W ORld HeAlTH & POPUlATION The Potential for Transmission of Hospital-Acquired Infections by Non-critical Medical Devices: The Role of Thermometers and Blood Pressure Cuffs C.J. Uneke, Department of Medical Microbiology/Parasitology, Faculty of Clinical Medicine, Ebonyi State University Abakaliki, Nigeria P.A. Ijeoma, Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Applied and Natural Sciences, Ebonyi
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39-3 中井(その2).pwd"Arts", "Food Nutrition",
"Health & Society", "Humanities", "Social Sciences"
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Basic Books, 1997. 2. Hutter, Mark, ed. The Family Experience : A Reader in Cultural Diversity.
4th ed., Allyn & Bacon, 2003. 3. Skolnick, Arlene S. and Jerome H. Skolnick eds. Family in Tran- sition. 12th ed., New York : Longman, 1996. 4. Stack, Carol. Call to Home : African Americans Re- claim the Rural South. New York : Basic Books, 1997. 5. Wolf, Marjorie. The House of Lim : A Study of a Chinese Farm Family. Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Prentice-Hall, 1960.
Sexuality : The Social Context I
A. Biological sex B. Sexual orientation C. Gender identity E. Structural gender F. Gender symbolism II. The social context of sexuality A. Sex : is what we understand to be biological, genetic sex X chromosome, Y chromo- . There is a lot more to say about this, but this is an anthropology course . "Biological sex" most often refers to what we see we can't see chromosomes . We see primary and secondary sex features, and we see the different roles in the reproductive process . What we can conclude about such things as particular personality and behavior differences determined by sex is currently very contested a. There's a lot more agreement about anatomy and physiology than in B. Gender : is what societies do with these biological givens . And societies do quite a variety of things with biological sex . Some societies don't even categorize sex as consisting of 2 sexes hand around a. In India, a third sex is called the Hijiras and they are considered to be nei- ther men nor women b. We find this very difficult to conceive of; one of the most natural, unques- tionable assumptions we all have is that you are a either boy or a girl c. But "third sex" categories are found elsewhere, too, another well-known set of examples is found in Native American tribes d. Also in Saudi Arabia, Tahiti, New Guinea, and the Dominican Republic Serena Nanda, 1999. Neither Man nor Woman : The Hijras of India. Belmont, CA : Wadsworth.
. The rigid formula of "sex"="gender"="2 sexes, male and female" is loosening a. I mentioned the workshop I attended in Baker House 4 years ago, one of the participants said that currently he / she felt 70 Our system cannot accommodate this He / she followed by saying his / her sexual orientation is unclear, of course, because it depends on a clear-cut gender identity for the person and that of his / her partner He / she was right . Because we see our system as so natural, finding out where sex leaves off and gender begins is difficult to study a. Precisely why it's useful to have the cross-cultural record If we can get beyond our feeling that our way of thinking and And any other way is just weird, unnatural, immoral, irrational, sinful, etc.
III. What is social and cultural about sex and sexuality ? A. First is that like all other kinds of feelings, these feelings and abilities develop only within a sociocultural system . It is "normal" for humans to grow up within a cultural milieu ; we are social, cul- a. Feral children children reared by mammals isolated from other human Wolves, even tigers nurturing human infants b. They have nothing one could remotely call human sexual behavior no language, of course, either c. They are not examples of "natural" humans; they are pathological . We can speak of sexual energy, or drive, of a capacity to respond a. But the forms these take are learned ; in fact, for the most part they are
taught, formally and informally b. Sexual behavior and sexual feelings are learned What you should do We think kissing is great to express several kinds of feelings, to acknowledge several kinds of relation- Other cultures see kissing as disgusting; who's to say they're wrong and we're right because what we do In cultures where men and women don't eat to- gether, the idea of lovers going on a picnic is disgust- Also learned is what you would like to do but must not Example : the post partum sex taboo of a year, 2 years ; among the Dani of highland New Guinea for 5 We have one as well, but it's a matter of weeks Ours post-partum sex taboo is medicalized, secular- ized : when the new mother's genitalia have assumed their pre-birth condition Also learned is who you should be attracted to Obligatory heterosexuality: how you should feel, how you should behave Desire for same sex was seen as a pathol- ogy, needed treatment b How the West's attitude has changed toward homo- sexuality is also an indication of who is attracted to whom being a matter of cultural prescriptions and pro- c Samoans, prior to European contact, saw homosex- ual practices as simply not occurring why would any- one do this when there were women around? But it was not condemned, not a sin These views changed following contact Another example : institutionalized lesbian rela- tionships in Muslim Mombasa Also learned is who you do it with not the same thing as #2 In the South Sea island of Mangaia, adolescent boys spend a two-week period of formal instruction about the techniques of intercourse, which is followed by a culurally approved experience with a mature woman in They're not considered a man until this happens Compare the practice in some middle and upper class Latin American families of taking boys to houses of prostitution or expecting a domestic maid to provide the boy's first experiences And you learn when this is highly variable Childhood sexual behavior: whether accepted, en- couraged, discouraged is highly variable Example : Huxley's Brave New World, the encouraging attitude toward children's games like "Find the Zipper" Among the Tikopia in Oceania, sexual activity be- fore marriage is expected ; having several lovers is considered normal for the young The notion that older people do and should be ac- tive sexually has evolved a great deal in this country Earlier in this century attitudes toward this idea were limited to "dirty old man" Now we think it should happen and, if necessary, can help it along with Viagra What you do to make yourself attractive is highly variable And, in general, the importance a society gives to sex and expec- tations about frequency of sexual activity, vary tremendously . Hence, "doin' what comes naturally" from the musical "Annie Get Your Gun" means doing what your culture has programmed you to think is natural . Understandings of such things as female orgasm, or homosexuality, for instance, . We connect "natural" to "normal" to "moral, correct" a. Why we initially react with disgust at obligatory homosexuality in New b. We are not reacting neutrally c. One lesson about culture : Its prescriptions and proscriptions are not given in the form of "it would be nice if you did/felt/believed this, but if you Rather, they are given in the context of "this is how humans be have"; "this is what the gods command you to do"; "do it this way or you will be considered very deviant, abnormal, sick" d. So we can better understand just how disturbing it is when what you think is natural, a trait of the species, is not, and you can't find much evidence that that person is sick, a sinner in other ways, etc.
In the Anthropology Program we have a video titled "You Don't Know Dick," about female-to-male transsexuals One of these men is interviewed along with his friends One of the friends says a small part of her wanted his decision to result in a huge failure, demonstrating that he had been "out of his flippin' mind" because then she wouldn't have to re- think so much of what she'd come to believe B. Second, sexuality is always integrated into the entire sociocultural system ; behaviors, feelings, etc. we consider sexual in some fashion will serve other purposes, do other kinds of "work" in the culture . Marriage and the family a. These institutions do a great deal. We see sexual attraction, which is a major part of falling in love, as very instrumental in making people . Sexuality and power : We talked last time about a woman using her sexuality for . Advertising using sexuality to get people to buy stuff . The New Guinea case of the Sambia : sexual activities seen as necessary to turn . Anthropologists have analyzed some kinds of expectations and prescriptions about sexuality as adaptive in contributing to population control . Sexuality, especially female, and social stratification a. Degree of seclusion of women correlates with rank in the societies that emphasize the importance of virginity, modesty, chastity, b. In part because the lower classes can't afford to have half their adult labor power so confined c. In part because women's bodies are seen as the repository of fam- ily honor and the upper classes have more honor to maintain d. In a book we read about Morocco in another class I teach There is a graphic description of a wedding involving a staged struggle between the groom and the bride's kinswomen after which he forcibly penetrates her but it's very bad form to ejaculate And the bloodstained sheet is immediately displayed in front of the wedding guests, cause of great celebration Students very frequently find this hard to take and hard The values are stated, the logic is clear It is a very different logic e. In the Middle East countries sometimes women are put in jail for their own protection because their father and brothers are trying to kill them Something they did besmirched the family honor Their mother and sisters agree this must be done Ostensibly such "honor killings" are against the law, but law is not enforced There are Pakistani men in British and Scandinavian jail who have killed their daughters or sisters and are not repen- Women's groups in these countries work to help such women in danger of being killed find a safe place to live elsewhere in the country C. Third, because of culture, humans are freed from some of the biological controls over behavior characteristic of all other animals . Advances in technology have produced reliable birth control . Played an important role in the sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s Clark. "Dating on the Net : Teens and the Rise of "Pure" Relationships." in Hutter, pp. 115 Schalet. "Raging Hormones, Regulated Love : Adolescent Sexuality in the United States and the Netherlands." in Skolnick and Skolnick, pp. 129133.
Berkowitz, and Padavic. "Getting a Man or Getting Ahead." in Hutter, pp. 132146.
D'Emilio, and Freedman. "The Sexualized Society." in Hutter, pp. 351365.
. How, according to Clark, do teens use the term "dating" today? What are the differences be- tween dating patterns today and during the 1950s? . What was the "sexual revolution" that occurred during the 1960s and 1970s ? . Describe Giddens' idea of a "risk society" derived from Ulrich Beck . p. 126 . What is a "pure" relationship, according to Giddens ? . What conclusions does Clark draw ? . In what ways did the US and Dutch interviewees sharply differ in their responses to Schalet ? . What opinions of the US parents do you like ? What opinions of the Dutch parents do you ap- . D'Emilio and Freedman suggest that "the liberal consensus about sex had dissolved." What do . How did family life change between the s in ways that affected sexuality in America as discussed in D'Emilio and Freedman ? . What happens to women who enter the marketplace with respect to their marriage roles, as discussed in D'Emilio and Freedman? . D'Emilio and Freedman mention a report about Detroit. What did it say ? . How did the erotic dimension of marriage change during the period 19601980 ? How did it . In Kinsey's time the frequency of marital coitus was declining. What was the explanation of this? What period of time was this ? . The piece by D'Emilio and Freedman mentions "the controversy over Baby M." If you know about this controversy, describe it.
. How did the social life of gays and lesbians change between D'Emilio and Freedman ? . What are some of the differences between gay male couples and lesbian couples ? . What were the downside aspects of the sexual revolution ? The Kids are All Right, Ameri- can Beauty, Eyes Wide Shut, Junglee Fever, Boyz N The Hood, Do the Right Thing Anthropological Theory and Freedman. "The Sexualized Society." in Hutter, pp. 351365.
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Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in school-aged children who had chronic lung disease in infancy
Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in School-Aged Children Who Had Chronic Lung Disease in Infancy Suchita Joshi, PhD, MRCPaed1, Thomas Powell, PhD2, William J. Watkins, PhD1, Mark Drayton, MD, FRCPCH3, E. Mark Williams, PhD2, and Sailesh Kotecha, PhD, FRCPCH1 Objectives To assess for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in 8- to 12-year-old children who had chroniclung disease (CLD) in infancy, and to evaluate the response of bronchoconstriction to bronchodilation with albuterolin comparison with preterm and term controls.Study design Ninety-two children, including 29 with CLD, 33 born preterm at #32 weeks' gestation, and 30 bornat term, underwent lung spirometry before and after cycle ergometry testing and after postexercise bronchodilationwith albuterol.Results Doctor-diagnosed asthma and exercise-induced wheeze were reported more frequently in the CLD groupthan in the preterm and term groups, but only 10% were receiving a bronchodilator. There were no differencesamong the groups in peak minute ventilation, oxygen uptake, or carbon dioxide output at maximum exercise. Aftermaximal exercise, predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) decreased from a mean baseline value of81.9% (95% CI, 76.6-87.0%) to 70.8% (95% CI, 65.5-76.1%) after exercise in the CLD group, from 92.0% (95% CI,87.2-96.8%) to 84.3% (95% CI, 79.1-89.4%) in the preterm group, and from 97.5% (95% CI, 92.5-102.6%) to90.3% (95% CI, 85.1-95.5%) in the term group. After albuterol administration, FEV1 increased to 86.8% (95%CI, 81.7-92.0%) in the CLD group, 92.1% (95% CI, 87.3-96.9%) in the preterm group, and 97.1% (95% CI, 92.0-102.3%) in the term group. The decrease in predicted FEV1 after exercise and increase in predicted FEV1 after bron-chodilator use were greatest in the CLD group (11.0% [95% CI, 18.4 to 3.6%] and 16.0% [95% CI, 8.6-23.4%],respectively; P < .005 for both), with differences of <8% in the 2 control groups.Conclusion School-age children who had CLD in infancy had significant exercise-induced bronchoconstrictionthat responded significantly to bronchodilation. Reversible exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is common in chil-dren who experienced CLD in infancy and should be actively assessed for and treated. (J Pediatr 2013;162:813-8).Survivorsofchroniclungdisease(CLD)ofprematurity,oftenalsocalledbronchopulmonarydysplasia(BPD),havein-