy.
 UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (2003).
Households without secure tenure are defined Progress since the World Summit for Children.
as squatters (whether or not they pay rent), New York. Available from http://www.
homeless and households with no formal childinfo.org .
 WORLD BANK (2003) The Living Standards
Measurement Study of the World Bank UN-HABITAT defines a slum household as a (LSMS). Internet site http://www.worldbank.
group of individuals living under the same org/lsms. Washington, D.C.
roof who lack one or more (in some cities, two  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION AND UNITED
or more) of the following conditions: security NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (2000). Global
of tenure, structural quality and durability of Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment dwellings, access to safe water, access to 2000 Report. Geneva. Available from sanitation facilities and sufficient living area.
GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability
Target 11. By 2020, to have achieved a signifi-
cant improvement in the lives of at least 100 National statistical offices million slum dwellers United Nations Children's FundWorld Health Organization RATIONALE
The indicator is intended to provide an
overview of the share of urban population liv-
ing in conditions of poverty and physical and
environmental deprivation.
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
The indicator is computed as 1 minus the ratio of the number of households in urban areas  CENTER ON HOUSING RIGHTS AND EVICTIONS
that lack one or more of the above-mentioned (2003). Women and housing rights. In conditions listed under "Definition"to the num- Housing Rights. Geneva. Available from ber of urban households, expressed as a per-  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
Database. Statistics Division Internet site DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
Data come mainly from household surveys  UNITED NATIONS. COMMISSION ON HUMAN
such as the Demographic and Health Surveys, RIGHTS. Women's equal ownership of,
Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Joint access to and control over land and the Monitoring Programme questionnaires. In equal rights to own property and to ade- countries without such data from surveys, quate housing. Official Records of the data can be derived from population and Economic and Social Council, Fifty-sixth housing censuses, which usually include Session Supplemjent No. 3 (E/200/23- questions about housing tenure.
E/CN.4/2000/167), resolution 2000/13.
Geneva. Available from http://www.
UN-HABITAT produces slum population esti- mates based on those national sources for assessing regional and global trends.  UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMME
(UN-HABITAT) (2002). Expert Group Meeting PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
on Urban Indicators Secure Tenure, Slums Household surveys are generally conducted and Global Sample of Cities. Nairobi.
every three to five years. Censuses are con- Available from http://www.unhabitat.org/ ducted every 10 years.
programmes/guo/documents/EGM finalreport 4 Dec 02.pdf.  UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMME
For women (more than for men), housing— (UN-HABITAT) (2003). Global Urban beyond basic shelter—also often functions as Observatory. Internet site http://www.
an important place of employment and social interaction, and a place to care for children. It  UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMME
may offer respite from social instability and (UN-HABITAT) (2003). Guide to Monitoring violence. Discriminatory social and economic Target 11: Improving the Lives of 100 practices within and outside the household Million Slum Dwellers–Progress towards the may result in women being excluded from Millennium Development Goals. Nairobi.
many aspects of housing, including policy Available from http://www.unhabitat.org/ development, control over housing resources, rights of inheritance and ownership, commu-  UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROGRAMME
nity organizing or the construction of hous- ing. Such exclusion can threaten women's Campaign for Secure Tenure. Internet site security of tenure by preventing women from owning, inheriting, leasing, renting or remain- tenure. Nairobi.
ing in housing and on land.
UN-HABITAT produces regional and global COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
estimates of percentage of slum dwellers Data are not yet generally available.
based on national data. Internationally comparable data series at country level Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial have not yet been produced.
Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea,Guinea-Bissau, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, the Niger, Rwanda, Saõ Tomé and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, the Sudan,Togo, Uganda, the United Republic ofTanzania and Zambia; Asia and the Pacific: NET ODA, TOTAL AND TO THE LEAST Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, 33 DEVELOPED COUNTRIES, AS A PER- Kiribati, the Lao People's Democratic CENTAGE OF OECD/DAC DONORS' Republic, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Samoa, GROSS NATIONAL INCOME Solomon Islands, Timor Leste, Tuvalu,Vanuatu and Yemen; Latin America and the Official development assistance comprisesgrants or loans to developing countries and ter- GOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSED
ritories on the Organisation for Economic Co- Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel-
operation and Development/Development Assistance Committee (OECD/DAC) list of aid Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based,
recipients that are undertaken by the official predictable, non-discriminatory trading and sector with promotion of economic develop- financial system. Includes a commitment to ment and welfare as the main objective and at good governance, development and poverty concessional financial terms (if a loan, having a reduction—both nationally and internationally grant element of at least 25 per cent). Technical Target 13. Address the special needs of the
cooperation is included. Grants, loans and cred- least developed countries. Includes: tariff and its for military purposes are excluded. Also quota-free access for least developed coun- excluded is aid to more advanced developing tries' exports; enhanced programme of debt and transition countries as determined by DAC. relief for heavily indebted poor countries andcancellation of official bilateral debt; and Donors' gross national income (GNI) at market more generous ODA for countries committed prices is the sum of gross primary incomes to poverty reduction receivable by resident institutional units and Target 14. Address the special needs of land-
sectors. GNI at market prices was called gross locked countries and small island developing national product (GNP) in the 1953 System of States (through the Programme of Action for National Accounts. In contrast to gross domes- the Sustainable Development of Small Island tic product (GDP), GNI is a concept of income Developing States and the outcome of the (primary income) rather than value added.
twenty-second special session of the GeneralAssembly) The General Assembly, on the recommenda- Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt
tion of the Committee for Development Policy, problems of developing countries through through the Economic and Social Council, national and international measures in order decides on the countries to be included in the to make debt sustainable in the long term list of least developed countries (LDCs). As ofJanuary 2004, the list included the following countries, by region: Africa: Angola, Benin, Goal 8 addresses the way developed coun- Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cape Verde, Central tries can assist developing countries to African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic achieve the other seven goals through more development assistance, improved access to  UNITED NATIONS, COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN
markets and debt relief. The International COMMUNITIES, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND,
Conference on Financing for Development, ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION and
held in Monterrey, Mexico in 2002, stimulated DEVELOPMENT AND WORLD BANK (1994).
commitments from major donors to start to System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA reverse the decline in official development 1993), Series F, No.2, Rev. 4. Sales No.
assistance and focus more on poverty reduc- E.94.XVII.4. Available with updates at tion, education and health to help countries realize the Millennium Development Goals.
 UNITED NATIONS OFFICE OF THE HIGH
REPRESENTATIVE FOR THE LEAST DEVELOPED
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
COUNTRIES, LANDLOCKED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
GNI is equal to GDP (which at market prices AND SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES (2003).
represents the final result of the production Internet site http://www.un.org/ohrlls.
activity of resident producer units) less pri-mary incomes payable to non-resident units plus primary incomes receivable from non- Organisation for Economic Co-operation resident units. In other words, GNI is equal to and Development, Development Assistance GDP less taxes (less subsidies) on production and imports, compensation of employees andproperty income payable to the rest of theworld plus the corresponding items receivable PROPORTION OF TOTAL BILATERAL, from the rest of the world.
SECTOR-ALLOCABLE ODA OF OECD/DAC DONORS TO BASIC SOCIAL DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
SERVICES (BASIC EDUCATION, PRI- Data are compiled by the Development MARY HEALTH CARE, NUTRITION, Assistance Committee of OECD.
SAFE WATER AND SANITATION) PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
Official development assistance comprisesgrants or loans to developing countries and ter- REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
ritories on the OECD Development Assistance Committee list of aid recipients that are under-  ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
taken by the official sector with promotion of economic development and welfare as the main COMMITTEE (2003). Internet site http://www.
objective and at concessional financial terms (if oecd.org/dac . Paris.
a loan, having a grant element of at least 25 per  ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
cent). Technical cooperation is included. Grants, loans and credits for military purposes are COMMITTEE (annual). Development Co-opera-
excluded. Also excluded is aid to more tion Report. Paris.
advanced developing and transition countries  ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
as determined by DAC. Bilateral official develop- ment assistance is from one country to another.
Development Statistics. CD-ROM. Paris.
Basic education comprises primary education,  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
basic life skills for youth and adults and early Database. Statistics Division Internet site childhood education. Primary health care includes basic health care, basic health infra- structure, basic nutrition, infectious disease DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
control, health education and health person- Compiled by the Development Assistance nel development. (For safe water and sanita- Committee of the OECD.
tion, see INDICATORS 30 and 31.) PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
GOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSED
Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel-
opment
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based,
Aid to water supply and sanitation is defined predictable, non-discriminatory trading and as part of basic social services only if poverty financial system. Includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
reduction—both nationally and internationally.
Target 13. Address the special needs of the
 ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION
least developed countries. Includes: tariff and AND DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE
quota-free access for least developed coun- COMMITTEE (2003). Internet site http://www.
tries' exports; enhanced programme of debt oecd.org/dac. Under Topics, select: Aid sta- relief for heavily indebted poor countries and tistics, Aid effectiveness and donor prac- cancellation of official bilateral debt; and tices or Millennium Development Goals.
more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction  ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION
Target 14. Address the special needs of land-
AND DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE
locked countries and small island developing COMMITTEE (annual). Development Co-opera-
States (through the Programme of Action for tion Report. Paris.
the Sustainable Development of Small Island  ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION
Developing States and the outcome of the AND DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE
twenty-second special session of the General COMMITTEE (annual). International Development
Statistics CD-ROM. Paris.
Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt
 UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
problems of developing countries through Database. Statistics Division Internet site national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term Organisation for Economic Co-operation and The World Summit on Social Development at Development/Development Copenhagen in 1995 suggested the possibili- ty of "mutual commitment between interest-ed developed and developing country part-ners to allocate, on average, 20 per cent of PROPORTION OF BILATERAL ODA OF ODA and 20 per cent of the national budget, OECD/DAC DONORS THAT IS UNTIED respectively, to basic social programmes".
These programmes comprise basic education, basic health, population and reproductive Official development assistance (ODA) com- health programmes, and poverty-focused prises grants or loans to developing countries water and sanitation projects. and territories on the OECD DevelopmentAssistance Committee list of aid recipientsthat are undertaken by the official sector with promotion of economic development and wel- effectiveness. Recognizing this, OECD/DAC fare as the main objective and at concession- member countries have raised the share of al financial terms (if a loan, having a grant ele- their aid that is untied. The share of untied aid ment of at least 25 per cent). Technical coop- to the least developed countries has risen rel- eration is included. Grants, loans and credits atively slowly, but the situation is likely to for military purposes are excluded. Also improve with the implementation of the new excluded is aid to more advanced developing DAC Recommendation on Untying Official and transition countries as determined by the Development Assistance to the Least Committee. Bilateral official development Developed Countries. assistance is from one country to another.
Untied bilateral official development assis- DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
tance is assistance from country to country Data are compiled by the Development for which the associated goods and services Assistance Committee of OECD.
may be fully and freely procured in substan-tially all countries. GOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSED
Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel-
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based,
 ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
predictable, non-discriminatory trading and DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE
financial system. Includes a commitment to (2003). Internet site http://www.oecd.org/ good governance, development and poverty dac . Under Topics, select: Aid statistics, Aid reduction—both nationally and internationally effectiveness and donor practices or Target 13. Address the special needs of the
Millennium Development Goals. Paris.
least developed countries. Includes: tariff and  ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
quota-free access for least developed coun- DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE
tries' exports; enhanced programme of debt Development relief for heavily indebted poor countries and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and  ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
more generous ODA for countries committed DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE
to poverty reduction Target 14. Address the special needs of land-
Statistics. CD-ROM. Paris.
locked countries and small island developing  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
States (through the Programme of Action for Database. Statistics Division Internet site the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the  UNITED NATIONS. OFFICE OF THE HIGH
twenty-second special session of the General REPRESENTATIVE FOR THE LEAST DEVELOPED
COUNTRIES, LANDLOCKED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt
AND SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES (2003).
problems of developing countries through Internet site http://www.un.org/ohrlls .
national and international measures in orderto make debt sustainable in the long term AGENCY
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Tying procurement from aid contracts to sup- pliers in the donor country reduces its cost- ODA RECEIVED IN LANDLOCKED predictable, non-discriminatory trading and 36 COUNTRIES AS PROPORTION OF financial system. Includes a commitment to THEIR GROSS NATIONAL INCOMES good governance, development and povertyreduction—both nationally and internationally Target 13:. Address the special needs of the
Official development assistance comprises least developed countries. Includes: tariff and grants or loans to developing countries and quota-free access for least developed coun- territories on the OECD Development tries' exports; enhanced programme of debt Assistance Committee list of aid recipients relief for HIPCs and cancellation of official that are undertaken by the official sector with bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for promotion of economic development and wel- countries committed to poverty reduction fare as the main objective and at concession- Target 14. Address the special needs of land-
al financial terms (if a loan, having a grant ele- locked countries and small island developing ment of at least 25 per cent). Technical coop- States (through the Programme of Action for eration is included. Grants, loans and credits for the Sustainable Development of Small Island military purposes are excluded. Also excluded Developing States and the outcome of the is aid to more advanced developing and tran- twenty-second special session of the General sition countries as determined by DAC. Assembly)
Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt
Recipient countries' gross national income problems of developing countries through (GNI) at market prices is the sum of gross pri- national and international measures in order mary incomes receivable by resident institu- to make debt sustainable in the long term tional units and sectors. GNI at market priceswas called gross national product (GNP) in the 1953 System of National Accounts. In con- The indicator addresses the special needs of trast to gross domestic product (GDP), GNI is landlocked countries to achieve their develop- a concept of income (primary income) rather than value added.
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
The land-locked developing countries are, by Data are compiled by the Development region: Africa: Botswana, Burkina Faso, Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, Economic Co-operation and Development Ethiopia, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Niger,Rwanda, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia and PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
Zimbabwe; Asia and the Pacific: Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Bhutan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,the Lao People's Democratic Republic, REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
Mongolia, Nepal, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan; Europe: The former Yugoslav  ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
Republic of Macedonia and the Republic of DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE
Moldova (expected from 2003); Latin America (2003). Internet site http://www.oecd.
and the Caribbean: Bolivia and Paraguay.
org/dac. Under Topics, select: Aid statis-tics, Aid effectiveness and donor practices GOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSED
or Millennium Development Goals. Paris.
Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel-
 ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE
Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based,
(annual). Development Co-operation Report.
 ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
Recipient countries' gross national income at DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE
market prices is the sum of gross primary International incomes receivable by resident institutional Statistics. CD-ROM. Paris. units and sectors. GNI at market prices was  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
called gross national product in the 1953 Database. Statistics Division Internet site System of National Accounts. In con- trast to gross domestic product, GNI is a con-  UNITED NATIONS, COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN
cept of income (primary income) rather than COMMUNITIES, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND,
value added.
ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
DEVELOPMENT
and WORLD BANK (1994).
The small island developing States are by System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA region: Africa: Cape Verde, Comoros, Guinea- 1993), Series F, No.2, Rev. 4. Sales No.
Bissau, Mauritius, Saõ Tomé and Principe, and E.94.XVII.4. Available with updates at Seychelles; Asia and the Pacific: Bahrain, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Maldives, Marshall  UNITED NATIONS. OFFICE OF THE HIGH
Islands, Micronesia (Federated States of), REPRESENTATIVE FOR THE LEAST DEVELOPED
Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, COUNTRIES, LANDLOCKED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Timor AND SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES (2003).
Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu; Internet site http://www.un.org/ohrlls.
Europe: Cyprus and Malta; Latin America andthe Caribbean: Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Cuba, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Grenada, Development/Development Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Netherlands Antilles, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent andthe Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad andTobago, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. ODA RECEIVED IN SMALL ISLAND 37 DEVELOPING STATES AS PROPOR- GOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSED
TION OF THEIR GROSS NATIONAL Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel-
opment
Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based,
predictable, non-discriminatory trading and Official development assistance comprises financial system. Includes a commitment to grants or loans to developing countries and good governance, development and poverty territories on the OECD Development reduction—both nationally and internationally Assistance Committee list of aid recipients Target 13. Address the special needs of the
that are undertaken by the official sector with least developed countries. Includes: tariff and promotion of economic development and wel- quota-free access for least developed coun- fare as the main objective and at concession- tries' exports; enhanced programme of debt al financial terms (if a loan, having a grant ele- relief for heavily indebted poor countries and ment of at least 25 per cent). Technical coop- cancellation of official bilateral debt; and eration is included. Grants, loans and credits for more generous ODA for countries committed military purposes are excluded. Also excluded to poverty reduction is aid to more advanced developing and tran- Target 14. Address the special needs of land-
sition countries as determined by DAC. locked countries and small island developing States (through the Programme of Action for ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
the Sustainable Development of Small Island DEVELOPMENT and WORLD BANK (1994).
Developing States and the outcome of the System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA twenty-second special session of the General 1993), Series F, No.2, Rev. 4. Sales No.
E.94.XVII.4. Available with updates from Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt
problems of developing countries through  UNITED NATIONS. OFFICE OF THE HIGH
national and international measures in order REPRESENTATIVE FOR THE LEAST DEVELOPED
to make debt sustainable in the long term COUNTRIES, LANDLOCKED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
AND SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES (2003).
Internet site http://www.un.org/ohrlls.
The indicator addresses the special needs ofsmall island developing States. That group of countries has very diverse incomes per capita, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and ranging from the least developed countries to Development/Development high-income countries. The least developed countries need continued aid, which shouldbe monitored closely.
PROPORTION OF TOTAL DEVELOPED DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
COUNTRY IMPORTS (BY VALUE AND Data are compiled by the Development EXCLUDING ARMS) FROM DEVEL- Assistance Committee of OECD.
OPING COUNTRIES AND FROM THELEASE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES, PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
ADMITTED FREE OF DUTY REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
Imports and imported value of goods (mer- chandise) are goods that add to the stock of  ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
material resources of a country by entering DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE
its economic territory. Goods simply being (2003). Internet site http://www.oecd.org/ transported through a country (goods in tran- dac. Under Topics, select: Aid statistics, Aid sit) or temporarily admitted (except for goods effectiveness and donor practices or for inward processing) do not add to the stock Millennium Development Goals. Paris.
of material resources of a country and are not  ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
included in international merchandise trade DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE
statistics. In many cases, a country's econom- (annual). Development Co-operation Report.
ic territory largely coincides with its customs territory, which is the territory in which the  ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
customs laws of a country apply in full. DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE
(annual). International Development Statistics.
Goods admitted free of duties are exports of CD-ROM. Paris.
goods (excluding arms) received from devel-  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
oping countries and admitted without tariffs Database. Statistics Division Internet site to developed countries.
 UNITED NATIONS, COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN
There is no established convention for the COMMUNITIES, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND,
designation of developed and developing countries or areas in the United Nations system.
least developed countries. Includes: tariff and In common practice, Japan in Asia, Canada quota-free access for least developed coun- and the United States in North America, tries' exports; enhanced programme of debt Australia and New Zealand in Oceania and relief for heavily indebted poor countries and Europe are considered "developed" regions or cancellation of official bilateral debt; and areas. In international trade statistics, the more generous ODA for countries committed Southern African Customs Union is also treat- to poverty reduction ed as a developed region, and Israel is treated Target 14. Address the special needs of land-
as a developed country; countries emerging locked countries and small island developing from the former Yugoslavia are treated as States (through the Programme of Action for developing countries; and countries of east- the Sustainable Development of Small Island ern Europe and European countries of the for- Developing States and the outcome of the mer Soviet Union are not included under twenty-second special session of the General either developed or developing regions.
Assembly)
Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt
The General Assembly, on the recommenda- problems of developing countries through tion of the Committee for Development Policy, national and international measures in order through the Economic and Social Council to make debt sustainable in the long term decides on the countries to be included in thelist of least developed countries (LDCs). As of January 2004, the list included the following The indicator monitors the international effort countries, by region: Africa: Angola, Benin, made to remove barriers to trade for develop- Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cape Verde, the ing countries, to encourage the achievement Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, the of the Millennium Development Goals. Poor Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, people in developing countries work primarily Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, the in agriculture and labour-intensive manufac- Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Lesotho, turing, sectors that confront the greatest Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, trade barriers. Removing barriers to merchan- Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Saõ Tomé and dise trade, therefore, could increase growth in Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, the those countries by a significant amount. Sudan, Togo, Uganda, the United Republic ofTanzania and Zambia; Asia and the Pacific: METHOD OF COMPUTATION
Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, To value their exports, countries can choose Kiribati, the Lao People's Democratic free-on-board (f.o.b.) values, which include Republic., Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Samoa, only the transaction value of the goods and Solomon Islands, Timor Leste, Tuvalu, the value of services performed to deliver Vanuatu and Yemen; Latin America and the goods to the border of the exporting country, or cost, insurance and freight (c.i.f.) values,which add to this the value of the services GOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSED
performed to deliver the goods from the bor- Goal 8:. Develop a global partnership for devel-
der of the exporting country to the border of the importing country. It is recommended that Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based,
imported goods be valued at c.i.f. prices for predictable, non-discriminatory trading and statistical purposes. Specific duties—not financial system. Includes a commitment to good expressed as a proportion of the declared governance, development and poverty reduc- value—may or may not be included in calcu- tion—both nationally and internationally lations of goods admitted free of duties.
Target 13. Address the special needs of the
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
The indicator is calculated by the United Nations
Conference on Trade and Development in col- World Trade Organization.
laboration with the World Bank and the World AVERAGE TARIFFS IMPOSED BY Trade Organization, from the Trade Analysis DEVELOPED COUNTRIES ON AGRI- and Information System (TRAINS) CD-ROM, CULTURAL PRODUCTS AND CLOTH- version 8 (2002). ING FROM DEVELOPING COUNTRIES COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
Indicator data available only at the world level.
Average tariffs are the simple average of allapplied ad valorem tariffs (tariffs based on REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
the value of the import) applicable to the bilateral imports of developed countries. Agri-  UNITED NATIONS (1998). International
cultural products comprise plant and animal Merchandise Trade Statistics – Concepts products, including tree crops but excluding and Definitions, Series M, No. 52, Rev. 2.
timber and fish products. Clothing and textiles Sales No. E.98.XVII.16. Available from include natural and synthetic fibers and fabrics http:// unstats.un.org/unsd/pubs (A, C, E, and articles of clothing made from them.
 UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
GOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSED
Database. Statistics Division Internet site Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel-
 UNITED NATIONS, COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN
Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based,
COMMUNITIES, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND,
predictable, non-discriminatory trading and ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
financial system. Includes a commitment to DEVELOPMENT and WORLD BANK (1994).
good governance, development and poverty System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA reduction—both nationally and internationally 1993), Series F, No.2, Rev. 4. Sales No.
Target 13. Address the special needs of the
E.94.XVII.4, para. 7.66 for import duties.
least developed countries. Includes: tariff and Available with updates at http://unstats.
quota-free access for least developed coun- tries' exports; enhanced programme of debt  UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND
relief for heavily indebted poor countries and DEVELOPMENT (2003). Trade Analysis and
cancellation of official bilateral debt; and Information System (TRAINS). Internet site more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction  UNITED NATIONS. OFFICE OF THE HIGH
Target 14. Address the special needs of land-
REPRESENTATIVE FOR THE LEAST DEVELOPED
locked countries and small island developing COUNTRIES, LANDLOCKED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
States (through the Programme of Action for AND SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES (2003).
the Sustainable Development of Small Island Internet site http://www.un.org/ohrlls.
Developing States and the outcome of the  WORLD CUSTOMS ORGANIZATION (1996).
twenty-second special session of the General Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding Systems, Second Edition (HS).
Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt
Brussels. English, French.
problems of developing countries throughnational and international measures in order Data discrepancies across countries limit to make debt sustainable in the long term www.oecd.org. Agricultural Market Access The indicator monitors the international effort made to remove barriers to trade fordeveloping countries in order to encourage theachievement of the Millennium Development COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
Goals. Poor people in developing countries work There are two types of average tariffs—sim- primarily in agriculture and labour-intensive ple average tariffs, which are used for goals manufacturing, sectors that confront the monitoring, and the weighted average. Simple greatest trade barriers. Removing barriers to averages are frequently a better indicator of merchandise trade, therefore, could increase tariff protection than weighted averages, growth in those countries by a significant which, because higher tariffs discourage trade and reduce the weights applied to them,are biased downward .
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
To calculate average tariffs, each Harmonized
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
System six-digit bilateral trade flow is given the same weight. The results for each developed  UNITED NATIONS (1998). International
country are then aggregated using the stan- Merchandise Trade Statistics – Concepts and dard import pattern as the weighting scheme Definitions, Series M, No. 52, Rev. 2. Sales for all importers. The standard weighting No. E.98.XVII.16. Available from http:// scheme would be the average import structure unstats.un.org/unsd/pubs (A, C, E, F, R, S).
of all developed markets for imports from the  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
least developed countries and from developing Database. Statistics Division Internet site countries. The tariff rates used are the avail- able ad valorem rates, including most-  WORLD CUSTOMS ORGANIZATION (1996).
favoured nation and non-most-favoured- Harmonized Commodity Description and nation (largely preferential) rates. As it is not Coding System (HS), Second Edition.
possible to convert non-ad valorem rates to Brussels. English, French.
ad valorem equivalents, all tariff lines withnon-ad valorem rates are excluded from the Data discrepancies across countries limit calculation. This affects, in particular, agricul- tural products, where almost 25 per cent ofthe Harmonized System six-digit product cat- egories contain at least one non-ad valorem World Trade Organization tariff line. Therefore, the agricultural part ofthe indicator is excluded from the initial dataset until an appropriate methodology for treat- AGRICULTURAL SUPPORT ESTIMATE ing non-ad valorem tariffs is developed. FOR OECD COUNTRIES AS A PER-CENTAGE OF THEIR GROSS DOMES- DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
The indicator is calculated by the United NationsConference on Trade and Development and the World Trade Organization in consultation Agricultural support is the annual monetary with the World Bank from the Trade Analysis value of all gross transfers from taxpayers and and Information System (TRAINS) CD-ROM, consumers, both domestic and foreign (in the version 8 (2002). Organisation for Economic form of subsidies arising from policy measures Co-operation and Development database, that support agriculture), net of the associated budgetary receipts, regardless of their objec- tively address both domestic and international tives and impacts on farm production and goals while ensuring well-functioning markets.
income, or consumption of farm products.
For agricultural products, the total support METHOD OF COMPUTATION
estimate represents the overall taxpayer and The agricultural total support estimate consumer costs of agricultural policies. When includes support to individual farmers from expressed as a percentage of GDP, the total trade barriers that keep domestic farm prices support estimate is an indicator of the cost to above those on world markets, budget-financed the economy as a whole. payments, input subsidies, consumer foodsubsidies and support to general services pro- GOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSED
vided to the agricultural sector as a whole. Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel-
opment
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based,
predictable, non-discriminatory trading andfinancial system. Includes a commitment to COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
good governance, development and poverty Differences across countries in total support reduction—both nationally and internationally estimates as a percentage of GDP reflect the Target 13. Address the special needs of the
level of support and the share of agricultural least developed countries. Includes: tariff and output in the economy. Changes over time quota-free access for least developed coun- reflect changes in the level of support and in tries' exports; enhanced programme of debt the share of agriculture in GDP, as well as the relief for heavily indebted poor countries and growth of the economy.
cancellation of official bilateral debt; and REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction  ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
Target 14. Address the special needs of land-
DEVELOPMENT (2003). Producer and Consumer
locked countries and small island developing Support Estimates, OECD Database 1986- States (through the Programme of Action for 2002, User's Guide. Paris. Available from the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General  ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
DEVELOPMENT (2003). Producer and Consumer
Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt
Support Estimates, OECD Database 1986- problems of developing countries through 2002. Internet site http://www.oecd.org, national and international measures in order Select Statistics/Agriculture and Fisheries.
to make debt sustainable in the long term  ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
DEVELOPMENT (annual). Agricultural Policies
In penetrating foreign markets, developing in OECD Countries, Monitoring and countries face not only tariffs but also competi- tion from products in developed countries that  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
benefit from government subsidies. The chal- Database. Statistics Division Internet site lenge linked to the Doha Development Agenda is to further reduce production and trade-distort-  UNITED NATIONS, COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN
ing support and implement policies that effec- COMMUNITIES, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND,
ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
Those activities are further classified by the DEVELOPMENT and WORLD BANK (1994).
First Joint WTO/OECD Report on Trade-Related System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA Technical Assistance and Capacity-Building 1993), Series F, No.2, Rev. 4. Sales No.
(2002) under two main categories, trade pol- E.94.XVII.4. Available with updates from icy and regulations (divided into nineteen subcategories) and trade development (divid-ed into six subcategories).
AGENCY
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
GOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSED
Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel-
opment
Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based,
PROPORTION OF ODA PROVIDED TO predictable, non-discriminatory trading and 41 HELP BUILD TRADE CAPACITY financial system. Includes a commitment togood governance, development and poverty reduction—both nationally and internationally Official development assistance comprises Target 13. Address the special needs of the
grants or loans to developing countries and least developed countries. Includes: tariff and territories on the OECD Development quota-free access for least developed coun- Assistance Committee list of aid recipients tries' exports; enhanced programme of debt that are undertaken by the official sector with relief for heavily indebted poor countries and promotion of economic development and wel- cancellation of official bilateral debt; and fare as the main objective and at concession- more generous ODA for countries committed al financial terms (if a loan, having a grant ele- to poverty reduction ment of at least 25 per cent). Technical coop- Target 14. Address the special needs of land-
eration is included. Grants, loans and credits locked countries and small island developing for military purposes are excluded. Also States (through the Programme of Action for excluded is aid to more advanced developing the Sustainable Development of Small Island and transition countries as determined by Developing States and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the GeneralAssembly) Activities to help build trade capacity enhance Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt
the ability of the recipient country problems of developing countries through ■ To formulate and implement a trade devel- national and international measures in order opment strategy and create an enabling to make debt sustainable in the long term environment for increasing the volume andvalue-added of exports, diversifying export products and markets and increasing for- At the Fourth Ministerial Conference of the eign investment to generate jobs and trade World Trade Organization, held in Doha in ■ To stimulate trade by domestic firms and 2001, donors committed to providing encourage investment in trade-oriented increased support to help developing coun- tries, especially the least developed coun- ■ To participate in the benefit from the insti- tries, build the capacity to trade and to inte- tutions, negotiations and processes that grate into world markets. shape national trade policy and the rulesand practices of international commerce Data collected for the indicator will help mon-itor the following aspects of trade-related official development assistance: There are also differences in the methodology ■ Transparency of trade-related technical used for reporting trade development activi- assistance delivered ties among donors who replied to the requests ■ Sharing of information for information. A number of donors isolated ■ Minimization and avoidance of duplication the trade components of each activity, whereas ■ Estimation of progress in the implementa- others reported the whole activity as trade tion of the Doha mandates on technical related. The total amounts of trade-related cooperation and capacity-building technical assistance and capacity building per ■ Coordination and coherence donor in this category should therefore be ■ Achievement of the objectives mandated in interpreted with caution.
paragraph 41 of the Ministerial Declarationadopted by the Conference at Doha The joint report also highlights the need torefine the activity categories to better identi- METHOD OF COMPUTATION
fy general trade development activities, such See "Comments and limitations".
as trade fairs, trade information, publicationsor general export training. At present, most of DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
those activities appear under "business sup- The World Trade Organization and the OECD port services and institutions".
have compiled the Doha Development AgendaTrade Capacity-Building Database (TCBDB) These issues are being addressed in the first that lists and quantify activities by bilateral update to the data, with results online by and multilateral donors from 2001 onwards.
August 2003.
The database lists both the number and thevalue of activities.
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
Data are reported from bilateral donors and multilateral and regional agencies that replied ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
to the requests for information sent in May DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE
2002 and April 2003 by the director-general of (2003). Internet site http://www.oecd.org/dac.
the World Trade Organization and the secretary- Under topics, select: Aid statistics, Aid general of the Organisation for Economic Co- effectiveness and donor practices or operation and Development. Millennium Development Goals. Paris.
ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE
Donors differ in defining what constitutes a Development single "activity". Some donors split individual activities into components in order to obtain ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
detailed data on aid allocated to each subcat- DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE
egory. Others classify the whole activity under International the most relevant subcategory. For some Statistics CD-ROM. Paris.
donors, the number of records in the database WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION AND ORGANISATION
is larger than the actual number of activities.
FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT
In the Joint Report by the World Trade (2003 and annual). Joint WTO/OECD Report Organization and the Organisation for on Trade-Related Technical Assistance and Economic Co-operation and Development, the Capacity-Building, Management of Trade data are based on the actual number of activ- Capacity-Building. Paris and Geneva.
relief for heavily indebted poor countries and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction World Trade Organization Target 14. Address the special needs of land-
locked countries and small island developing
States (through the Programme of Action for
TOTAL NUMBER OF COUNTRIES THAT the Sustainable Development of Small Island 42 HAVE REACHED THEIR HIPC DECI- Developing States and the outcome of the SION POINTS AND NUMBER THAT twenty-second special session of the General HAVE REACHED THEIR HIPC COM- PLETION POINTS (CUMULATIVE) Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt
problems of developing countries through
national and international measures in order The HIPC decision point is the date at which a to make debt sustainable in the long term heavily indebted poor country with an estab-lished track record of good performance under adjustment programmes supported by A global partnership for development requires the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and increased debt reduction for heavily indebted the World Bank commits to undertake addi- poor countries. The indicator will monitor the tional reforms and to develop and implement Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative, a a poverty reduction strategy.
major international effort targeted specifical-ly at improving developing countries' debt The HIPC completion point is the date at which sustainability. Launched in 1996 and enhanced the country successfully completes the key in 1999 to broaden and accelerate debt relief, structural reforms agreed at the decision the HIPC Initiative marked the first time that point, including the development and imple- multilateral, official bilateral and commercial mentation of its poverty reduction strategy.
creditors united in a joint effort to reduce the The country then receives the bulk of debt external debt of the world's most debt-laden relief under the HIPC Initiative without any poor countries to sustainable levels.
further policy conditions.
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
See "Definition".
GOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSED
Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel-
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
Information is compiled by the IMF and World Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based,
Bank from their HIPC decision and completion predictable, non-discriminatory trading and point documents (see "References"). financial system. Includes a commitment togood governance, development and poverty PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
reduction—both nationally and international- Twice a year.
ly
Target 13. Address the special needs of the
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
least developed countries. Includes: tariff and The Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative quota-free access for least developed coun- was launched in 1996. The earliest available tries' exports; enhanced programme of debt data are for 2000 and the most recent avail- able data are for 2002.
predictable, non-discriminatory trading andfinancial system. Includes a commitment to REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
good governance, development and poverty reduction—both nationally and internationally  INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (2003). Debt
Target 13. Address the special needs of the
Relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor least developed countries. Includes: tariff and Countries (HIPC) Initiative. Internet site quota-free access for least developed coun- tries' exports; enhanced programme of debt /hipc.htm. Washington, D.C.
relief for heavily indebted poor countries and  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
cancellation of official bilateral debt; and Database. Statistics Division Internet site more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction
Target 14. Address the special needs of land-
World Bank, www.worldbank.org/hipc.
locked countries and small island developingStates (through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island International Monetary Fund Developing States and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General
Assembly)
Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt
DEBT RELIEF COMMITTED UNDER problems of developing countries through 43 HIPC INITIATIVE national and international measures in orderto make debt sustainable in the long term DEFINITION
Debt relief committed under HIPC Initiative
(in
United States dollars) as a component of offi- A global partnership for development requires cial development assistance has been record- increased debt reduction for heavily indebted ed in different ways over time. Up through poor countries. The indicator will monitor the 1992, forgiveness of non-official develop- Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative, a ment assistance debt that met the tests of major international effort targeted specifically official development assistance was at improving developing countries' debt sus- reportable as ODA. During 1990–1992 it tainability. Launched in 1996 and enhanced in remained reportable as part of a country's 1999 to broaden and accelerate debt relief, ODA, but was excluded from the Development the HIPC Initiative marked the first time that Assistance Committee total. Since 1993, for- multilateral, official bilateral and commercial giveness of debt originally intended for mili- creditors united in a joint effort to reduce the tary purposes has been reportable as "other external debt of the world's most debt-laden official flows", while forgiveness of other non- poor countries to sustainable levels. ODA loans (mainly export credits) recorded asODA has been included in both country data METHOD OF COMPUTATION
and total Committee ODA, as it was until See "Definition" and The DAC Journal: Development Cooperation Report and theOECD/DAC International GOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSED
Statistics CD-ROM for notes on definitions.
Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel-
opment
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based,
Information is compiled by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank from their exporting country are included in exports of HIPC decision and completion point docu- goods. Other transactions involving a mixture of ments (see "References").
goods and services, such as expenditures byforeign travellers in the domestic market, may PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
all have to be recorded under services in the rest of the world account. Export receipts along withworker remittances received from abroad pro- vide the foreign exchange proceeds for meeting Figures are available by country.
external debt service obligations. REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
GOAL AND TARGETS ADDRESSED
Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel-
 INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (2003). Debt
Relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based,
Countries (HIPC) Initiative. Internet site predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system. Includes a commitment to /hipc.htm. Washington, D.C.
good governance, development and poverty  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
reduction—both nationally and internationally Database. Statistics Division Internet site Target 13. Address the special needs of the
least developed countries. Includes: tariff and  WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
quota-free access for least developed coun- Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
tries' exports; enhanced programme of debt Washington, D.C. Available in part from relief for HIPCs and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for  WORLD BANK (2003). Debt Initiative for the
countries committed to poverty reduction Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs). Target 14. Address the special needs of land-
Internet site http://www.worldbank.org/hipc.
locked countries and small island developing Washington, D.C.
States (through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Dev- International Monetary Fund eloping States and the outcome of the twenty- second special session of the General Assembly)
Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt
problems of developing countries through
DEBT SERVICE AS A PERCENTAGE OF national and international measures in order 44 EXPORTS OF GOODS AND SERVICES to make debt sustainable in the long term External debt service refers to principal repay- The targets on debt relief also address the ments and interest payments made to non- need to make debt sustainable in the long residents in foreign currency, goods or services.
term. The indicator is one measure of whether Long-term refers to debt that has an original debt levels are sustainable. or extended maturity of more than one year.
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
Exports of goods and services comprise sales, The indicator is calculated as the ratio of barter or gifts or grants of goods and services external debt service to exports of goods and from residents to non-residents. Where exports services, expressed as a percentage.
of goods are valued f.o.b., the costs of trans-portation and insurance up to the border of the DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
The World Bank collects data on indicators Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs).
of finance, published annually in Global Internet site http://www.worldbank.org/hipc.
Washington, D.C.  WORLD BANK (annual). Global Development
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
Washington, D.C.
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
Small, open economies may have relatively International Monetary Fund high levels of exports (and imports) and yet may face problems in meeting debt service obliga-tions, particularly when debt service paymentsdue on public debt are high relative to gov- UNEMPLOYMENT RATE OF YOUNG ernment revenue. A large economy may have PEOPLE AGED 15–24 YEARS, EACH proportionately smaller exports and still find its dept payments sustainable. For this reason, itis useful to look at other indicators, such as the ratio of total debt to gross national income, the Unemployment rate of young people aged size of international reserves relative to total 15–24 years is the number of unemployed debt and debt maturing within a year's time, people ages 15–24 divided by the labour in forming a picture of debt sustainability.
force of the same age group. Unemployedpeople are all those who are not employed REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
during a specified reference period but are available for work and have taken concrete  INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (2003). Debt
steps to seek paid employment or self- Relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor employment. In situations where the conven- Countries (HIPC) Initiative. Internet site tional means of seeking work are of limited relevance, where the labour market is largely /hipc.htm. Washington, D.C.
unorganized or of limited scope, where labour  UNITED NATIONS (1998). International
absorption is temporarily inadequate or Merchandise Trade Statistics – Concepts and where the labour force is largely self- Definitions, Series M, No. 52, Rev. 2. Sales employed, a relaxed definition of unemploy- No.E.98.XVII.16. ment can be applied, based on only the first http://unstats.un.org/unsd/pubs (A, C, E, F, R, two criteria (without work and currently avail- able for work).
 UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
Database. Statistics Division Internet site The labour force consists of those who are employed plus those who are unemployed  UNITED NATIONS, COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN
during the relevant reference period. It is the COMMUNITIES, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND,
economically active portion of the population.
ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
Employment refers to being engaged in an DEVELOPMENT and WORLD BANK (1994).
economic activity during a specified reference System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA period or being temporarily absent from such 1993), Series F, No.2, Rev. 4. Sales No.
an activity, while economic activity refers to E.94.XVII.4. Available with updates from the production of goods and services for pay or profit or for use by own household.
 WORLD BANK (2003). Debt Initiative for the
GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
tence work and, more often than men, work in Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel-
the informal sector. In those settings, women are seldom employed, although they may Target 16. In cooperation with developing
often be underemployed. Furthermore, countries, develop and implement strategies women may not have easy access to formal for decent and productive work for youth channels for seeking employment, particularlyin rural areas, and often face social and cul- tural barriers when looking for a job. Thus The indicator monitors the degree to which official labour statistics may undercount the youth labour force is utilized in the econ- women's unemployment (unless the relaxed omy and therefore serves as a measure of the definition of unemployment is used and ade- success of strategies to create jobs for youth.
quate criteria are adopted in data collection). METHOD OF COMPUTATION
The number of people aged 15–24 years who In most countries, data are available sepa- are unemployed is divided by the number of rately for men and women.
people in the labour force of the same agegroup. INTERNATIONAL DATA COMPILATIONS
ILO compiles internationally comparable data
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
series on unemployment and youth unem- Country data are available from labour force surveys, administrative records, official nationalestimates and population censuses. Labour  Bulletin of Labour Statistics, 2002–4.
force surveys generally provide the most com- International Labour Organization. Geneva.
prehensive and comparable source of infor-  Key Indicators of the Labour Market (annu- mation. Concepts and definitions adopted for International Labour Organization.
data collection in labour force surveys also generally conform to International Labour Organization (ILO) resolutions and recom-mendations, such as the International COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
Conference of Labour Statisticians resolution The concepts of employment and unemploy- on international standards for unemployment ment have different relevance depending on and youth unemployment. the level of labour market development andthe presence of a market economy. People PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
living in regions of a country where there is lit- Results from population censuses are normally tle or no formal employment would not usual- available every 10 years. Labour force surveys ly be classified as "unemployed" even if they may be available annually or even more fre- are without work and would accept a job if quently in OECD countries and generally every offered one (discouraged workers).
three to five years in developing countries Unemployment is but one dimension of the employment problem faced by young people.
Female unemployment rates are often signifi- A disproportionately large number of youth in cantly higher than male unemployment rates.
many countries are underemployed. Some work However, unemployment data do not ade- fewer hours than they would like to, and others quately reflect the situation of women in the work long hours with little economic gain.
labour market, especially in developing coun- Stagnation and decline of employment oppor- tries where women are engaged in subsis- tunities in the formal sector of most developing countries have intensified the problem in Employment/ Statistics/Indicators. recent years, with young women bearing a dis-  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
proportionate share of the burden. Therefore, Database. Statistics Division Internet site indicators measuring underemployment, the informal sector, educational access and labour  UNITED NATIONS, AND INTERNATIONAL LABOUR
force participation, among others, should ORGANIZATION BUREAU OF STATISTICS (2002).
supplement the information obtained from Collection of Economic Characteristics in the youth unemployment indicator.
Population Censuses. Technical report.
ST/ESA/STAT/119.
Limitations to comparability arise from vari-  WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
ous causes, including different sources, Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
measurement methodologies, number of Washington, D.C. Available in part from observations per year and coverage.
Comparability may also be limited by concep-tual variations, involving issues such as the definition of job search or whether to include Ministries of labour discouraged workers who are not currently National statistical offices looking for work.
International Labour Organization REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
COMPARISONS

 INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (1990).
Surveys of Economically Active Population,Employment, Unemployment and Under-employment: An ILO Manual on Conceptsand Methods. Geneva.
 INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (2000).
Current International Recommendations onLabour Statistics, 2000 Edition. Geneva.
 INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (2003).
Laborsta—an International Labour Officedatabase on labour statistics operated bythe ILO Bureau of Statistics. Internet sitehttp://laborsta.ilo.org . Geneva.
 INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (annual).
Key Indicators of the Labour Market.
Geneva. Available in part from http://www.
ilo.org/kilm.
 INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (annual).
Yearbook of Labour Statistics. Tables 3A-3E. Geneva. Available from http://laborsta.
ilo.org.
 ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND
DEVELOPMENT (2003). Standardized Un-
employment rates for OECD countries. In
Main Economic Indicators. Paris. Available
from
PROPORTION OF POPULATION WITH 46 ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE, ESSENTIAL DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
DRUGS ON A SUSTAINABLE BASIS The Action Programme on Essential Drugs ofthe World Health Organization periodically interviews experts in each country about the The proportion of population with access to pharmaceutical situation, asking them to rate affordable essential drugs on a sustainable access by the population to essential drugs at basis is the percentage of the population that less than 50 per cent, 50–80 per cent, 80–95 has access to a minimum of 20 most essential per cent or more than 95 per cent (WHO drugs. Access is defined as having drugs con- Expert Committee on Essential Drugs, tinuously available and affordable at public or November 1999).
private health facilities or drug outlets thatare within one hour's walk of the population.
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
Essential drugs are drugs that satisfy the National data series are currently available for health care needs of the majority of the pop- 1995 and 1997. Regional aggregates are cur- ulation. The World Health Organization has rently available for 1987 and 1999.
developed the Model List of Essential Drugs,which is regularly updated through widespread REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
consultations with member States and other partners. Progress in access to essential med-  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
icines is thus the result of combined effort by Database. Statistics Division Internet site governments, strategic partners such as United Nations agencies, public-private partnerships,  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1997). The
non-governmental organizations and profes- WHO Model List of Essential Medicines- The sional associations (WHO Expert Committee 13th Model List of Essential Medicines.
on Essential Drugs, November 1999).
Geneva. Available from http://www.who.
int/medicines.
GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1998).
Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel-
Progress of WHO Member States in Developing National Drug Policies and in Target 17. In cooperation with pharmaceutical
Revising Essential Drugs Lists. WHO/DAP/ companies, provide access to affordable, 98.7. Geneva. Available from http://www.
essential drugs in developing countries WHO produces country data series and Millions of people die prematurely or suffer regional aggregates. unnecessarily each year from diseases orconditions for which effective medicines or vaccines exist. Essential drugs save lives and Ministries of health improve health, but their potential can only be World Health Organization realized if they are accessible, rationally usedand of good quality. METHOD OF COMPUTATION
The World Health Organization regularly
monitors access to a minimum of 20 most
essential drugs.
TELEPHONE LINES AND CELLULAR METHOD OF COMPUTATION
47 SUBSCRIBERS PER 100 POPULATION Total telephone lines (see "DEFINITION") aredivided by the population and multiplied by 100.
Total cellular subscribers (see "DEFINITION") are Telephone lines refer to the number of tele- divided by the population and multiplied by 100.
phone lines connecting subscribers' terminalequipment to the public switched network DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
and that have a dedicated port in the tele- Data on telephone lines and cellular subscribers phone exchange equipment.
are collected through annual questionnairesthat the International Telecommunication Cellular subscribers refers to users of cellular Union (ITU) sends to government telecommu- telephones who subscribe to an automatic nication agencies. The questionnaire is sup- public mobile telephone service that provides plemented by annual reports of industry access to the public switched telephone net- organizations to cross-check accuracy and to work using cellular technology.
obtain data for countries that do not reply tothe questionnaire. GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel-
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
Target 18. In cooperation with the private sector,
make available the benefits of new technolo-
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
gies, especially information and communica- Data for telephone lines come from adminis- trative records compiled by national regulatoryauthorities or telecommunication operators and tend to be timely and complete. However, Indicator 47 and indicators 48A and B are there are comparability issues for mobile sub- important tools for monitoring progress scribers owing to the prevalence of prepaid towards Goal 8, because effective communi- subscriptions. Those issues arise from differ- cation among those involved in the develop- ences in the time period chosen for determin- ment process is not possible without the nec- ing when a prepaid subscription is considered essary infrastructure. Personal computers no longer active. and telephones allow people to exchangeexperiences and learn from each other, REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
enabling higher returns on investment and avoiding problems of duplication or missing  INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION
information. The use of information and com- (2003). World Telecommunication Indicators Database. Geneva. Available from http:// Governments more transparent, thereby reducing corruption and leading to better governance. It can help people in rural areas  INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION
find out about market prices and sell their (annual). Yearbook of Statistics. Geneva.
products at a better price. It can also over- Available from http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ come traditional barriers to better education by making books available online and opening  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
the door to e-learning.
Database. Statistics Division Internet sitehttp://millenniumindicators.un.org.
munication Union sends to government tele- International Telecommunication Union communication agencies. In the absence of datafrom countries, the number of PCs is estimatedusing industry sales data or PC imports data. PERSONAL COMPUTERS IN USE PER 48 100 POPULATION DISAGGREGATION ISSUES
Data for PCs come from administrative and
operational records that do not disaggregate Personal computers (PCs) are computers de- signed to be operated by a single user at a time.
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel-
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
Very few countries have a precise measure of Target 18. In cooperation with the private sec-
the number of PCs. For some small developing tor, make available the benefits of new tech- economies, neither sales nor import data are nologies, especially information and commu- available. PC data are quite recent, so long nication technologies time series exist only for developed countriesand major developing countries.
RATIONALE
Indicators 47 and 48 are important tools for
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
monitoring progress towards Goal 8, because effective communication among those  INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION
involved in the development process is not (2003). World Telecommunication Indicators possible without the necessary infrastructure.
Database. Geneva. Available from http://www.
Personal computers and telephone lines allow people to exchange experiences and learn from each other, enabling higher returns on  INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION
investment and avoiding problems of duplica- (annual). Yearbook of Statistics. Geneva.
tion or missing information. The use of infor- Available from http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ mation and communication technologies can make Governments more transparent, there-  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
by reducing corruption and leading to better Database. Statistics Division Internet site governance. It can help people in rural areas find out about market prices and sell theirproducts at a better price. It can also over- come traditional barriers to better education International Telecommunication Union by making books available online and openingthe door to e-learning.
INTERNET USERS PER 100 METHOD OF COMPUTATION
The total number of PCs in a country is divid-ed by the population and multiplied by 100.
DEFINITION
The Internet is a linked global network of
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
computers in which users at one computer, if Data are based largely on responses to a ques- they have permission, get information from tionnaire that the International Telecom- other computers in the network.
the number of users per subscriber.
GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for devel-
Surveys have been conducted by some coun- Target 18. In cooperation with the private sec-
tries providing a breakdown between male and tor, make available the benefits of new tech- female Internet users. The surveys indicate nologies, especially information and commu- that more men than women use the Internet.
Since the availability of gender-disaggregatedstatistics for this indicator is limited, however, little is known about use by gender.
Indicators 47 and 48 are important tools formonitoring progress towards Goal 8, because effective communication among those Internet user data can be disaggregated by involved in the development process is not gender, age, frequency of use, household possible without the necessary infrastructure.
income, location of access and other vari- Personal computers and telephone lines allow ables. However, this information is available people to exchange experiences and learn only for a limited number of countries that from each other, enabling higher returns on collect data on information and communica- investment and avoiding problems of duplica- tion technology use in household surveys. tion or missing information. The use of infor-mation and communication technologies can PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
make Governments more transparent, there- by reducing corruption and leading to bettergovernance. It can help people in rural areas COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
find out about market prices and sell their The quality of Internet user data varies, and products at a better price. It can also over- the quality of data for smaller developing come traditional barriers to better education countries is uncertain. The data can also be by making books available online and opening misleading owing to multiple prepaid Internet the door to e-learning.
accounts, free Internet access accounts orpublic Internet access such as Internet cafés.
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
The total number of Internet users is divided
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
by the population and multiplied by 100.
 INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
Internet user statistics are based largely on Indicators Database. Geneva. Available responses to an annual questionnaire that the International Telecommunication Union tions/ world/world.html. sends to government telecommunication  INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION
agencies. For most developed and larger (annual). Yearbook of Statistics. Geneva.
developing countries, Internet user data are Available from http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ based on methodologically sound user sur- veys conducted by national statistical agen-  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Millennium Indicators
cies or industry associations. The data are Database. Statistics Division Internet site either provided directly to the ITU by each country, or the ITU does the necessaryresearch to obtain the data. For countries where Internet user surveys are not available, International Telecommunication Union the ITU uses average multipliers to estimate PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
Results from population censuses are normally available every 10 years. Labour force surveys may be available annually or more frequently in developed countries, but are generallyavailable every three to five years in develop-ing countries. The other surveys are produced C C A PROPORTION OF CHILDREN UNDER only occasionally.
AGE 15 WHO ARE WORKING The available data indicate that boys are more Proportion of children under age 15 who are likely to be economically active than girls. Girls working refers to children who are employed are more often engaged in household services.
in an economic activity for pay, profit or fam-ily gain. Economic activity covers the produc- COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
tion of goods and services for pay or profit or Reliable estimates of child labour are difficult for use by own household. Employed means to obtain. In many countries child labour is being engaged in an economic activity during assumed not to exist and therefore is excluded a specified reference period or being tem- from official statistics. Some estimates cover porarily absent from such an activity.
only children ages 10–14. Others cover chil-dren ages 5–14. Still others cover different GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
Goal. Reduce child labour
Target. Elimination of child labour (World
Not all work is harmful to a child's develop- Summit on Sustainable Development, 1995) ment. The International Labour Organizationhas addressed this concern, for example, by differentiating acceptable work from unac- The indicator monitors the degree to which ceptable labour. The United Nations Children's the youth labour force is utilized in the econ- Fund sometimes also distinguishes between omy and therefore serves as a measure of the different types of work and different ages of success of strategies to create jobs for youth.
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
The number of children who are employed is divided by the number of children of the same  HUSSMANNS, R., F. MEHRAN AND V. VERMA
age group in the population.
(1990). Surveys of Economically ActivePopulation, Employment, Unemployment DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCES
and Underemployment: An ILO Manual on Data come from population censuses, labour Concepts and Methods. Geneva.
force surveys, special child labour surveys,  INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (2000).
Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (http:// Current International Recommendations on www.childinfo.org), Demographic and Health Labour Statistics, 2000 Edition. Geneva.
 INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (2002).
Living Standards Measurement Study surveys Every Child Counts: New Global Estimates (http://www.worldbank.org/lsms) and Core on Child Labour. Geneva.
Welfare Indicators Questionnaires (http://  INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (2003).
International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour: IPEC. Geneva. Internet site older from those younger than 15 years old.
GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
 INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (annual).
Goal. Creation of full employment
Yearbook of Labour Statistics. Geneva.
Target. Universal access to paid employment
Available from http://laborsta.ilo.org.
(World Summit on Sustainable Development, 1995)  UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (2003).
Progress since the World Summit for METHOD OF COMPUTATION
Children. New York. Available from http:// The number of people who are employed is www.childinfo.org. Select: Quick Access/ divided by the total number of people in the Child labour.
selected age interval for working age, gener-  UNITED NATIONS, AND INTERNATIONAL LABOUR
ORGANIZATION (2002). Collection of Economic
Characteristics in Population Censuses
.
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
Technical Report. ST/ESA/STAT/119.
Data are collected through population cen-  WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
suses, labour force surveys and official Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
national estimates. Notes to table 2.3. Washington, DC. Availablein part from http://www.worldbank.org/ PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
Results from population censuses are normallyavailable every 10 years. Labour force surveys may be available annually or more frequently International Labour Organization in developed countries, but are generally United Nation's Children's Fund available every three to five years in develop-ing countries. The other surveys are producedoccasionally.
C C A EMPLOYMENT TO POPULATION OF WORKING AGE RATIO GENDER ISSUES
Male employment rates are generally higher
than female employment rates. Female Population of working age covers people ages employment rates are often underestimated 15–64. Employment is defined according to because many economic activities in which international definitions and refers to being women dominate are not recorded as employ- engaged in an economic activity during a speci- ment. This may influence the international fied reference period, or being temporarily comparability of employment rates.
absent from such an activity. Economic activitycovers all production of goods and services COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
for pay or profit or for use by own household.
Measuring employment is more straightfor-ward where labour markets are well devel- Working age is usually determined on the oped and a large proportion of the population basis of national circumstances, such as the gains its livelihood from a market economy.
age at which most children have completedcompulsory education and the age at which REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
any general old age pension system can be claimed. The United Nations recommends that  HUSSMANNS, R., F. MEHRAN and V. VERMA
population census tabulations on the (1990). Surveys of Economically Active employed distinguish those 15 years and Population, Employment, Unemployment and Underemployment: An ILO Manual on Summit on Sustainable Development 1995) Concepts and Methods. Geneva.
 INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (2000).
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
Current International Recommendations on The number of people who are unemployed is div- Labour Statistics, 2000 Edition. Geneva.
ided by the number of people in the labour force.
 INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (annual).
Yearbook of Labour Statistics. Geneva.
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
Available from http://laborsta.ilo.org.
Data are collected from population censuses,  UNITED NATIONS (2003). Methods and Classif-
labour force surveys, Demographic and Health ications. Statistics Division Internet site Surveys (http://www.measuredhs.com), Living Measurement Study surveys  UNITED NATIONS, AND INTERNATIONAL LABOUR
(http://www.worldbank.org/lsms) and Core (2002). Collection of Welfare Indicators Questionnaires (http:// Economic Characteristics in Population Censuses Technical Report. ST/ESA/STAT/119.
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
 WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
Results from population censuses are normally Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
available every 10 years. Labour force sur- Notes to table 2.3 and 2.4. Washington, DC.
veys may be available annually or more fre- Available in part from http://www.world- quently in developed countries, but are gen- erally available every three to five years indeveloping countries. The other surveys are produced only occasionally.
International Labour Organization GENDER ISSUES
Female unemployment rates are often signifi-
C C A UNEMPLOYMENT RATE cantly higher than male unemployment rates.
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
The concepts of employment and unemploy- Unemployment covers all people who, during ment have different relevance depending on a specified reference period, are not employed, the level of labour market development and are available for work and have taken con- the presence of a market economy. People liv- crete steps to seek paid employment or self- ing in regions of a country where there is little employment during a recent period. The labour or no formal employment would not usually force consists of those who are employed plus be classified as "unemployed" even if they are those who are unemployed during the relevant without work and would accept a job if offered reference period. Employed means being en- one (discouraged workers). Unemployment gaged in an economic activity during a specified estimates can also understate problems in reference period or being temporarily absent labour markets when people are discouraged from such an activity. Economic activity refers from seeking work because jobs are scarce or to all production of goods and services for pay or profit or for use by own household.
Only household surveys can give reliable esti- GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
mates according to the international definition.
Goal. Creation of full employment
Employment services and unemployment Target. Universal access to paid employment (World
compensation schemes that are well developed (such as those in OECD countries) rations) as defined by the System of National can derive reliable unemployment estimates Accounts 1993; they produce at least some of from records of unemployment registration or their goods or services for sale or barter; they from national insurance records.
are engaged in non-agricultural activities(including secondary non-agricultural activi- REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
ties of enterprises in the agricultural sector); and their size (in number of employees) is below  HUSSMANNS, R., F. MEHRAN and V. VERMA
a specified threshold, determined according (1990). Surveys of Economically Active to national circumstances, or they are not Population, Employment, Unemployment registered under specific forms of national and Underemployment: An ILO Manual on legislation (such as commercial acts, tax or Concepts and Methods. Geneva.
social security laws, professional groups, reg- INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (2000).
ulatory acts, or similar acts, laws or regula- Current International Recommendations on tions established by national legislative bod- Labour Statistics, 2000 Edition. Geneva.
ies), or none of their employees is registered.
 INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (annual).
Households producing domestic or personal Yearbook of Labour Statistics. Geneva.
services in employing paid domestic employ- available from http://laborsta.ilo.org.
ees may be included. UNITED NATIONS, and INTERNATIONAL LABOUR
ORGANIZATION (2002). Collection of Economic
Employed means being engaged in an eco- Characteristics in Population Censuses. nomic activity during a specified reference Technical Report. ST/ESA/STAT/119.
period or being temporarily absent from such WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
an activity. Economic activity refers to all pro- Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
duction of goods and services for pay or profit Notes to 2.5. Washington, DC. Available in or for use by own household part from http://www.worldbank.org/data.
GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
Goal. Creation of full employment
International Labour Organization Target. Universal access to paid employment
(World Summit on Sustainable Development,
1995)
C C A INFORMAL SECTOR EMPLOYMENT AS A PERCENTAGE OF EMPLOYMENT METHOD OF COMPUTATION
The number of people classified as employed
in the informal sector in their main or second Informal sector employment includes all peo- jobs is divided by the total number of people ple who, during a given reference period, were employed in the same geographical areas, employed in at least one informal sector branches of economic activity, age group or enterprise, irrespective of their status in other defining characteristic.
employment (employer, own-account worker,contributing family worker, employee or DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCES
member of a producers cooperative) or Data are collected through informal sector whether it was their main or second job.
surveys, Labour force surveys and MultipleIndicator Cluster Surveys. Informal sector enterprises are defined by thefollowing criteria: they are household unincor- PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
porated enterprises (excluding quasi-corpo- Informal sector surveys are generally carried out ad hoc, often with intervals of five or more years. Labour force surveys tend to be International Labour Organization conducted more frequently, generally everythree to five years in developing countries.
C C A NUMBER OF PERSONS PER ROOM, OR AVERAGE FLOOR AREA PER PERSON There are large gender-specific differences ininformal sector employment in most countries.
DEFINITION
Number of persons per room, or average floor
INTERNATIONAL DATA COMPARISONS
area per person, is a measure of crowding.
Major limitations on the international compa- Number of persons per room is the number of rability of data result from the inclusion or rooms in the living quarters of a household exclusion of agricultural activities from the per person in the household. Average floor area scope of the informal sector, the inclusion or (in square metres) per person is the median exclusion of informal sector activities under- usable floor area per person. taken as second jobs, differences in the geo-graphical coverage of informal sector surveys The number of rooms excludes kitchens, and similar factors.
bathrooms, toilets, verandas, rooms used forbusiness and rooms let to tenants. COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
Statistics on employment in the informal sec-
Floor area includes kitchens, bathrooms, tor tend to be available only for developing internal corridors and closets. Covered, semi- countries and transition countries, where the private spaces such as corridors, inner court- informal sector plays a significant role in yards or verandas are included in the floor employment and income generation. Informal area if they are used for cooking, eating, employment outside informal sector enter- sleeping or other domestic activities.
prises is not covered by the enterprise-baseddefinition of the informal sector. Although GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
there are international standards, definitions Goal. Adequate shelter for all
may vary among countries.
Target. Provision of sufficient living space and
avoidance of overcrowding (United Nations
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
Conference on Human Settlements, [Habitat II],  INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE (2002). Women
and Men in the Informal Economy: A statis- tical picture. Geneva. available from Crowding, or housing density, is a key meas- ure of housing quality. The three most com- monly used measures of crowding are per-  INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (annual).
sons per room, floor area per person and Key Indicators of the Labour Market. Table households per dwelling unit. Surveys have 7. Geneva. Available in part from shown that floor area per person is the more precise and more policy sensitive of the three.
 INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (2000).
Current International Recommendations on METHOD OF COMPUTATION
Labour Statistics, 2000 Edition. Geneva.
The number of persons per room is calculatedby dividing the number of people who live inthe household by the total number of rooms they occupy. A low indicator denotes low crowding (density).
 UNITED NATIONS (2001). Indicators of
Sustainable Development: Guidelines and The area per person is calculated by dividing Methodologies. Sales No. E.01.II.A.6.
the floor area in square metres by the number Available from http://www.un.org/esa/ of people in the household. A low indicator denotes high crowding (density).
PROGRAMME (UN-HABITAT) (1995). Human
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
Settlement Interventions: The data are mainly collected from population Crowding and Health Issues. (HS/374/95/E).
censuses and from household surveys such as Living Standards Measurement Study surveys PROGRAMME (UN-HABITAT) (2003). Global
Indicator Cluster Surveys (http://www.childinfo.
Urban Observatory. Internet site http://www.
org), Demographic and Health Surveys (http://www.measuredhs.com) and Core PROGRAMME (UN-HABITAT) (2003). Internet
site http://www.unhabitat.org and http://  WORLD BANK (2003 and annual). World
Development Indicators. Print and CD-ROM.
In many countries, households headed by Notes to table 3.11. Washington, DC.
women are more crowded than those headed Available in part from http://www.
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
Population censuses are every 10 years or less.
United Nations Human Settlements Programme Household surveys are generally conductedevery three to five years.
C C A NUMBER OF INTENTIONAL HOMI- COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
CIDES PER 100,000 INHABITANTS Data on the two indicators were collectedduring the first phase of the joint UN–HABITAT–World Bank Housing Indicators Homicide is defined by the United Nations Programme (1992). Results vary considerably Interregional Crime and Justice Research when collected in different areas: urban, rural Institute as the killing of any human being by and national. Informal settlements and disad- the act, procurement or omission of another.
vantaged groups tend to have less space.
(The term murder is usually applied to unlaw- Housing size and housing quality are not ful and premeditated homicide.) always linked, for economic and cultural rea-sons. Floor area is preferred for accuracy andsensitivity to policy, but some censuses and GOAL AND TARGET ADDRESSED
surveys collect only number of rooms.
Goal. Improve crime prevention
Target. Eliminate/significantly reduce violence
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
and crime (United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and Treatment of  UNITED NATIONS (2001). Compendium of
Human Settlements Statistics. Sales No.
METHOD OF COMPUTATION
The indicator is calculated as the ratio of
number of the intentional homicides to the
total population multiplied by 100,000.
DATA COLLECTION AND SOURCE
Crime data, including homicide data, are
derived mainly from the administration records
of criminal justice ministries. Population data
come from censuses.
GENDER ISSUES
Women commit fewer crimes than men gen-
erally, including homicide. Women are also
less often the victims of homicide.
PERIODICITY OF MEASUREMENT
Administrative data on crimes are normally
available annually. Census data are usually
collected every 10 years.
COMMENTS AND LIMITATIONS
Since crime data are dependent on national
definitions and reporting procedures, they are
often not comparable internationally.
More comparable and more consistent dataare derived from household crime victim sur-veys, but such surveys are not universal andare often taken only in capital cities.
REFERENCES AND INTERNATIONAL DATA
COMPARISONS

 UNITED NATIONS CRIME AND JUSTICE INFORMATION
NETWORK(UNCJIN) (2003). Internet site
http://www.uncjin.org. Vienna.
 UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME
AGENCIES
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
United Nations Interregional Crime and
Justice Research Institute
DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY
Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development and undertaken byMacro International, Inc. They were first con-ducted in 1984 as successors to the Annex 2 reviews Multiple Indicator Cluster International Statistical Institute World Surveys, Demographic and Health Surveys, Fertility Surveys. The Demographic Health Living Standards Measurement Studies, Core Surveys are now in their fourth series. The Welfare Indicators Questionnaires in Africa, abbreviated name was changed in 1997 to household budget surveys, labour force sur- DHS+. They have been undertaken in over 60 veys, household surveys with an institutional countries. Some countries have had only one component, censuses of population and DHS, but others have had several. Most sur- housing, other surveys and administrative veys are addressed to about 5,000 house- All household surveys and censuses provide Most questions refer to demography and to data by gender and age and by many other health including nutrition, but they also classifying variables. TABLE A2 at the end of the include other topics, such as education. TABLE present annex shows the topics covered by A2 shows the indicators likely to be covered by the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, Demo- the DHS. More information can be found at graphic and Health Surveys, Living Standards www.measuredhs.com. Measurement Studies and Core WelfareIndicators Questionnaires in Africa.
LIVING STANDARDS MEASUREMENT STUDY
The first Living Standards Measurement
MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY
Study (LSMS) surveys were launched by the To provide recent data for assessing progress World Bank in Côte d'Ivoire and Peru in 1985.
towards the 1990 World Summit for Children Since then there have been about 40 surveys goals, the United Nation's Children's Fund in 25 countries. They have been sponsored by developed the Multiple Indicator Cluster various donors, including the World Bank and Surveys (MICS) in 1994 to obtain data on a the United States Agency for International small subset of the goals. Experience from Development, and by some countries. this work was used in developing a revised andexpanded Survey (known as MICS2) for assess- Although the first few LSMS surveys followed ing progress at end-decade. The surveys were a similar format, they have varied consider- conducted in 66 countries during 1999– ably since then. There are standard LSMS 2001, primarily by national government min- modules, but they are often omitted. The istries with support from a variety of partners. organization of the fieldwork also varies.
Most are one-off sample surveys, but a four-wave panel was also undertaken in the Kagera The main subjects of MICS2 are health and region of Tanzania.
education; TABLE A2 shows which indicators arelikely to be included. MICS2 is modular and so TABLE A2 shows the indicators likely to be cov- the surveys may not be identical. More infor- ered by LSMS. More information can be found mation can be found at http://www.childinfo.org.
ducted there approximately every five years CORE WELFARE INDICATORS QUESTIONNAIRE
SURVEY IN AFRICA
The Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire
LABOUR FORCE SURVEYS
(CWIQ) survey is relatively new. Developed by Labour force surveys (LFS) have become the World Bank, it was piloted in Kenya in 1996 widespread in industrialized countries, but and in Ghana in 1997. The questionnaires are are more rare in developing countries. They relatively short (about eight sides), but other are intended to provide information on modules may be added. The surveys are employment and unemployment, but they intended to be annual and to have samples of also frequently seek information on education 5,000 to 15,000 households. The question- and training and may include other variables.
naire is designed to complement other sur- They occasionally include questions on veys as part of a national monitoring package.
income from employment. For reasons of effi- It is intended to contribute to statistical ciency, they generally cover the non-institu- capacity-building in developing countries. The tional population. In developing countries, results are intended to be available within a they are often undertaken only in urban areas few weeks of data collection.
SURVEYS WITH AN INSTITUTIONAL COMPONENT
TABLE A2 shows the indicators likely to be cov- Some household surveys are also accompa- ered by the CWIQ. More information can be nied by surveys addressed to local institu- found at http://www4.worldbank.org/afr/ tions, including schools and hospitals. The Zimbabwe Sentinel Surveillance Survey, forexample, includes institutional components HOUSEHOLD BUDGET SURVEYS
addressed to schools and to health establish- Household budget surveys (HBS) are intended ments. Thus they are able to provide data on for various purposes, including measurement facilities serving households.
of poverty and of household consumption ofgoods and services for weighting consumer CENSUSES OF POPULATION AND HOUSING
prices. Their value as sources of other data A population census is the primary source of derive from the inclusion of a variety of ques- information about the number of people in a tions among basic or general variables. This country and the characteristics of the popula- offers the possibility of cross-classifying them tion. Several features distinguish a census against many other variables, including from survey-based sources of data. It can income and urban or rural location as well as all achieve complete coverage of the population.
the common classifiers such as age and gender.
It offers possibilities for relating individualcharacteristics of the population with those The surveys are complex and expensive, so of households. It provides details about sub- they are not conducted very frequently in national population groups. Owing to its high developing countries. They are undertaken cost, it has the disadvantage of being able to often enough (perhaps every five years or so) provide data only once every 10 years, or in many countries to provide fairly up-to-date sometimes less, and the questionnaires have and fairly frequent data, however.
to be relatively short. The Income Consumption and Expenditure The census is the unique basic source of bench- Survey (ICES) in Zimbabwe is an example of a mark demographic data, such as number of household budget survey. The 2001 survey is people by age and gender. Demographic data the most recent, and the ICES has been con- are used as denominators for ratios of all kinds, on school enrolment for example, and (Joint United Nations Programme on for many other common country assessment and Millennium Development Goals indica- ■ Tuberculosis/DOTS tors. However, population estimates have to gramme); Roll Back Malaria (World Health be updated between censuses, and national methods and standards can differ. Many ■ Pilot surveys in selected countries to international agencies use United Nations test/improve methodologies of data collec- estimates of population as denominators for tion on labour force (International Labour ratios in order to be consistent between countries. Nevertheless, the United Nations ■ Child labour survey (International Labour population estimates, which are revised every two years, are often different from the ■ Informal sector surveys (International national estimates, mainly (but not always) as Labour Organization) a result of international standardization.
■ Pilot surveys in selected countries to test/improve methodologies of data collec- Censuses are also sometimes used as sam- tion on nutrition (Food and Agriculture pling frames for sample surveys.
Organization of the United Nations) ■ Pilot small-scale studies on education/lit-  UNITED NATIONS. (1998). Principles and
Scientific and Cultural Organization) Recommendations for Population and ■ Access to personal computers and the Housing Censuses, Revision 1. Series M, No.
Internet (International Telecommunication 67. Sales No. E.98.XVII.1.
 UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (2002).
■ Secure tenure and slum improvement Population and Housing Censuses: Strategies (United Nations Human Settlements for Reducing Costs.  UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (2003).
The most commonly used sources of data for Counting the People: Constraining Census education, and often for health, are adminis- Costs and Assessing Alternative Approaches.
trative sources—data derived from the admin- Available from: http://www.unfpa.org/ istration of education or health. Unemploy- ment data are also frequently derived from administrative registrations of employmentoffices. The data are made available by min- istries and sometimes by national statistical There are also many household surveys of offices. Data on births and deaths are also variable frequency, or ad hoc, that are either frequently drawn from administrative sources, general in their purpose or have a limited usually vital statistics registration systems.
range of purposes. There are special surveyson particular topics, such as some limited Administrative sources can potentially pro- aspect of health.
vide data for very small areas. Their disadvan-tages include bias, application of national Survey programmes pertinent to the data for standards and definitions, and non-response.
common country assessment and Millennium For vital statistics, such as births and deaths, Development Goals indicators, in addition to and for many other indicators, the data often those mentioned above, include the following: do not exist or are incomplete.
■ HIV/AIDS, various epidemiological surveys TA B L E A 2 . Comparison of indicator coverage of four survey types G O A L S M I C S a
Proportion of population below $1 per day b
Poverty gap ratio [incidence x depth of poverty] Share of poorest quintile in national consumption Prevalence of underweight children under 5 years of age Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy
consumption
d
Net enrolment ratio in primary education e
Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5 Literacy rate of 15–24 year-olds Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education f
Ratio of literate women to men, 15–24 years old Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament Under-five mortality rate Infant mortality rate Proportion of 1-year-old children immunized against measles Maternal mortality ratio Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel HIV prevalence among aged pregnant women 15–24 years Contraceptive prevalence rate g
Number of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria Proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective
malaria prevention and treatment measures
h
Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under DOTS Proportion of land area covered by forest Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area Energy use (kg oil equivalent) per $1 GDP (PPP) Carbon dioxide emissions per capita and consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs (ODP tons) Proportion of population using solid fuels Proportion of population with sustainable access to an
improved water source, urban and rural
j
Proportion of urban and rural population with access to improved sanitation Proportion of households with access to secure tenure ( )k
TABLE A2 (CONTINUED) a. The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is made up of modules, and not all modules wereused in all countries. This column is based on thefull questionnaire using all modules.
b. For monitoring country poverty trends, indicators based on national poverty lines should be used,where available.
c. This indicator also requires the calculation of a national PPP, which in turn is derived from inter-nationally coordinated price collection conductedby the International Comparison Programme.
d. National data are provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nationsbased on a statistical modeling technique.
e. All surveys collect school attendance, rather than enrolment. However, it could be argued that thishas greater policy relevance at the national level.
Enrolment rates in international reporting arebased on administrative records.
f. The ratio is of attendance rates, not enrolment g. Among contraceptive methods, only condoms are effective in preventing HIV transmission. Thecontraceptive prevalence rate is also useful intracking progress in other health, gender andpoverty goals. Since the condom use rate ismeasured only among women in union, it is sup-plemented by an indicator on condom use inhigh-risk situations (indicator 19A) and an indi-cator on HIV/AIDS knowledge (indicator 19B).
h. Prevention can be measured by the percentage of children under five sleeping under insecticide-treated bednets. Treatment can be measured bythe percentage of children under five who areappropriately treated.
i. For children under five only.
j. All surveys measure access to improved source, but do not assess whether it is sustainable. k. Surveys typically ask about type of dwelling and tenure. They may not explicitly address the issueof how secure is, for example, a rental agree-ment, but that could be covered in the future.
UNEP. Land use. Available from http://www.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and (see also references in the metadata sheets) Cultural Organization. http://www.unesco.
United Nations. Millennium Development UNESCO Institute for Statistics. http:// United Nations Children's Fund. http:// www.unicef.org and http://www.childinfo.
United Nations Statistics Division. http:// United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. http://unfccc.int World Bank. Millennium Development United Nations Population Fund. http:// Goals. http://www.developmentgoals. org Organisation for Economic Co-operation United Nations Human Settlements and Development. http://www.oecd.org/ dac. Under Topics, select: Aid statistics, Aid effectiveness and donor practices or Millennium Develoment Goals Cities in a Globalizing World. Available from Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire (CWIQ) surveys. Available from http:// United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute. http://www.
Demographic and Health Surveys. http:// World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the Protected area data unit. http://www.
United Nations. http://www.fao.org International Labour Organization. http:// Joint United Nations Programme on World Health Organization/United Nations Environment Programme Intergovernmental World Health Organization. Directly Panel on Climate Change. http://www.ipcc.
observed treatment short course (for tuberculosis). Available from http://www.
IUCN–World Conservation Union. http:// Stop TB Partnership. http://www.stoptb.org Living Standards Measurement Study World Bank. http://www.worldbank.org/data World Bank. World Development Indicators.
Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS).
Available from http://www.worldbank.org/ Available from http://www.childinfo.org Organisation for Economic Co-operation World Resources Institute. http://www.
and Development. Development Assistance Biosphere reserves. http://www.unesco.
United Nations Development Group.
Heritage sites. http://www.unesco.org/ United Nations Development Programme.
Human Development Report. Available from http://www. undp.org/hdr2003 United Nations Environment Programme.
http://www.unep.org World Food Summit, Rome, 1996 International Conference on Primary Health World Conference of Ministers Responsible Care, Almaty, Kazakhstan, 1978 for Youth, Lisbon, 1998 World Conference to Review and Appraise Twentieth special session of the General Achievements of the United Nations Decade Assembly on the world drug problem, New for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, Global Conference on the Sustainable World Conference on Education for All, Development of Small Island Developing Jomtien, Thailand, 1990 States, New York, 1999 World Summit for Children, New York, 1990 Tenth United Nations Congress on thePrevention of Crime and the Treatment of International Conference on Nutrition, Offenders, Vienna, 2000 World Education Forum, Dakar, 2000 United Nations Conference on Environmentand Development, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1992 Twenty-fourth special session of the GeneralAssembly: World Summit for Social World Conference on Human Rights, Development and beyond: achieving social development for all in a globalizing word,Geneva, 2000 Global Conference on the SustainableDevelopment of Small Island Developing World Summit on Sustainable Development, States, Bridgetown, 1994 Johannesburg, South Africa, 2002 International Conference on Population andDevelopment, Cairo, 1994 Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 1995 Ninth United Nations Congress on thePrevention of Crime and the Treatment ofOffenders, Cairo, 1995 World Summit for Social Development,Copenhagen, 1995 United Nations Conference on HumanSettlements (Habitat II), Istanbul, 1996

Source: http://audit.gov.ru/en/activities/international-activities/intosai-working-group-on-key-national-indicators/knowledge-bases/HandbookEnglish-buleten-fl-431.pdf

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Case Report of Eosinophilic Gastroenteropathy and a Sandra Roberto A,1, Rómulo Bonilla G, MD,2 Gabriel Pérez G, MD.3 1 Fourth year medical student at the Hospital Universitario de Santander of the Universidad Introduction: Eosinophilic gastroenteropathy is a rare disease characterized by infiltration of eosinophils into one Industrial de Santander in Bucaramanga, Colombia